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SAN FRANClSCOHlSTOflYHOOM 



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•f 621. 12 Pll ~ 



592305 



NOT TO BE TAKEN FROM THE LIBRARY 



' T]iTrni"T^rnrr 



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...AND ANOTHER 
PRESIDENT GOES TO SEA! | 

LATEST AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES luxur 
liner to be launched is the stately 
new President Wilson. With her 
sister ship, the President Cleveland, 
American President Lines will soon 
offer trans-Pacific passenger and ' 
express cargo service of a quality j 
even better than before. | 

SWIFT, COMFORTABLE AND MODERN to tl 

nth degree, the Presidents Wilson , 
and Cleveland will add a new high! 
to the grovdng tradition of the 
American Merchant Marine. 

I 

For full information on sailing dates 
of ships now available, consult 
American President Lines, 
311 California Street, San Francisco 
Douglas 6000. 



For 76 years America's link with the Orient] 



l^r^ ^ 





Returned veteran-newcomer to Tubb; 
erganiiation, "Orv" Wright operate 
ing reeler and matter. 



For nearly a century, the nanne Tubbs 
has stood for a rope product that de- 
livered Exfra value and service. 

\'^"n TcVi*///''^/'^^'"'^ ' Behind this fact is a reason. It is a com- 

bination of MEN and ROPE that has nnade the Tubbs trademark the 
accepted leader in its field. 



When the finest Manila fibers 
ore once more available, 
look for this famous rope 
trademork. 




This Men and Rope combination means just this . . . men skilled in the 
art of fine rope making operate the finest rope making machinery . . . work 
with the world's best fiber ... to produce a product worthy to carry on 
the Tubbs heritage of quality. 

Today new faces and new names mingle with old time rope makers — 
absorbing their fine art — so that the combination of MEN and ROPE 
may continue to bring rope "plus values" when you specify the Tubbs 
trademark. 



TUBBS CORDAGE COMPAN 



SAN FRANCISCO 

LOS ANGELES • CHICAGO 



PORTLAND 




SEATTLE 

NEW YORK 




1 



OFFICIAL ORGAN 

Pacific American 

P j I ^ "^ Steamship Association 






5C2305 



Shipowners Association 
of the Pacific Coast 



J. S. MINES 

Publllhtr 

B. N. DeROCHIE 

Publisher 

T. DOUGLAS MacMULLEN 

Execuflve 
Editor 

ALEXANDER J. DICKIE 

Editor 

ANDREW P. HALL 

Editor 

B. N. DeROCHIE. Jr. 

Xsslsfont 
Manager 

B. H. BOYNTON 

Producflofi 
Edifer 

PAUL FAULKNER 

Pacific Coosf 
Advertising Mgr. 
Los Angeles Office 

DAVID J. DeROCHIE 

Assistant 
Los Angeles 



GEORGE W. FREIBERGER 

>)dverfl$lng Mgr. 
Son Francisco 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



JANUARY. 1947 



Subscription rates: 

One year, $2.00; two years, 
$3.50; fhree years, $5.00; for- 
eign, $1.00 additional per year; 
ilngle copies, 25c. 



Back to Ships! By T. Douglas MacMullen 

The Planners Behind the Scene By A. J. Dickie 

Bethlehem Launches the President Wilson 

Your Merchant Marine Pays Off By Vice Admiral W. W. Smith, U.S.N.. Ret 

Matson's Plans for '47 By Hugh Gallagher 

Pacific-Argentine-Brazil Line Restored by Pope 8C Talbot 

Pacific Shipping — Prospects and Problems By A. W. Gatov 

Transpacific Shipping — An Estimate By Thomas E. CufFe 

New Ships for the Pacific and 'Round-the-World By Eugene F. Hotfman 

General Steamship — Fast Pace Set by Agency Line By H. S. Scott 

With the Naval Architects and Marine Engineers — A Symposium 

Selection of Marine Diesel Drives By Saul Belilove .... 

Discussion of Paper on Diesel Drives By W. Edgar Martin 

Pacific World Trade By T. Douglas MacMullen 

1947 Outlook for World Trade By Alvin C. Eichhoh . 

S. F. Foreign Trade Association Elects 1947 Officers .... 

Promoting World Trade Through Education By E. George Davis 

Two New Welded Diesel Lightships 
Washington Digest .....■•••• 

Acheson Reveals Details of Proposed Shipping Body 

New U. S. Trade Mark La«s 

Export-Imf>ort OPA Control Off 

California Sales Tax on ExfHjrts Invalid 
Coast Commercial Craft .....•• 

Stability Problems of Tuna Clippers By David Dickie . 

The Neptune I ....••••■ • 

Marine Insurance .......■•■ 

Reinsurance 

London Letter By Our London Correspondent 

Admiralty Decisions By Harold S. Dobb 
Your Problems Answered By "The Chief" 

Steady As You Go! By "The Skipper" 

On the Ways 

Running Lights By B H. Boynton 

Naval Architects and Marine Engineers 
News Rashes ...... 

Pacific Coast Directory of Steamship Lines and Marine Insurance Companies 
Keep Posted ............ 



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PUBLISHED AT 500 SANSOME STREET • SAN FRANCISCO 11. CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES OFFICE 816 West 5th Street, Zone 13. Telephone Michigan 3129 




THE old adage about Beautv being onlv skin deep is 
not true of COLUMBIAN Tape-]\iarlced PURE 
MANILA ROPE. For here's a Balanced Rope— a Rope 
that keeps its sense of values ail the way. It has the kind 
of Appearance that counts most with men who work with 
Rope — with men who know Rope! It has a ship-shape, work- 
manlike look that wins the friendship of every man who uses 
Rope in his daily work. 

We'll readily admit that you can buy "prettier" Rope. 
But what you gain in handsome, bland coloring — you lose in 
Waterproofing. And if your Rope isn't thoroughly Waterproofed — it will 
soon lose its Flexibility, then its Strength — it'll have no Endurance! That's 
what we mean by Balance. We sacrifice no quality to gain another. 

COLUMBIAN ROPE COMPANY 

400-90 Genesee St., Auburn 'The Cordoge C/fy," N. Y, 



STRENGTH 

WATERPROOFING 

ENDURANCE 

FLEXIBILITY 




Page 30 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Back to Ships! 



By T. Douglas MacMuIlen 

Thousands of Pacific Marine Review readers are actual 
shippers of freight. They include shipbuilders, whole- 
salers, retailers, and manufacturers of ship supplies and 
equipment; exporters and importers in large numbers; 
and the ship operators, themselves. To you, who are in- 
cluded in the above group, this message is addressed. 
We urge that you get back to shipping by water. 

Your business success is definitely linked to the ship- 
ping industry on the Pacific Coast. You are a part of it. 
Without you, there could be no shipping industry. Con- 
versely, without shipping, there would be a serious void 
in your business. The interests of all of us have a certain 
unity. In fact, this unity of interest extends to all types 
of business on the Pacific Coast, especially in the port 
cities. 

During the war, the intercoastal and coastwise move- 
ment of freight was exclusively by rail or truck. The 
shipping lines, yours and mine, were at war. They deserve 
at least as much from their country as their competitors. 
They deserve at least the opportunity to recover. They 
deserve it from the government departments, from civic 
and trafiic groups, and fro^n shippers. 

There is more involved in water shipping than a few 
cents in the freight rates. The entire existence of certain 
industries depends on water service. Fruits, for instance, 
from California, Oregon and Washington, could scarcely 
compete in the eastern market if they were shipped at 
rail rates. Not the presently depressed rail rates, which 
the railroads maintain to keep the ships out, but the full 
scale non-exception tariffs. These are the rates that are 
now applied to rail shipments to points that do not have 
water service. 

You need your ships; your city needs your ships; your 
back country needs your ships; the West needs your ships. 
Use them! Keep them sailing! Encourage the develop- 
ment of the merchant marine against your own and your 
country's future emergencies! 




The Planners Behind the Scenes 

By A. J. Dickie 

In all great industrial achievements an analysis reveals 
many workers behind the scenes whose combined efforts 
make possible the sensational successes. A correspondent 
pays his respects to such workers in the great shipbuild- 
ing effort of World War II. In this connection Philip J. 
Duff writes an eloquent tribute to these planners in the 
form of a letter to Pacific Marine Review. 

"In the October issue of this journal a statement was 
quoted from the New York Times which is again repro- 
duced for reference. When Japan lost a ship she could 
not replace it. Our losses were many times replaced by 
new and better vessels. The war at sea was won in United 
States shipyards.' 

"It is true that the mass production of ships in these 
United States did very materially help to win the war, 
even to the extent of being a possible major factor, and 
great credit is due the shipbuilders of this country, old- 
timers and newcomers. 

"However, little recognition, if any at all, has ever been 
given to the men behind the scenes, the shipyard plan- 
ning engineers, constructors, purchasing agents and ex- 
pediters, who did such a marvelous job, and who inde- 
fatigably worked day and night, to accomplish the 
extension of existing shipyard facilities, and design and 
construct new ones, to make possible this stupendous 
production on the part of shipbuilders. To these men 
should go the credit of doing a job well done, in spite of 
inevitable postwar criticisms. 

"It may not be common knowledge, and possibly is 
known to but few, that this country has been fortunate 
in the foresight shown, by which studies had been made 
of shipyards and ship production for some years. 

"This article is written, however, as a tribute solely to 
the engineers, constructors, and collaborators, who by 
their energies, and resourcefulness, and in incredibly 
short time, gave to the shipbuilder the wherewithal and 
opportunity to contribute his share in winning the war, 
and this tribute is well deserved and a long time overdue." 



Our Sincere Thanks for the fDany Hind Expressions of Season's Greetings 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 3 1 




Bethlehem Launches 
The President lUilson 



SS President Wilson, about to be launched at Bethlehem- 

Alameda shipyard. Right background nnay be seen stern 

end of her sistership, SS President Cleveland, which was 

launched June 23. 1946. 



THE PRESIDENT WILSON, second of the giant pas- 
senger liners to be launched since the war for the 
American President Lines, went down the ways at the 
Bethlehem-Alameda yard Sunday morning, November 
24. She was sponsored by Mrs. E. Russell Lutz, wife of 
the executive vice president of the Line. 

Laid down on November 27, 1944, as a Navy P-2 type 



transport, the ship was built up to altered plans for peace- 
time passenger use. She has a length overall of 610 feet, 
a beam of 75 feet, and a load displacement of 22,574 tons. 
The hull is of combined riveted and welded steel con- 
struction with a curved stem, a cruiser stern, and with 
three complete decks and a partial deck, designated A, 
B, C, and D. Above these are: an upper deck extending 
from the stem to frame 168; a boat deck covering the 



Page 32 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



midship house; and a navigating bridge deck. The mid- 
ship house above the boat deck is of riveted aluminum 
construction which saves some 75 tons in weight at a 
position where weight saving is important. This use of 
aluminum is new in merchant ship construction although 
the U. S. Navy has used this metal on the superstructures 
of destroyers and cruisers with very satisfactory service 
results. 

Provisions for air conditioning and ventilation are very 
complete. Air conditioning is provided: for all cabin 
and tourist class passenger staterooms; for a number of 
ship's ofificers' staterooms and offices; for all mess rooms; 
for tourist and cabin class dining rooms; the library, 
writing room and shops; and for tourist, cabin and offi- 
cers' lounge rooms. Mechanical ventilation is provided 
for practically all the enclosed spaces on the ship. In 
general, the specification calls for the air supply to all 
uncooled spaces to be 30 cubic feet per minute for each 
occupant. Joiner and sheet metal work is being performed 
by Aetna Marine Corporation. The complete air condi- 
tioning, heating and refrigeration system was described 
in an article by J. W. Markert, chief of "Ventilation & 
Heating Branch, Technical Division, U. S. Maritime 
Commission, in the August 1946 issue of PACIFIC Ma- 
rine Review. 

The total capacity of the vessel's lifeboats is 934, or 
more than enough to take care of the full complement 
of 890 passengers and crew. 

An interesting advance in the design of cargo handling 
machinery is the side port loading-discharging crane for 
hatch No. 4 which tops on "A" deck. Two bridges each 
carrying one trolley and each capable of handling 2^2 
tons safely are installed for athwartship travel. 

The pilothouse, navigating bridges and pilothouse top 
are equipped with all the most modern devices for mak- 
ing navigation simple and safe. 

Gyrocompass system includes one Sperry Mark XIV 
master gyrocompass and eight repeaters. 

An echo depth sounder provides visual and recorder 
reading of the depth of water under keel. This instru- 
ment has a range of from three fathoms up and its read- 
ings are accurate within 2 per cent. 

Complete equipment for Raytheon radar navigation 
will be installed so that regardless of visibility the naviga- 
tion officer will be able to detect any approaching vessel 
or other large floating object and any landfall in ample 
time to make any necessary alterations to the vessel's 
course. 

The ship's radio telegraph and telephone installation 
will consist of four radio telegraph transmitters of 
various frequencies and four receivers of various fre- 
quencies covering all the regular and emergency require- 
ments of a passenger liner radio service. A harbor type 
radio telephone transmitter receiver takes care of ship- 
to-shore conversations in or near harbors. Each motor 
lifeboat is equipped with a radio telegraph transmitter 
and with a storage battery of sufficient capacity to oper- 



ate this transmitter receiver continuously for at least six 
hours. 

Electric Galleys 

There as three Hotpoint electric galleys on the "B" 
deck which, in combination with dumb waiter service 
and pantries, provide food for the passengers, the officers 
and the crew. These galleys are equipped with the most 
up-to-date electric ranges, charcoal broilers, coffee urns, 
baking ovens, mixing machines. 

An indication of the many facilities which will be 
provided for the comfort and entertainment of the pas- 
senger is seen in plans for two swimming pools — both 
cabin and tourist — libraries, sound motion picture facili- 
ties, massage rooms, barber and beauty shops and gym- 
nasium. Photographs, oil murals and framed pictures will 
adorn the walls of the lounges and dining rooms. Kennels 
are even provided for transporting dogs. 

Propulsion Machinery 

Boilers: Two Combustion Engineering steam genera- 
tors; steam at 600 psi and 825° F. at super-heater outlet. 

Engines: Two General Electric turbo-electric genera- 
tor sets; at normal operation on 590 psi and 815° F. with 




ell Luti. wife of Eiecufn 
■sidenf Lines, about to c 
Wilson. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 33 



28%" of vacuum at condenser, each set produces 7650 
kw at 3715 rpm; two 3-phase 60 cycle ac propulsion 
motors rated 10,500 shp at 3500 volts for maximum 
continuous duty; at 9000 shp, each of two propellers 
turns 124 rpm. 

Shp normal: 18,000 

Shp maximum: 20.500 

Speed, cruising: 190 

Speed, maximum: 21.0 

Fuel capacity, tons: 4342 

Estimated design cruising range: 17.600 nautical 

miles ( approx. ) 
Scheduled delivery date — July I, 1947. 

Refrigerated Cargo and Passenger Capacity 

Passengers, total 550 

Cabin class: 182 

Tourist class: 144 

Third class: 224 

Crew .-- - 338 

Refrigerated cargo, tons 621 

The Launching Procedure 

Release of the 610' liner down the 655-foot ways was 
accomplished by means of two mechanical launching 
triggers tripped by an electrical solenoid controlled from 
the control house underneath the vessel on the port side. 
The launching triggers were designed in Bethlehem's 
Fore River Yard in Massachusetts for launching battle- 
ships. This mechanism was diagrammed and explained 
in connection with the launching of the President Cleve- 
land in the August Pacific Marine Review, 

GREHSE HRD CHHIH DRAGS 
10 LHUnCHIDG PRESIDEDT 



When the block-and-a-half long ship became water- 
borne for the first time, its motion was held in check 
by means of 350 tons of chain drag, divided into 8 piles 
and attached to the vessel with IW diameter drag wires. 
( See following article on chain and grease. ) 

The U. S. Coast Guard cleared Alameda Estuary of all 
water traffic not only during the launching itself but for 
a period before and after. 

Several days before the President Wilson went down 
the ways, the launching area was searched for underwater 
obstructions, wreckage and shoals, as well as the under- 
water portion of the groundway. 

At the time of launching the liner weighed approxi- 
mately 8300 long tons, including cradle, the heaviest 
commercial vessel ever to be launched on the Coast. 

Eight tons of grease was used on the launching ways, 
and a launching crew of 165 men helped to launch the 
President Wilson. 

The Yard 

Late in 1941 Bethlehem Steel Company was notified 
by the U. S. Government, represented by U. S. Maritime 
Commission, it wanted to build 10 troopships. In accord- 
ance with this request, a subsidiary of Bethlehem Steel 
Company was formed and incorporated in March, 1942 
as Bethlehem- Alameda Shipyard, Inc. Keel for first troop- 
ship laid December 10, 1942. Seven of these troopships 
( each with a total troop carrying capacity of approxi- 
mately 5000) were delivered to the Navy during the 
war. The eighth was commissionel last Fall, and all have 
now been converted to U. S. Army transport ships for 
use in the Pacific. The remaining two vessels are the 
President Cleveland and the President Wilson, fast trans- 
Pacific luxury liners for the American President Lines. 



UlllSOO 




LAUNCHING IS A TIME OF ANXIETY to those 
responsible, and the anxiety and responsibility in- 
crease with the size of the vessel. They further increase 
as the space available for the launch decreases. In the 
case of the President Wilson the width of the Oakland 
Estuary, only 900 feet, is but 290 feet longer than the 
ship so that obviously some arrangements had to be made 
to check the ship after she entered the water. 

While sliding down the ways and until entry into the 
water, two forces are acting on the ship and cradle, the 
weight which gives a component acting down the ways 
and the force of friction acting in the reverse direction. 

Close-up of Starboard forward poppet. 



Page 34 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




The Chain Drags 
in Operation 

The piles of chain, lower left and right in 

above picture, are two of the six piles used 

to slow up the ship. 

Nicely calculated was the amount of chain 
needed to stop the ship. Picture shows the 
dust settling after the chain piles had dis- 
appeared. 



In order for the ship to start down'ttie ways the weight 
component must be greater than the force of friction and 
to insure this being so, the sliding surfaces are coated 
with grease or a similar lubricant. For the President Wil- 
son the grease used totaled 16,000 pounds. 

The grease is applied in two separate operations. First 
a grease is applied hot to the ground ways which, when 
cooled and hardened, will produce a smooth sliding sur- 
face free from humps and hollows and able to withstand 
high pressures. Then a grease, similar to automobile 
grease, is applied to give the proper lubrication between 
the sliding and ground ways. For the President Wilson 
the base coat was Paragon Stearine and the lubricating 
grease Keystone Slipcoat. 

As soon as the ship enters the water a third force, that 



of water resistance, begins to retard its velocity and limu 
its travel. After the ship leaves the ways she comes to 
rest when the kinetic energy is entirely dissipated by the 
water resistance alone, or if the space is limited, by the 
addition of further resisting forces. 

In the past, many methods have been tried to limit the 
run of a ship after leaving the launching ways. These 
vary from masks constructed across the stern of the ship, 
the simple dropping of an anchor or elaborately con- 
structed brakes to chain drags. The method of checking 
a ship by drags lends itself most readily to direct calcula- 
tion, is relatively easy to install and does not require any 
manual control for operation. 

For the President Wilson six groups of chain piles, 
three on each side, having a total weight of 300 tons 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 35 



were used for checking. Each group consisted of two 
piles of chain each arranged in the shape of a horseshoe 
with the open end toward the water. This arrangement 
is used to ease the shock as the load comes on the ship 
since each pile must pull through before becoming fully 
effective as a drag. The shock is further eased by having 
a small amount of slack in the cables connecting the two 
chain piles in each group. 

The chain drags are connected to the ship by three 
sets of heavy wire ropes so arranged that the groups near- 
est the water are the first to become effective and do so as 
the ship leaves the ways. In a properly calculated launch- 
ing the last group of drags should just pull through as the 
ship reaches the desired position in the water from the 
way ends. 

The launching weight of the President Wilson includ- 
ing cradle was 8520 tons and she was successfully checked 
2.^ seconds after the chain drags took hold with the bow 
153 feet from the way ends. The total travel was 857 
feet in 59 seconds. 





Page 36 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Your Olercbant IDarine Pays Off 



By ADMIRAL W. W. SMITH, U. S. N. (Retired). 
Chairman U. S. Maritime Commission 



IF OPPORTUNITY HAS EVER KNOCKED on the 
door of the Maritime industry, it is beating a tattoo 
at the present time. 

During the war our American merchant fleet, greatest 
in the world, carried the products of American farms and 
factories to ever)' fighting front of the United Nations. 
Our great ports saw the flags of the United Nations in 
their common task of winning a war. Those same flags 
still enter our ports to carry on the commercial business 
of a world at peace, as our American ships continue to 
carry our products to every country. 

The ships of the Merchant Marine know the ports; do 
the export shippers of the United States know the facili- 
ties we offer for delivering their goods to the world? 

In war this country developed a great spirit of com- 
petition in getting the job done. Competition and incen- 
tive built for us the greatest Merchant Marine the world 
has ever known. They built the things we needed to win 
a war. We must keep those incentives and that spirit of 
American competition alive, growing and healthy, in 
order that our postwar future and the future of the Amer- 
ican Merchant Marine may be assured. 

In November I visited the city of New Orleans during 
International Week. New Orleans and the South, with 
open doors, welcomed representatives from all the Amer- 
icas and made it clear that New Orleans serves as the 
great outlet for the Mississippi Valley. They were build- 
ing good will for American products and for American 
shipping. Other ports also must lead the way, tell the 
world, about their outlets for the products of their states 
and spread the news far and wide to the inland manu- 
facturing plants of the nation. If you have cargoes dock- 
side, the American Merchant Marine was never in a 
better position to move them swiftly and surely to their 
appointed destinations. American shippers have at their 
disposal the finest, fastest ships in any merchant fleet, 
with well-trained and efficient crews. Ashore the Mer- 
chant Marine industry has the "know-how" which can 
bring success to this program. 

There is and will continue to be a world market for 
American goods. In shipping, foreign competition is 
growing and will be keen. 

I would like to preach the principle of shipping Ameri- 




can goods in American bottoms, for 1 believe in that 
principle. But we know from experience that merchants 
will ship by the quickest route and the cheapest carrier. 
Our operating costs are high. But we can meet foreign 
competition without fear, through reliability of service 
and efficiency of American operation. 

As for the future: According to the best estimates of 
the Commission's statistical researchers, world sea-borne 
commerce for the year 1950 should amount to between 
275 million and 307 million long tons. 

This would be about 2 per cent higher than the ton- 
nage for 1929, the largest previous year on record, and 
some 19 per cent higher than last peacetime year of 19-t7. 

If world conditions improve, economically and politi- 
cally, the world tonnage of ocean commerce should ap- 
proach or even exceed the top figure of 307 million long 
tons. However, should the world remain in its present 
unsettled state the lower figure cr 275 million is a more 
nearly accurate estimate. 

Although we believe these figures as accurate as it is 
possible to make them, I should point out that they are 
dependent upon a number of imponderables which are 
difficult to foresee and evaluate. 

Historically the percentage of ocean-borne commerce 
carried by American flag vessels has declined from 49 per 
cent in 1921 to 38 per cent in 1929, to 33 per cent in 
1933, and to a low of 22 per cent in 1939. 

I sincerely hope that we will not let history repeat 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 37 



itself. Certainly with the production of America at its 
peak, supplying world markets, our own ships should 
move a larger share of world trade. The Merchant Marine 
Act of 1936 says we should move a "substantial portion" 
and I for one do not consider 22 per cent substantial. 

The Maritime Commission believes that the extension 
of reciprocal trade agreements and the revision of tariffs 
will make a busy two-way street of international trade. 
The formation of an international shipping advisory 
group, either within or without the structure of the 
United Nations, will go far in solving many common 
problems in the industry. Experience has shown us the 
way and I believe we have the "horse sense" to follow 
through. 

Many were keenly aware of the great shipbuilding 
program of World War I. Hog Island, with its 100 ways 
delivered ships too late to serve the nation's war need. 
Our men and materials traveled in foreign flag vessels. 
We know the results of that war and its effect on our 
Merchant fleet. Great hulks of steel ships remained at 
anchor when they should have been carrying American 
products to the world and returning to America with the 
things that we need to develop our national economy and 
human welfare. 

That same thing can happen again. We must see that 
it does not. We will have a well preserved reserve fleet, 
as directed by Congress, sufliicient to meet any national 
emergency. 

The Merchant Marine Act of 19.36 gave us a clear 
directive. The United States needs and must have a 
Merchant Marine. Our importers and exporters must be 
assured of prompt and satisfactory American flag ocean 
services when and where the need arises. For the first 
time in a hundred years we can offer that vital service 
between producers and consumers wherever they may be. 

The world knows American products and we must keep 
that knowledge alive. 

As you saw war cargoes loaded you probably realized 
how vital those cargoes and the ships that carried them 
were to success on the battlefront in defense of our coun- 
try. I can tell you from personal experience while on 
duty in the far Pacific that the loss of a single fleet oiler 
in the early months of war might have required that our 
Navy Task Force return to Pearl Harbor for refueling. 
We were thousands of miles from our fuel supply. Had 
that one tanker, the only one near, been sunk, we would 
have lost our contact with the enemy and might never 
have' been able to regain that advantage. One tanker! 
And she tvas sunk at Coral Sea, but fortunately after we 
had sucked her dry. One tanker! In the Pacific in 1945, 
thanks to our shipbuilding proclivities, we had more than 
500 of these tankers in the pipe line serving our Fleet and 
our far-flung bases, and we were yelling for more. It may 
well be said that our shipbuilding shortened the war by 
at least one year. With the experience of two world wars, 



I do not believe the people of this nation desire to be 
caught unawares in any future national emergency. 

Coastal and Intercoastal 

I should like to pay tribute at this time to the men, the 
ships and the shoreside personnel of our coastal and inter- 
coastal shipping services for the great part they played 
in the early days of the war. Prewar, more than 70 per 
cent of our shipping was in these trades and it was upon 
them we called for ships to start the war. Without their 
ships and men the story might have been different. Most 
of our people were too far from the coastline to have 
seen our tankers burning off shore. The men and the 
ships came back for more and delivered the cargoes 
vitally needed. 

The Commission has appealed to the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission for a re-examination and revision of 
coastwise and intercoastal rates. We want this vital and 
economic service restored on a going, self-supporting 
basis. We need it in our economic welfare and in assur- 
ing our national security. Right now, we are putting 
additional government ships in these services to move 
vitally needed housing materials and other products of 
the forests and processing plants from one section of our 
country to another. Private operators are not interested, 
because the freight does not pay its way. 

During the war the government was in the shipping 
business of necessity. We are still in that business, but 
are getting out as quickly as private owners can and will 
take over. By law we must cease to operate as of Feb- 
ruary 28 next, when government vessels will be with- 
drawn and the entire operation of our merchant fleet 
returned to the private owners and operators. We of the 
Maritime Commission are directed to support such a 
program, and are desirous of doing so. The Maritime 
Commission is proud of the reconversion of the mer- 
chant fleet to peacetime pursuits. 

Our first job when the war was over was the return of 
American troops and American property from foreign 
lands. This was accomplished in record time and unlike 
our previous experiences, was accomplished with vessels 
flying the American flag. 

Our next task was the return of the Merchant fleet to 
private operation, and to aid those countries which have 
suffered most at the hand of the aggressor. These two 
jobs were done at one and the same time. Private ships, 
with few exceptions, have been returned to their owners; 
government-owned vessels have been chartered out to 
private operators. Other government ships under gen- 
eral agency agreements have operated at a profit to the 
government. 

We now have chartered out some 1 145 ships. After 
December 31, 1947, the law permits no further charter- 
ing and all ships not sold, domestic or foreign, will be 



Page 38 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



sent to the reserve fleet. We have operating under general 
agents 830 ships. Such operations must cease February 28 
next because on that date accumulated profits in the re- 
volving fund go directly to Treasury receipts, leaving the 
Commission no funds to pay operating expenses. 

Government operation of ships since V-J Day has not 
been at taxpayers' expense. Currently, our receipts from 
charter and general agency operation are running at 
approximately 20 million dollars per month. I cite these 
figures as evidence that there is profit to be made in the 
shipping business. We prefer to sell ships, but in the 
present market, receipts from charter hire pay for a ship 
in less than three years. 

Other receipts for the Treasury: 

ESSENTIAL UNITED STATES 
Trade 

Route U. S. COASTAL AREA FOREIGN AREA 

1 Atlantic East Coast of South America 

2 Atlantic West Coast of South America 

3 Atlantic - .. East Coast Mexico 
•4 Atlantic . Caribbean 

5 North Atlantic United Kingdom i Eire 

6 North Atlantic Scandinavia S Baltic Sea 
7-8 North Atlantic Antwerpen/Hamburq Range 
9 North Atlantic Atlantic France & Spain (Vigo to Bilbao) 

10 North Atlantic Mediterranean. Black Sea, Portugal. 

Spain (South of Portugal) S. Morocco 

11 South Atlantic United Kingdom. Bordeaux/Hamburg 

Scandinavia & Baltic Sea 

12 Atlantic Far East 

13 Gulf & Atlantic Mediterranean, Black Sea, Portugal 

& Atlantic Spain 

14 Atlantic & Gulf __ _ _ West Coast of Africa 

ISA Atlantic _ ....South & East Africa & Madagascar 

158 Gulf - .- South & East Africa i Madagascar 

li Atlantic & Gulf - Australasia 

* Caribbean trade route not shown due to limited space 



$2,100,000 per month for British use of ships formerly 
lend-leased for operation under British flag. 

About one billion dollars eventually in payment for 
ships already sold or in process for sale. 

$86,347,200 for disposal of surplus marine material 
and property. 

$35,189,500 from sale by Maritime Commission of 
2600 small vessels. 

Millions of dollars through renegotiation of war con- 
tracts. 

The Future 

So much for the past. We hope the future holds a 
bright picture. For the next year we will continue to sell 

iPleaie turn to page 150) 



FOREIGN AREA 
ment, Netherlands East Indies 
India, Persian Gulf i Red Sea 
ribbean & East Coast Mexico 
East Coast of South America 
gdom, Bordeaux & Hamburg, 
Scandinavia « Baltic Sea 

Far East 

;aribbean i East Coast Mexico 

East Coast South America 

West Coast South America. 

Central America i Mexico 

United Kingdom 

burg. Scandinavia S Baltic Sea 

Pacific - Australasia 

Pacific Straits SeHlement, Netherlands East Indies 
California Far East 

Washington/Oregon . Far East 

Gulf West Coast South America 



FOREIGN 


TRADE ROL 


ITES 




Trad. 












e U 


. S. COASTAL 


AREA 




17 


Atlan 


tic & Gulf 


Straits 


Settle 


18 


Aflan 


itic S Gulf 






•19 


Gulf 






Cd 


20 


Gulf 








21 


Gulf 




United Kir 



22 Gulf 

*23 Pacific 

24 Pacific 

25 Pacific 

2iA Pacific 

26B Pacific 





Matson liners Lurllne and Monterey undergoing reconversion af United Engineering Company, Alameda, Calif. 



Matson's Plans For 17 

By HUGH GALLAGHER, Vice President, Matson Navigation Co. 



w 




Hugh Gallaghe 



Matson Navigation 
Company. 



Page 40 



THE YEAR 1947 is expected to see the reconversion 
of all major phases of the Matson Navigation Com- 
pany to peacetime operation. Upon completion of this 
program, Matson will be in position to offer travelers 
and shippers between the United States, Hawaii, New 
Zealand and Australia one of America's most complete 
transportation services. 

Surface 

Surface transportation will be maintained by approxi- 
mately thirty ships. Comprising this fleet will be three 
luxury liners, sixteen new C-3 freighters, four C-2 freight- 
ers, three Liberty ships and four freighters retained from 
Matson's prewar fleet. The maintenance of these vessels 
will be part of the work of the Matson-owned United 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Engineering Co. in Alameda and San Francisco. In San 
Francisco, Seattle-Tacoma, Portland and Los Angeles, 
cargo operations of this fleet will be handled by Matson 
Terminals, Inc. 

Air 

Matson's air transportation will continue under the 
company's Air Transport Diision on a non-scheduled 
basis between the West Coast and Hawaii, pending CAB 
approval for a scheduled Matson air service. The Matson 
Aviation Maintenance Co. is extending its services to 
Honolulu. There, as in Oakland where it now functions 
on a large scale, it will undertake the maintenance, repair, 
conversion, and overhaul of commercial planes. 

1947 will also be marked by the reopening of the 
Matson's Royal Hawaiian Hotel at Waikiki Beach, com- 
pletion of a new 7-story wing to the San Francisco offices, 
and the placing in operation of new bulk sugar loading 
facilities in Hilo, Hawaii. 

Flagship of the surface fleet will be the 26,000-ton 
passenger liner Lurline, which along with her sister ships, 
the Mariposa and Monterey, are presently being rebuilt 
and completely modernized. This project has been under- 
taken by the United Engineering Company. Moderniza- 
tion of these three luxury ships constitutes one of the 
largest merchant ship reconversion projects in U. S. 
maritime history. 

Passenger Fleet 

Matson's Hawaiian passenger ship service will, as in 
prewar days, offer weekly sailings in each direction be- 
tween California and Hawaii. The Lurline, Mariposa and 
Monterey wiU be used in this service, calling at San Fran- 
cisco, Los Angeles Harbor and Honolulu. Matson's sub- 
sidiary Oceanic route to New Zealand and Australia (via 
Honolulu, Pago Pago, Samoa, and Suva, Fiji) will be 
maintained by the same three ships. Here they will pro- 
vide a sailing every five weeks in each direction and make 
ten or eleven round trip voyages yearly to the Antipodes. 
Each of the three ships will be employed in this route on 
a rotational basis after several shuttle runs between the 
two California ports and Hawaii. Until full passenger 
service is restored by this trio of liners Matson will con- 
tinue its present interim service between San Francisco, 
Los Angeles and Honolulu with the Matsonia. 

C-3's 

Serving Hawaii exclusively, will be 16 C-3 freighters. 
constituting the largest unit of the postwar Matson fleet. 
Fifteen of these, to date, have been allocated by the Mari- 
time Commission to Matson for purchase. The C-3's 
will be converted for the handling of the specialized 
cargoes peculiar to the Hawaiian trade. On ships of this 
type assigned to routes between the West Coast and 
Hawaii, particular attention will be paid to refrigerated 
cargo, for which 60,000 cubic feet is being made avail- 
able on each vessel. The most advanced type of equip- 
ment for this service will be installed, providing a sus- 
tained temperature of ten degrees below zero. Deep tanks 



on each of these vessels will be altered to accommodate 
2,700 short tons of molasses, loaded and discharged by 
special pumps capable of handling 250 tons per hour. 
Extensive alteration in hold arrangement, including per- 
manent sheathing, will also be made to accommodate 
bulk sugar consignments. Topping lift winches will be 
added at all hatches. 

With the availability of the new freighter fleet, Matson 
will offer the following express cargo service to Hawaii 
over four routes; 

1. Direct weekly sailings from San Francisco. 

2. Direct weekly sailings from Los'Angeles. 

3. Direct fortnightly sailings from Seattle-Tacoma and 
Portland. 

4. Weekly sailings ( in conjunction with Isthmian 
Steamship Co. ) between Atlantic Coast ports, in- 
cluding regular calls at Gulf ports and Hawaii. 

Libertys 

The Pacific Northwest-Hawaii C-3 service will be aug- 
mented by three Liberty ships which Matson has already 
purchased, and which will afford frequent sailings from 
that area with lumber, sulphates and other cargoes. 

In transit time, these postwar freighter services will 
offer approximately a 30 per cent increase in speed over 
the prewar freighter fleet. The C-3's will make the run 
between California ports and Hawaii in 5! 2 days; be- 
tween Pacific Northwest ports and Hawaii in six days, 
as compared with seven to eleven days required before 
the war. Almost a full fortnight will be cut from the 
Hawaii-East Coast service, where the transit time will be 
reduced from thirty days to seventeen. Utilizing the C-3 
and Liberty ships to fullest advantage, with fast and fre- 



THE TURBINES 

The Lurline, Monterey and Mariposa 
were built at the Bethlehem Quincy 
Yard in the late twenties for transpacific 
service, and the turbines are being re- 
turned to Quincy for rebuilding and 
overhaul. New casing will be made for 
the intermediate pressure engines and a 
change made from cast iron to cast steel 
in material used for foundry work. Re- 
building will include reboring and re- 
blading, in which work Quincy has a 
staff of experts. 

Each ship has six engines: low pres- 
sure, intermediate pressure, and high 
pressure, operating three to a propeller 
shaft on twin screws. The high pressure 
engines have withstood service and 
won't be rebuilt. 



^ 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 41 




S.S. LURLINE, flagship of the Matson fleet 

At right: Master of the Lurline is Commodore C. A. Berndtson who was made 
Commodore of the Matjon Fleet in 1937. He first sailed with Matson in 1916, 
as a Quartermaster SBil the Manoa. and commanded the Lurline since 1932. 



quent sailings, Matson will offer a service surpassing 
anything ever before attempted on the Hawaiian route. 

C-2's 

In addition to the express general and refrigerated 
cargo service which the 21 -knot Lurline, Mariposa and 
Monterey will provide on the Oceanic route, four C-2 
freighters will be assigned to this run. These freighters 
will service all major U. S. Pacific Coast ports and will 
call as cargo offers at such ports as Auckland and Wel- 
lington in New Zealand; and Sydney, Melbourne, Bris- 
bane and Adelaide in Australia. However, final schedules 



and ports-of-call for this cargo service are srilj being 
formulated. Negotiations for purchase of the four C-2's 
are currently under way with the Maritime Commission. 
When delivery is made, they will be modified with par- 
ticular attention to the carriage of lumber, bulk lube oil. 
and to suit other requirements of Oceanic's trade routes. 
Because of material shortages and labor disturbances the 
conversion of these C-2's as well as the C-3 s has dropped 
behind schedule, but it is hoped that most major modi- 
fications will be completed during the year. 

The balance of Matson's surface fleet will be four or 
five of the prewar freighters which will be retained 




S.S. MONTEREY 

At left: Captain Elis R. Johanson joined Matson in 1920, as Master of the 

Mohenlcis, and has had command of the Monterey since 1934. His Santa Elena 

rescue is believed the largest in history. 






S.S. MATSONIA 

Captain Frank A. Johnson, with Matson'si'nce 1923, has 

since 1935. While he served as Port Captain for 15 w 

^i^BBiaJSillesple took over the ship. 



anded the Matsonia 
moft^s. Captain hi. R. 



mainly for use as replacements and to handle peak loads. 
No scheduled services have been set for these vessels. 

Material Handling 

To help offset the rising costs of cargo operation, 
Matson Lines, in common with most steamship organi- 
zations, is constantly seeking more efficient methods of 
materials handling. One such development — the ship- 
ment of sugar in bulk from Hawaii to the mainland — 
was described in the August, 1946, Pacific Marine 
Review. In addition to reducing handling costs, bulk 



shipment materially increases ship efficiency in stepping 
up turn-around time. So successful has the new bulk 
operation proved, that Matson plans to extend its use. 
At the present time, the port of Kahului has this facility 
and sometime during the coming year, at cost of approxi- 
mately 51,000,000, Matson will complete construction of 
a plant for the storage and shipment of bulk sugar at 
Hilo, Hawaii. Present plans call for eventual construc- 
tion of similar plants at two other Hawaiian ports. In 
accordance with this long-range program, all but a small 
(Please turn to. page 152.1 



S.S. MARIPOSA 

At right: Captain William R. Meyer has been Master of the Mariposa s 
1932. When commanding the Ventura his dramatic rescue of passengers 
c^ew of the stricken Tahiti aroused world-wide interest. 



i 




-1 






^:'>> 


ri 


j^^^^^^^^l 





3rge A. Pope. , 

iidenf of Pope 

Talbot. 



Charles L Wheeler, ^ 
Executive Vice Presi- 
dent. 




Pacific-llrgentine-Brazil Line 
Restored by Pope & Talbot 



POPE & TALBOT, INC., is resuming liner operations 
between Pacific Coast ports and the east coast of 
South America with the re-establishment of its Pacific- 
Argentine-Brazil Line (West Indies Service) early in 
February. This direct service via Panama and Puerto Rico 
to the important ports of the east coast of South America 
marks the resumption of a 1 6-year freight and passenger 
service pioneered by Pope & Talbot immediately follow- 
ing World War I, which was necessarily terminated prior 
to World War II. 

The action of Pope & Talbot, Inc., follows a recent 
extensive tour and survey of the 17,200 mile trade route 
by President George A. Pope, Jr., and submission of his 
report to the directors of his company showing that there 
is an urgent need for additional service between the 
Pacific Coast and East Coast South America ports. The 
company will also resume its pre-war status in the exist- 
ing conferences of steamship associations covering this 
route. 

"Prospects for West Coast trade expansion into South 
America were never better," states Mr. Pope. "The tre- 
mendous increase in industrialization of the west coast 

Page 44 



of the United States has a counterpart in the great cities 
of the east coast of Brazil and Argentina, with corre- 
sponding increases in population and economic prosperi- 
ty. There is a new appreciation by both hemispheres of 
the necessity for an expanded, free-flowing commerce to 
fill and satisfy the needs of both." 

Modern, fast vessels of the Pope & Talbot Lines fleet 
will be allocated to the Pacific-Argentine-Brazil Line with 
the St. Cloud Victory scheduled to sail on February 12. 
PAB Line ships will sail from British Columbia, Puget 
Sound, Columbia River, San Francisco Bay Area and Los 
Angeles ports to Puerto Rico, British West Indies, the 
Brazilian ports of Rio de Janeiro and Santos, Buenos 
Aires in Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. 

In announcing plans of his company, Charles L.Wheel- 
er, executive vice president, points out that West Coast 
exporters and importers seeking the products of those 
countries, will have the benefit of experienced personnel 
at all ports along the line. Most of their former agents 
will resume with them and include: Juan J. Reynal of 
Buenos Aires; Federal Express Company of Brazil; Chris- 
tophersen & Cia of Uruguay; Rafael Del Castillo & Co., 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



of Colombia; Curacao Trading Company of Dutch West 
Indies; W. Andrews & Co., of Panama Canal Zone. The 
company has its own office at San Juan, Puerto Rico. 
Kingsley Navigation Co., Ltd., Vancouver, B. C. will con- 
tinue as British Columbia representative. 

"This means complete familiarity with the needs of 
their country," stated Wheeler, "as well as experience in 
the kind of service American exporters and importers 
desire. The resumption of this vital service benveen 
Pacific Coast ports and the countries of the Caribbean 
and east coast of South America, should be an important 
factor in the expansion program for industry, and the 
development of foreign trade at all our ports of call. Not 
to be overlooked is the fact that Pope & Talbot, Inc., is a 
wholly owned and operated Pacific Coast company, hence 
the same viewpoint and desire for building the economic; 
stability of the West that motivates western industry 
throughout. Prior to the inauguration of the Pacific- 
Argentine-Brazil Line in 1926, the only water trans- 
portation between the east coast of South America and 



Pacific Coast ports was to be obtained from tramp line 
service." 

The Pacific-Argentine-Brazil Line offers West Coast 
shippers and importers a splendid opportunity to stimu- 
late foreign trade. This direct service is widely regarded 
as having been instrumental in the great development of 
the Pacific Coast as a coffee and chocolate center, as well 
as for less publicized products such as wax, nuts, spices, 
drugs, bones and fertilizers. As an outlet for Pacific 
Coast products, the route was important in developing 
markets for rice, lumber, paper and hundreds of other 
manufactured products. 

In re - establishing the Pacific-Argentine-Brazil Line, 
Pope & Talbot is carrying forward the tradition of 
pioneering which began with the establishment of the 
company on the Pacific Coast in 1849, and which has 
carried the American fiag and American commerce to all 
parts of the world. Pope & Talbot Lines also operate 
Pacific Coastwise Service, Pacific Ports to the Caribbean, 
and Intercoastal service between Atlantic and Pacific 
Ports. 



Pacific Shipping Prospects 
And Problems 

By A. W. GATDV, 

Secretary, Pacific American Steamship Ass'n. 



EXPANDING THE THOUGHT THAT THE PROS- 
PERITY of Pacific Coast shipping is tied to our 
general national economy, it is axiomatic that As Goes 
the Worlds Business, So Will Go Shipping. Transporta- 
tion, existing as it does as a means to an end, rather than 
as a separate entity, is obviously supersensitive to indus- 
trial trends, and being an instrument of national policy, 
it is affected by this country's position in the world politi- 
cal scene. 

Considering the persistent tendency toward forecasting 
gloom on the part of some of our heavy-duty economists, 
it has not been without considerable courage that Pacific 
Coast ship operators have embarked on large-scale pro- 
grams for keeping U. S. Flag shipping in a dominant 
position. Recognizing that only the relatively immediate 
future permits ver)' much in the way of prophecy, while 
shipping is substantially a long-term risk, considerable of 
this courage has perhaps been fostered by hope and 




speculation, but hope or speculation by experienced ship- 
ing men is something to tie to. 

Even a trial balance at this time of the known debits 
and credits is affected by so many unknown factors that 
it would be folly to suggest what lies very far in the 
future for shipping. But this year looks brighter for some 
trades — uncertain for others. 

It is encouraging to note that Pacific Coast operators 
are retooling, expanding and implementing plans for a 
resurgence of the Pacific trades with American tonnage. 

On the credit side, and through the circumstances of 
the war, a substantial fleet of newer, faster, and moie 
economical ships has been made available in some of the 
Pacific trades. Much enthusiasm arises from the elimina- 
tion of the once important Japanese merchant fleet. The 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 45 



major trade routes of the Pacific will be dotted with a 
preponderance of American ships. And American ships 
are American assets in more ways than one! First, they 
operate from American ports, and carry American goods 
and American crews. Second, their major repairs must 
be made in American shipyards. Third, insurance on 
ships and cargo will be largely American, and so will 
financing. Finally, raw material imports will reach Ameri- 
can factories when world supplies are short. 

In all Pacific trades there is the vast interim tonnage 
occasioned by war-created demand for practically the 
whole range of exportable commodities. This demand is 
likely to continue far into the future. Wherever American 
servicemen have been, American goods have become 
known. 

In the domestic and non-contiguous routes, there is a 
strong demand for reconversion goods, long denied pro- 
duction and distribution in our wartime economy. 
Though by no means a healthy situation, the intercoastal 
and coastwise trades are finding considerable additional 
support by virtue of the rail car shortage. 

On the other side of the ledger we must not lose sight 
of the fact that we have no exclusive rights in our Pacific 
foreign trades. The traditionally strong maritime nations 
are making come-backs. In addition to Great Britain and 
the Scandinavian countries, China and Russia may emerge 
as strong contenders for Pacific tonnage. 

In some quarters there is expressed the opinion that 
the almost legendary "Pacific Boom" has been over-sold, 
and that the possibilities and attractions it offers have 
been more than met by the rush of prospecting foreign 
operators drawing off tonnage from other routes and 
tramp services. 

Though it is assumed that currency fluctuations, for- 
eign loan difficulties, and credit problems may within a 
reasonable time attain a semblance of stability, they have 
been discouraging drawbacks to promotional exporting. 
Perhaps short-sightedly, many manufacturers and dis- 
tributors neglected their export field in the face of an 
unprecedented domestic demand. To capitalize by taking 
the initiative, England, for example, has pursued a long- 
range export policy in spite of domestic shortages, many 
of which are of a far more serious naaire than anything 
encountered in this country. As a result of this policy, we 
now find England far above her prewar export averages, 
and the results are quite evident when this is translated to 
shipping terms. The vital importance of world trade to 
shipping suggests that organized importation efforts be 
made by steamship companies with the same careful 
planning that they exert for passenger business. As nor- 
mal price levels are reached, however, import volume will 
grow naturally. 

On the operating side, of prime importance is the 
competitive position of U. S. Flag shipping in respect to 
costs. The total labor costs of an American -crewed 



Liberty-type ship amount to $11,480 per month, against 
a British crew for the same vessel at $4,300 per month, 
and substantially the same disparity for Dutch, Swedish, 
Norwegian and Greek vessels. 

In the domestic trades, where rate structures are inevi- 
tably tied to those of other forms of transportation, the 
situation regarding cost increases is even more grave. 
The laborious process of adjusting postwar rates and 
practices to postwar costs and conditions has given the 
domestic carriers little encouragement on which to base 
definite plans for resumption on a private basis. 

In a report submitted to the M. C. by its Postwar 
Planning Committee, it is pointed out that in 1939 we 
had a total of a little over two and a quarter million 
deadweight tons of dry-cargo shipping engaged in foreign 
trades. On the basis that our foreign trade increases fifty 
per cent by weight, and that we handle at least half of 
our export traffic, the Committee estimated that off-shore 
trades could support jour viillion deadweight tons. Our 
volume increase is already rising rapidly. 

In 1939. the domestic coastwise and intercoastal routes 
each supported roughly one million three hundred thou- 
sand deadweight tons. Even with the best of conditions 
traffic-wise and rate-wise, optimistic estimates are that 
these trades could currently support a maximum of one 
million tons each. In the non-contiguous trades, the 1939 
figure of slightly over four hundred thousand tons is 
expected to be increased to a little over a half-million 
tons. Whether there will be a realization of a merchant 
marine of a size envisioned by the Maritime Commis- 
sion's Postwar Planning Committee, remains to be seen. 
In any event, the industry finds itself at this time with at 
least the basic ingredients for success — modern fleets and 
trained personnel. But there are other factors. The enor- 
mously increased population of the West, with a conse- 
quent increase in the shuttling of freight and passengers; 
the industrial expansion of the West; the apparently in- 
creased attention to shipping problems by government 
agencies. 

Notwithstanding the governmental and public interest 
in a wartime merchant marine, there is too little realiza- 
tion of the peacetime functions of shipping, and what a 
strategic part it plays in the every-day life of our nation. 

The announced intention of Congress, which has been 
repeatedly stated in successive merchant marine acts, is 
that there shall be fostered and encouraged, a privately 
owned merchant marine in domestic and foreign com- 
merce, adequate for carrying a proper share of the com- 
merce of this nation. 

Shipping's big job is to stimulate widespread interest, 
and to improve public knowledge of our stake in a first- 
class merchant marine. The objective is to make our 
national merchant marine policy a statement of fact, 
rather than a mere statement for the records. 



Page 46 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Transpacific Shipping 
Dn Estimate 

By THOMAS E. CUFFE. 

vice president and general manager, Pacific Far East Line. Inc. 



THE CURRENT AND FUTURE PICTURE of trans- 
pacific shipping generally is favorable. It appears, 
however, that until the return of normal trade conditions 
— still some time in the future — the interim period will 
be spasmodic and marked by occasional slumps. 

As well as can be judged today, transpacific shipping 
will be excellent when normalcy returns. The reconstruc- 
tion programs for both China and the Philippines 
scarcely have been started. There is a very great backlog 
to be met for materials of all kinds — rebuilding old in- 
dustries and construction of new ones; new docks, ter- 
minals, warehouses, and transportation facilities, includ- 
ing railroads and trucks. 

The immediate outbound shipping picture is satis- 
factory, with a relatively heavy movement of all types of 
commodities. Qualifying this is the periodic congested 
terminal situation in many major Oriental ports. Accord- 
ing to latest advices from the Philippines, Manila wiU 
again be congested with the arrival there of vessels now 
en route. Cause of the congestion is lack of terminal and 
shoreside facilities. No permanent relief can be expected 
until these facilities are provided. 

Homebound cargoes from the Orient are scarce and, 
with the exception of copra, are not in any volume. An 
improvement is hard to forecast because it is contingent 
on so many political and economic factors in the Far East. 

Present indications point to very keen competition 
between steamship lines, foreign as well as American. 
The prewar list of transpacific companies has been 
augmented by many newcomers so that the gap left by 
the elimination of Japanese shipping is being well filled. 

Pacific Far East Line's part in transpacific shipping 
at present embraces the operation of a fleet of twenty- 
four vessels in a regular California-Orient service, in- 
cluding nine fully refrigerated vessels. This fleet provides 
frequent service with rapid transit time. 

JANUARY • 1947 




Future plans also include operation of five C-2 vessels 
recently purchased — the Midnight, Sirocco, Tyrell, Star, 
and Towner, as well as purchase of at least three of the 
fully refrigerated vessels currently under charter. The 
Midnight went into service mid-December. She will be 
followed by the Sirocco mid-Januar)' and the otliers as 
their reconversion is completed. These ships are full 
scantling type, 10,800 deadweight tons, 15!/2 knots, with 
deep tank facilities and refrigeration space. The regular 
berth service and refrigerator schedule will be augmented 
with calls at North China and outports throughout the 
Far East, handling largely bulk cargoes. 

Granted that shipping prospects may not be overly 
optimistic for the immediate future, we are confident 
nevertheless that over the long range the handicaps to 
expanded trade will be overcome and that shipping in 
the Pacific will play a dominant part in world economy. 

Page 47 



Hew Ships for the Pacific 
Hnd ^Round-the-IUorid 



Ea 



By EUGENE F. HOFFMAN, Director of Public Relations, American President Lines 




' u g e n e F. Hoffman 



ALMOST DAILY WE ARE BOMBARDED with such 
question as, "What will your new transpacific liners 
be like?" "How will they compare with the late luxury 
liners President Hoover and President Coolidge?" "What 
about your Round- World cruise ships?" "Will you oper- 
ate the same type of equipment and over the same route 
as prewar?" 

Insofar as American President Lines is concerned its 
two main trade routes — transpacific and Round-the- 
World — will be serviced by a fleet of fine new luxury 
liners and combination passenger-cargo ships which, 
from the standpoint of passenger comforts and safety and 
modern cargo facilities, will be second to no ships in 
the world. 

To quote the designers of these vessels, "There may 
be bigger ships afloat, but certainly none finer or more 
modern. The new President liners represent the epitome 
of present-day knowledge in the shipbuilding crafts. 
They combine engineering skill and efficiency with all 
the luxuries of ocean-going transportation." 

Rapidly nearing completion at Bethlehem Shipyards, 
Alameda, California, are the two largest commercial ships 
ever constructed on the Pacific Coast. They are the SS 
President Cleveland and the SS President Wilson, or- 
dered by the Maritime Commission specially for Ameri- 
can President Lines' transpacific service. 



Page 48 



Launched June 23, last, the President Cleveland is 
currently scheduled for delivery April of next year. The 
President Wilson was launched November 24, and is 
tentatively scheduled for delivery July 1, 1947. 

Combining the latest design in passenger accommo- 
dations with the most modern machinery and equipment 
obtainable, these two 22,900-ton luxury liners will each 
carry 552 cabin and tourist passengers and a crew of 338, 
in addition to mail, refrigerator and express-package 
cargo. 

The ships are 610 feet in length and 75 feet wide. 
Their 20,000 horsepower turbo-electric motors will pro- 
pel them at a maximum speed of 21 knots. 

Both vessels were originally laid down as Navy P-2 
type troop transports, but with war's end, the Maritime 
Commission ordered them constructed according to 
American President Lines' specifications for the latter's 
fast-growing transpacific passenger and express-cargo 
trade. 

The Presidents Cleveland and Wilson will boast two 
swimming pools — one each for cabin and tourist passen- 
gers — libraries, sound motion picture facilities, massage 
rooms, barber and beauty shops and gymnasium. All 
cabins and public rooms will be air conditioned. There 
will even be steam-heated kennels for dogs and other pets. 

These new luxury liners will ply between the Cali- 
fornia ports of Los Angeles and San Francisco and Manila 
via Honolulu, Japanese ports (when opened), Shanghai 
and Hong Kong. 

In the meantime American President Lines is meet- 
ing the heavy demands of postwar emergency trade and 
travel with a fleet of ships chartered from the United 
States Government plus two vessels of its prewar fleet 
which were turned back by the Navy, and six new C-3 
type freighters recently built for the President Lines by 
the U. S. Maritime Commission. These latter are modern 
17-knot cargo ships with luxurious stateroom accommo- 
dations for a maximum of 12 passengers. They operate 
transpacific. 

Principal transpacific passenger carriers in the Com- 
pany's emergency or interim fleet are the SSs General M. 
C. Meigs and General W. H. Gordon, former Navy 
troop transports which were given limited conversion to 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



accommodate 1500 commercial passengers each, and the 
SS Marine Lynx, a C-4 t)'pe troop transport converted 
to accommodate 1000 passengers. 

In the Round-World service are the newly converted 
passenger liners. President Polk and President Monroe, 
each with luxurious accommodations for 97 passengers. 
Nine other ships temporarily scheduled in the Round- 
World fleet are all C-4 type freighters, with the usual 
commodious quarters for a limited number of passengers. 

As soon as the President Cleveland is available for 
service next spring, one of the "General" ships will be 
placed in dry dock and given a complete reconversion 
job that will qualify her to serve as part of President 
Lines' permanent trans-Pacific passenger fleet. Later, when 
the President Wilson enters service (mid 1947 > the 
other "General" will be given similar total reconversion. 
Thus, eventually American President Lines will have a 
well-balanced fleet of four large de luxe passenger liners 
in fast trans-Pacific service, providing total recommenda- 
tions for more than 2200 passengers. 

The Company's popular Round-World service is being 
resumed with two virtually new passenger liners — the 
afore-mentioned President Polk and President Monroe — 
plus the nine freighters with limited passenger accom- 
modations. The President Polk is so new that it is only 
now completing its Maiden 'Voyage, commenced Decem- 
ber 7, 1941, and then halted by the Japanese attack on 
Pearl Harbor. After a tour of war duty, the Polk was 
reconverted to commercial use, then sailed again ( from 
San Francisco August 21, 1946) to conclude the Maiden 
Voyage started nearly five years before. 

A sistership, the President Monroe, likewise, after a 
tour of duty as a Navy combat trooper, was given a com- 



plete restoration to commercial use and is now being 
readied to take her place in the Round- World schedule. 

These ships are 492 feet over-all, 70 foot beam, and 
have a cruising speed of 17 knots. They displace 16,716 
tons and gross 9,260 tons. Although just prior to the 
war seven such vessels were designed and built especially 
for American President Lines' Round-World service, it 
is now indicated that somewhat larger ships will be re- 
quired to meet adequately the expanding postwar de- 
mands of this popular global trade route, which has been 
certified as one of the essential American flag services. 

As a result of these observations the Maritime Com- 
mission and American President Lines are working on 
plans for an entirely new type of vessel for the Com- 
pany's new Round-World fleet. Technically known as 
the "V-2000" type, as distinguished from the C-3-P 
design, the proposed new globe-girdler will practically 
double the passenger accommodations of the Polk-Mon- 
roe type (189 as against 97;, and carry considerably 
more freight ( gross tonnage 1 1,250 against 9,260 ) . 

The new '"V-2000" would be 536 feet over-all, which 
is 44 feet longer than the Polk-Monroe type; 73 feet 
wide and maintains a cruising speed of 19 knots. Its 
deadweight would be 11,660 tons. This ship will be the 
last word in sea-going elegance and efficiency. 

If approved by the Maritime Commission a total of 
five such de luxe liners would be constructed to replace 
the interim C-4 freighters and operate in a seven-ship 
schedule with the Presidents Polk and Monroe. 

The Company's well-established itinerary westward 
Round-the- World, over which for almost a quarter of a 
century President liners have been calling at twenty- 
three fascinating ports in fourteen countries, will be 
(Please turn to page 154.1 



50 HPL Ships in 60 Days 



One of the largest peacetime 
steamship operations in Ameri- 
can maritime history was out- 
lined on December 20 by M. J. 
Buckley, vice president in charge 
of freight traffic for American 
President Lines. 

Calling attention to the Presi- 
dent Line schedule for December 
and January, Mr. Buckley point- 
ed out that a total of thirty-two 
Company vessels were on berth 
this month at Atlantic and West 
Coast ports destined for China 
and the Philippines, and that thus 
far eighteen sailings are sched- 
uled for January. 

He explained that this heavy 



schedule was not to be construed 
as a normal APL operation, but 
resulted from congestion caused 
by the maritime strike plus the 
unusually heavy demand overseas 
for American cargoes. 

"I do feel, however, " said Mr. 
Buckley, "that it is quite an 
achievement when our Company 
handles in stride an operation of 
this magnitude — more than fifty 
large off-shore vessels within a 
period of sixty days. 

"You don't have t o worry 
too much about your American 
Merchant Marine when one of its 
member units can turn in a per- 
formance like that. " 




M. J. Buckley 
ce President — Freight Traffic 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 49 




First Dollaradio station built at Mussel Rock 
in 1928. Communication was maintained be- 
tween this radio station and the S. S. Presi- 
dent Taft of the Dollar Steamship Line on its 
voyages across the Pacific. Also nightly con- 
tact was made with the Admiral Byrd expe- 
dition at Little America. 



Globe lUireless Station KTK 
Restores IDarine Service 




Close up view ot Mussel Kock Transmitting Statii 

Ltd., located 15 miles south of San Francisco. Hei 

powered transmitters used in trans.nacific comi 



of Globe Wireless 
are housed the high 



Paq 3 50 



j ' ALLING ALL SHIPS AT SEA— KTK, the Globe 

\J Wireless Marine Station at Mussel Rock, is back 
on the air with 24-hour service to all ships at sea." This 
message was cracked over the airlanes of the sea on 
December 7, 1946, the fifth anniversary of Pearl Harbor 
Day, and sent by Globe's President, R. Stanley Dollar. 

From the time Captain Robert Dollar first visualized 
a vast communications system linking all of his offices 
and ships at sea, until the transmitters were silenced 
on December 7, 1941, the log of Station KTK was filled 
with accounts of romance, adventure and stark tragedy 
on the high seas. 

As the five-year silence ends it is recalled that the 
operators on duty at KTK on that ill-fated Sunday morn- 
ing (December 7, 1941) heard what was probably the 
first overt act of the war, inasmuch as it occurred prior 
to the planes at Pearl Harbor. A frenzied call came from 
the Matson steamship Lurline, which had just sailed 
from Honolulu, saying it had intercepted this distress 
call from the freighter Cynthia Olson, "SSSS Am being 
attacked by submarine. " The astounded operators called 
the Navy immediately and placed the matter in their 
hands. 

A few minutes later the Globe Wireless marine station 
at Honolulu reported that Pearl Harbor was under attack 
and such on the scene observations as "planes overhead, 
ground shaking from bombs," etc., followed. 

Then came the important task of notifying all shif)S at 
sea of the attack and requesting them to place in opera- 
tion prearranged Navy Department plans. 

During that never-to-be-forgotten Sunday, the oper- 
ators at KTK listened to word by word accounts of the 
(Please turn tn page 152) 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Swedish motorships Boogabilla and Barranduna at CPR Pier A af Vancouver, B. C. represented 
on the Pacific Coast by General Stcarrship Corporation, Ltd. 

General Steamship- 
Fast Pace Set by Agency Lines^ 



By H. S. SCOTT. President, General Steamship Corp., Ltd. 




Harry S. Scott, 
General Steam- 
ship Corp., Ltd. 
president. 



THE PROGRAM OF THE GENERAL STEAMSHIP 
CORPORATION for the coming year wiU be di- 
rected toward the further re-establishment of the various 
lines which it represents on the Pacific Coast and will 
mark a continuance of reconversion to a peacetime com- 
mercial basis of operations, which is now well under 
way. Acquisition of tonnage to replace war losses suf- 
fered by most of our lines is proceeding satisfactorily. 

During 1946, we have welcomed the return of the 
French Line to the Pacific Coast, and in 1947 this com- 
pany will be able to give a service with frequency of 
sailings comparable to prewar. This will be maintained 
primarily with Liberty- ships which have been purchased 
from the American Government and which, in turn, will 
be replaced by rapid and more up-to-date vessels now 
contracted for in French and other European yards. 

In the South American trade, the Westfal-Larsen Com- 
pany Line, which suffered heavily from the war casual- 
ties, will be back in operation on a normal basis. This 
has been made possible through the acquisition of a 
i Please turn to page 15-4i 



JANUARY • 1947 



51 



Ulitb the Oaval Hrchitects 
& marine Engineers 



THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY of 
Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, held Novem- 
ber 14 and 15, 1946, at New York, brought out eight 
very interesting papers. Two of these papers treated 
marine engineering subjects, two were general, four were 
on naval architecture. Of the eleven authors, seven are 
in design and research, three are in executive engineer- 
ing positions and one is a retired U. S. Coast Guard 
Engineer-in-Chief. 

A brief summary of each paper is presented herewith. 

Design of Stacks to minimize Smoke Huisance 

By Robert W. Nolan 

The author is in the Engineering Technical Division 
of Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company 
and bases his paper on research carried out on ship 
models and stack models in a wind tunnel. Models of 
such ships as USS America, Talamanca, and California 
were used as well as some models of proposed new ships. 

The smoke problem is a comparatively recent problem 
due to the use by designers of large low stacks for stream- 
lined appearance. The old thin tall natural draft stacks 
lifted the smoke sufficiently to avoid any smoke nuisance 
on deck or in quarters. 



This research led the author to conclude: that forming 
an annulus between inner and outer stacks so aS'-.io pro- 
duce a high velocity air jet surrounding the smoke is very 
beneficial; that the ratio smoke velocity divided by wind 
velocity should always be above unity and preferably 
much higher; that the ratio of stack height to height of 
fidley should approximate 1.75; that the top of stack 
should be designed to keep the diameter "as small as 
possible and reduce the unused area" to a minimum; and 
finally that "complete elimination of all smoke nuisance 
at all times is probably impossible with stack heights that 
would be acceptable to the public." 

The paper and the further research into this subject 
promised by the author should be of great interest to 
designing naval architects. 

Turning and Course Keeping Qualities 

By Dr. Kenneth S. Ai. Davidson and 
Dr. Leonard M. Schiff 

These authors are respectively: Professor of Mechani- 
cal Engineering and Director of Towing Tank, Stevens 
Institute, Hoboken, New Jersey, and Associate Professor 
of Physics, University of Pennsylvania. The paper is in 











STACK CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL VESSELS 












































Smoke 


















Number 


Fidley 


Stack 










velocity 


















of stacks 


height 


height 


Stack 








-h wind 












Length 




Approx. 






above 


above 


height 






Smoke 


veloc- 








Horse- 


Gross 


b.p 


Speed, 


outer slack 




ac- 


water. 


water. 


above 


Ratio 


Ratio 


velocity 


ity."' 


tern 


Ship 


Date 


power 


tons 


(i), ft 


knots 


section, ft 


total 


tive 


*/ 


Its 


fidley 


hsIL 


hsjhf 


(5). fps 


SIW 


1 


Deutscbla nd 
Mongolia 


1900 
1904 


30,000 
10,000 


16,500 
13,600 


063 
600 


23.5 
16 




4 
1 


4 

1 


39 
42 


84 
94 


45 
52 


0.127 
0.157 


2.15 
2.24 


12.3 


OA-, 


ll!75X i5!25 


3 


Lusiiania 


1907 


70,000 


30,800 


760 


25.5 


16.6 X23.6 


4 


4 


53 


117 


64 


0.154 


2.21 


9.3 


0.22 


4 
5 


Imperator 

Aquitania 


1912 
1914 


62,000 
56.000 


52,200 
45,600 


884 
869 


22 
23.5 




3 

4 


2 

4 


80 
66 


150 
126 


71) 
60 


0.170 
0.145 


1.88 
1.91 


S.l 


o!20 


17'.5 "X24" 


6 


California 


1928 


17.000 


20,200 


575 


18 


19 X24 




1 


57 


98 


41 


0.170 


1.72 


7.4 


Cl.24 


7 


Europe 


1928 


90,000 


49,700 


890 


26.25 


20 X47.5 


2 




85 


114 


29 


0.128 


1.34 


11.2 


0.25 


S 


Talamanca 


1931 


11,000 


7,000 


415 


17.5 


12 X 17 


T 


1 


37 


79 


42 


0.191 


2.13 


10.5 


0.35 


9 


Lurline 


1932 


22,000 


18,(X)0 


COS 


20.5 


17.5 X25.5 






62 


102 


40 


0.169 


1.64 


8.7 


0.25 


10 


Queen Mary 


1936 


200,000 


81,200 


975 


30 


20 X35 


3 


3 


86 


142 


56 


0.146 


1.1,5 


17.3 


0.34 


11 
12 


President Mon- 
roe (C-3 type 


1940 


34,000 


26,500 


664 


22.75 


20.5 X42 




1 


65 


113 


48 


0.170 


1.74 


28. G 


0.74 




ship) 


1940 


.S,.'WO 


9,300 


405 


10.5 


l.^i X 35 


1 


1 


49 


76 


27 


0. 163 


1..55 


13.4 


0.4S 


13 


Liberty ships 


1941 


2,000 


7,200 


417 


11.5 


X 1 1 


1 


1 


33 


53 


20 


0.127 


1.60 


15.6 


0.8<} 


14 


"Victory ships 


1943 


6,000 


7.000 


437 


15.5 


9.S3X 12 


1 


1 


34 


(i2 


28 


0.142 


1.82 


15.4 


0.59 


» Assuming wind vvlocily 11' to be equal to 


ship speed 


n feet per second. 






















Pac 


e52 


















PACIFIC MARINE 


REVIEW 




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le 

16 














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/ 






















/ 














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■f '" 

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° 8 












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Boi::;:::^ 


1 Tanker (D) 




£ 6 
A 





















/^ 


-^ 


S==^^ 




































r- 1 




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2 










^ 




, , : Destroyer (FJ j 

1 ! ; i 







of obseryations and calculations of entry to 
steady turn. 



Oislance Run. s - Lengths ■ 

Change of heading vs. distance run, in lengths, to 
types of ships. Initial disturbance equals I' yaw, 
angular velocity. 



three parts: ( \) Broad Considerations Applicable to 
Free Bodies in General, ( 2 ) Seagoing Ships, ( 3 ) A 
Formal Analysis. 

Turning ability has a well recognized index — the nu- 
merical ratio (D e) min. between the minimum turning 
diameter with rudders hard over in quiet fluid, and the 
length of the body. Ease of steering has no similar 
numerical index recognized by the profession. The 
authors work out such an index for dynamic stability 
and propose its use in theoretical design. This index p, 
is negative for dynamic stabilit)' and positive for dynamic 
unstability. For seagoing ships of average size this index 
should be in the range of -0.3 to -0.4 and the range of 
-0.15 to -0.6 would cover the normal range of sizes of 
seagoing craft. The negative value of p may be less for 
the larger ships and generally must increase for smaller 
size vessels. For any vessel the curves of total moment 
with rudder amidships have a marked correspondence 
with p. If these curves at origin have a positive slope 
then p will be positive (unstable) and the vessel un- 
satisfactory from the steering viewpoint. 

This paper is essentially a second progress report on a 
broad program of research sponsored by the U. S. Navy 
and carried on at the Stevens Institute Experimental 
Towing Tank. While the results are still largely mathe- 
matical, this research promises some very interesting 
practical results in design. 

German lilartime Technical Developments 

By Commodore Henry A. Schade. U.S.N. 

Commodore Schade is the director of the Naval Re- 
search Laboratory at Washington, D. C, and this paper 



is a "synthesis of information contained" in the report of 
the U. S. Naval Technical Mission in Europe. Design fea- 
tures and construction of submarines and surface vessels 
for the German Navy, turbines and gears, diesel engines, 
and the Hamburg Model Basin are the general subjects 
covered. 

Of turbines the author states, "As compared with 
American machinery, the following statements seem well 
substantiated; 

( 1 ) Overall fuel consumption rates are higher. 

(2) Turbine heat and steam rates are higher. 
( 3 ) Reduction gear efficiencies are poorer. 
(4) Weights per unit output are greater. 

( 5 ) Space requirements per unit output are greater. 

(6) Accessibility is far poorer. 

(7) Reliabilit}' is probably poorer. 

(8) Difficulty of production is greater. 

(9) Large scale production is definitely more diffi- 
cult." 

Notwithstanding these adverse comparisons the author 
believes that the Walter submarine turbine plant de- 
signed to run on CO^ and water vapor, can "equal or 
exceed anything produced in this country so far for 
powering a ship." The 2500 hp unit used in the sub- 
marine t)'pe XVII is a 14 stage single flow reaction rotor 
turning 14,000 rpm with a first orthodox helical gear 
reduction to 3770 rpm and a further planetary gear re- 
duction to 580 rpm. This gear weighs 0.83 lbs per shp 
as compared with approximately 5.5 lbs shp for our most 
comparable unit. The nozzle operating fluid condition 
is 412 psi and 1022° F total temperature, with 7 lbs 
gage exhaust pressure. Those who are interested can get 
full details of the facts found in Europe by the Navy 
Technical Commission through the Publications Board 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 53 



(John Green) Department of Commerce, Washington, 
D. C. 

A survey of the work of the Hamburg Model Basin 
doses with this rather sad paragraph: 

"With the occupation of Hamburg by British troops 
in May, 1945, the activities of the Hamburg Model Basin 
came to an end. German personnel were evicted and the 
two cavitation tunnels were dismantled and shipped to 
England. In the latter months of 1945, the model basin 
walls were blasted and the tanks were filled with brick 
and stone rubble from the littered streets of Hamburg." 

HIternating Current for Huxiliaries 
On merchant Vessels 

By BenjiJDiin Fox and Hurry C. Coleman 

The authors of this paper are respectively: Superin- 
tendent, Engineering and Design, Central Technical 
Dept., Bethlehem Steel Company. Shipbuilding Division; 
and Manager, Marine and Aviation Division, Westing- 
house Electric Corporation. 

A very interesting comparative analysis of the electric 



auxiliary plants in ships which leads to these conclusions. 
Alternating-current drives have been applied success- 
fully to practically all important marine auxiliaries. The 
outstanding exception is the cargo winch. For this serv- 
ice the application of alternating current is now under 
intensive development but, until satisfactory test and 
service experience is available, direct current drives will 
be practically universal. 

The principal considerations that should govern the 
selection of alternating curent or direct current for mer- 
chant vessels are: 

( 1 ) When the total electrical capacity required is 
quite smaU, and particularly when there are only a few 
small motors, the direct current system will be preferred 
for simplicity and low cost. 

( 2 ) For larger plants, the alternating curent system 
offers important advantages which increase rapidly with 
the capacity of the plant and the number and rating of 
the motors. 

( 3 ) Maximum advantage is obtained, in these larger 
plants, when substantially all the equipment is alternat- 
ing current. This of course does not preclude the use 
of direct current, by motor-generator set, for minor serv- 



Table 1. — Ships with Alternating-Current Auxiliaries 



( Other than Navy and Coast Guard ) 



Item Total 

No. number Name or class Year 

1 1 Chestnut Hill 1918 

2 4 LaBrea 1919 

3 2 Daniel Webster 1919 

4 A J.L. Luckenbach 1923 

5 1 T. U". Robinson 1925 



6 1 Carl D. Bradley 192 7 

7 2 City of Saginaw 1929 



8 4 Seatrain Havana 1932 

9 1 Wuppertal Ham- 1937 

burg American) 



10 1 Patria (Hamburg- 1938 

South American) 



Type 
Tanker 
Tanker 
Cargo 
Cargo 
Bulk cargo 



Bulk cargo 
Car ferry 



Car ferry 
Cargo 



Passenger- 
cargo 



Displace- 
ment, 
tons 

10,800 

n.ooo 

11.953 
About 
18,000 

24,000 



9 ;. ir. Van Dyke 193.S Tanker 



12 36 C/'warron-Platte 1939 

13 488 M. C. class T2-SE- 1942- 

Al 1945 

14 44 M. C. class T2-SE- 1942- 

A2 1945 

15 10 M. C. class P2-SE2- 1944 

Rl 

16 64 M. C. class S4-SE2- 1944 

BEl and BDl 



Tanker 
Tanker 



Tanker 



SHP 

(single or 
twin) 
2400 S 

3000 S 
5000 T 
3000 S 



Type 
propulsion 
Geared-turbine 
Geared-turbine 
Geared-turbine 
Geared-turbine 
Turbine a-c 
electric 



16,460 

498 ft 

long 



4200 S Turbine a-c 
electric 

"200 T Turbine a-c 
electric 

8000 S Geared-turbine 
6800 S Diesel a-c 
electric 



20,100 1 5,000 S Diesel a-c 
electric 



23 900 



5000 S Turbine a-c 
electric 



24,800 13,500 T Geared-turbine 
21,880 6600 S Turbine a-c 
electric 



21.880 



9900 S Turbine a-c 
electric 



8 troopships 22.5~5 18,000 T Turbine a-c 
2 passenger electric 

vessels 
Troopships 6,900 6600 T Turbine a-c 
electric 



Auxiliary generators 



No. and rating 
2— 100kva230va-c 
2—200 kw a-c 
2— 100 kw 230 V a-c 
2— 250 kw 220 V a-c 
1— 250kw 120/240 V 

d-c 
1 — 120/240 V d-c 
1— 250 kw 120/240 V 

d-c 
1— 520kva220va-c 
120/240 V d-c 



2 — 250 kva 240 v a-c 

380 V a-c 

2— I20kw 

3 — a-c/d-c M-G sets 

2— a-c/d-c light M-G 

sets 
380 V a-c 
2—150 kw 
3 — a-c/d-c M-G sets 
2 — 350 kw 440 v a-c 
20 kw 120 V d-c 

2 — 400 kw 230 V a-c 
2 — 400 kw 450 v a-c 
"5 or UOkw 120 V d-c 
Tandem 

2 — 400 kw 450 V a-c 
75 kw 120 V d-c 
Tandem 

4—500 kw 450 v a-c 
200 kw 240 V d-c 
Tandem 

2— 250 kw 450 V a-c 
2— lOOkw 120/240 V 
d-c 



Drive 
Geared-turbine 
Geared-turbine 
Geared-turbine 
Geared-turbine 
Synchronous 

motors 
Geared-turbine 
Synchronous 

motor and 

turbine 
Synchronous 

motor and 

turbine 
Geared-turbine 
Diesel 

Motor 
Motor 

Diesel 

Motor 
Synchronous 

motor and 

turbine 
Geared-turbine 
Geared-turbine 



Geared-turbine 



Geared-turbine 



Geared-turbine 
Geared-turbine 



Page 54 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



ices of small capacity where the special characteristics of 
direct current are vital. 

(4) For ships having cargo winches, it is necessary, 
for the present, to provide direct current generators. 
When the total winch load is a major fraction of the 
capacity of the electric plant, the whole system should 
be direct current, for simplicity and low cost. When 
this winch load is a small fraction of the total electric 
plant, as on passenger-cargo vessels, it usually will be 
advantageous to provide a combination system in which 
direct current is supplied to the winches and other 
selected applications and alternating current to the re- 
mainder of the equipment; and the advantage will in- 
crease rapidly as the total capacity of the electric plant 
increases. 

The field for application of alternating current systems 
will be extended greatly if and when satisfactory alter- 
nating current winch drives are available. 

Development of Propulsion Turbines 
For Combatant Ships 

By G. B. Warren 

A designing engineer, of the Turbine-Generator En- 
gineering Division, General Electric Co. Mr. Warren, 
since 1921, has been very actively engaged in the im- 
provement of steam turbines. He relates in this paper 
the development of marine propulsion steam turbines for 
the U. S. Navy, beginning with the first excursion of the 
Navy into higher pressure and temperature ranges and 
ending with the present Navy standard of 600 psi and 
825° F boiler drum gage. These turbine designs have 
become so standardized that 95 per cent of the U. S. 
Navy combatant ships produced in the past four years 

Fig. I. Reduction of bearing span and dimensions of the high- 
pressure turbine as compared to older turbine designs with 
single-reduction gearing. 



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i 








j 








Approx.SHP 900 1,800 5,000 11,600 24,000 52,000 



20 
Ship Speed in Knots 

Composite of fuel rate curves on DD-364 and DD-381 Cla 
AAA. and those on previous ships with single-reduction 
cross-compound turbines of older design, B6B. 



are served by turbines in only four ratings, i.e., 25,000, 
.iO,000, 37,500, and 53,000 shp per propeller shaft. A 
very high degree of standardization and interchangeability 
exists between the various parts of the two smaller 
ratings. 

One experimental plant of two cross-compound tur- 
bines operating at 1200 psi and 900° F boiler drum, 
installed on the old destroyer Dahlgren has had several 
years of successful operation and indicates that these , 
steam conditions are practicable for the Navy. All the 
operating functions and the details of design are covered 
in the paper. The author concludes: "It is quite possible 
that appreciable gains can be made in overall operating 
economy by even greater attention to the arrangement of 
auxiliaries" especially in the "split plant" where each 
boiler room and turbine room are isolated from each 




Page 55 




I-Corbon Moly Sieel 
D- Carbon Steel 



Comparisons between piping for different steam conditions. 

Cross-sections of steam piping for higher and lower steam 

conditions at the same overall power. 



Other but operate together. "Under these conditions at 
low propeller powers the steam turbine driven auxiliaries 
are operating very much under loaded and hence very 
inefficiently." This may indicate a greater use of electric 
drive at cruising speeds. Also "studies are being made 
as to a possible reduction in overall weight by increasing 
the condenser back pressure from 1 1 4 psi absolute to 2 
or 2V2 psi absolute." 

"The steam turbine power plant, together with its 
associated equipment, has been carried to a high degree 
of development in the equipment described in the preced- 
ing paragraphs. It is reliable, light in weight, economical, 
relatively easy to manufacture and probably more flexible 
in operation than any other power plant which has been 
developed. This does not mean that it has reached the 
end of its development. It still lacks much in simplicity, 
economy and lightness of weight. Progress being made 
in metallurgy and in competitive power plants will aid, 
stimulate and supplement the development of the steam 
power plant. It is difficult indeed to foresee all that the 
future may hold in its further evolution." 

Aspects of Large Passenger Liner Design 

By James L. Bates and Iran J. Wan/ess 

These authors are respectively: Director of the Tech- 
nical Division; and Chief of Preliminary Design, U. S. 
Maritime Commission. 



»r»-.0«V 


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n,,--.J,5S,.K 




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kVoVm 


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rd-ttl.O.cV 
H. »r.a HI Sq In 




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o.cv 3°'i)'._ti..„^.a' 



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The paper represents a tremendous amount of work 
and undoubtedly will be of considerable use to many 
naval architects. 

It compares the general characteristics, machinery, in- 
stallations, interior arrangement, structural design, sub- 
division, stability, crew accommodations, and many other 
details of four European vessels, two American vessels, 
and one proposed American design: the German liner, 
Europa; the French liner, Normandie; the Italian liners 
Rex and Conte di Savoia; American liners, Manhattan 
and America; and Maritime Commission proposed design 
P3-S2-DA1. One wonders why the Queens Mary and 
Elizabeth are omitted. 

The comparisons result in a vindication of the 




Profile of the Ameri 



Page 56 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



General Characteristics 



Year built 
Length overall 
Length bemeen perpen- 
diculars 
Beam molded 
Depth strength deck 
Depth bulkhead deck 
Draft molded 
Displacement, tons 
Designed speed 
Designed shp 
No. of passengers, 

First 

Second 

Tourist 

Third 

Total 
Cubic capacity for cargo, 

cu ft 



Europa 

1930 
936'-9" 

888'-2" 
lOI'-S!/^" 
79' -4 34" 
45'-7i/4" 

33'-6" 

55,500 
27 

105,000 

800 
500 
200 
600 
2100 

35,880 



Manhattan Conte di Savoia 
1932 1932 
705'-3" 814'-8" 



666'-0" 
86'-0" 
75'-0" 
47'.0" 
30'-6" 
33,250 

20 
30,000 

567 



461 

196 

1224 



778'-9" 

95'9" 

79'- 1 01/2" 

45 '-I'/^" 

30'-6" 

40,000 

2614 

100,000 

500 
366 

412 

922 

2200 

"2,000 



Rex 

1932 
880'-0" 

817'.3" 
96'-9" 
79'-9" 

43'- 11" 

33'-0" 

45 800 

27 

120,000 

408 
358 
410 
866 
2042 

106,700 



NormauJie 

1935 

1029'-4" 

962'-0" 
117'-9" 
91'-10" 
■iA'-lYs" 

36'-7" 
68,350 

291/2 
160,000 

864 



654 

454 
1972 

133,300 



A merica 

1940 
723'-0" 

660'-63/4" 
93'-3" 
73'-5" 

45'-5i/2" 
32'-6" 
35.440 

22 
34,000 

543 



418 
241 
1202 

300,000 



P3S2-DA1 
projected 

1949 
731'-6" 

67r-0" 
70'-6" 
56'-6" 
38'-6" 
29'-6" 
23,500 

27 
60,500 

470 



80 
550 



thesis that American standards of construction and equip- 
ment have resulted in the safest ships afloat. "Because 
of this, it is our hope that the basic facts contained herein 
will receive sufficient publicity so that all of th'e traveling 
public is informed of the conditions as they have existed, 
with particular emphasis on the defects where construc- 
tion has not been in accordance with the practices advo- 



cated herein. Finally, we believe that improvements 
dealing with increased safety should be regulated on an 
international basis so that not only those traveling on 
American vessels have the benefits of safe transport but 
that operators will be permitted to reduce expenses by 
recognition, through the insurance societies, of the value 
of the safeguards involved." 



Machinery Data 



Shp 

No. shafts 

Main boilers 

Pressure, psi 

Temperature, deg F 
Auxiliary boilers 

Type 

Pressure, psi 
Generators 

Rating 

Type 
Emergency genera- 
tors 

Rating 
Circulators 

per condenser 

Fire pumps 



Total 
Flooding pumps 
Bilge 



Ballast 



Europa 
1930 

105 000 

4 

24 

330 

700 

None 



500 kw 
Diesel 



100 kw 
Steam engine 
35,000 gpm 

1 -motor driven 

880 gpm 

2 -steam 

880 gpm 

2640 

6-steara 

530 gpm 

2-submersible 

220 gpm 



2-steam 
11 00 gpm 



Manhattan 
1932 

30,000 

7 

6 

400 

670 

None 



500 kw 
Turbo. 



1 

75 kw 

Scoops 

18,000 gpm 

pumps 

2-motor driven 

400 gpm 

1 -steam 

400 gpm 

1200 

1 -motor driven 

500 gpm 
2-motor driven 

475 gpm 

1 -steam 

400 gpm 

2-motor driven 

i"5 gpm 



Conte di Savoia Normandie 

1932 1936 

100,000 160,000 

4 4 

10 29 

450 400 

725 • 662 

3 4 

Scotch Scotch 

180 sat. 145 sat. 

6 6 

850 k-w 2200 kw 

4-Turbo, 2-DieseI Turbo. 

2 2 

100 kw 150 kw 

Turbine Motor 

26,000 gpm 2-28,000 gpm 

2-motor driven 3-motor driven 

800 gpm 1200 gpm 



1600 



3600 



1 submersible 3-motor-driven 
600 gpm 1 200 gpm 

1 -submersible 

1200 gpm 



4-motor driven 2-motor driven 
1000 gpm 2000 gpm 



Total capacity 5820 

JANUARY • 1947 



4600 



1941 

34,000 
2 
6 

425 

725 
None 



600 kw 
Turbo. 

1 

150 kw 

Scoops 

18,000 gpm 

pumps 

2-motor 

driven 

500 gpm 

1 -steam 

500 gpm 

1500 

1 -submersible 
900 gpm 

1 -motor 

driven 
900 gpm 

2-steam 
450 gpm 

1 -motor 

driven 
300 gpm 

2-steam 

450 gpm 

3900 



P3-S2-DAI 

projected 

1949 

60,500 

2 

4 

850 

900 

None 



4 
1250 kw 
Turbo. 

1 
150kw 
Scoops 
29,000 gpm 
pumps 
-(-motor 
driven 
400 gpm 



1600 



-submersible 
1050 gpm 



.•) -motor 

driven 

1050 gpm 



5250 



Page 57 



H Pattern for Research in Daval Architecture 

By Commander E. A. Wright 

"This paper considers scientific research in the fields 
intimately related to naval architecture. The text develops 
around four principal points represented by the following 
key words: 



I. 


The Projects 


Basic 


II. 


The Procedure 


Systematic 


III. 


The Facilities 


Functional 


IV. 


The Personnel 


Scientific" 



Its author now at Charleston Naval Shipyard was for- 
merly Deputy Technical Director, Hydro-mechanics Di- 
vision, David W. Taylor Model Basin, Washington, D. C. 

In the United States basic research in naval architec- 
ture is "continually deferred" because the model basins 
equipped to make such research are kept busy on "con- 
ventional tests of immediate importance." Ship designers 
"as yet have no clear plan, no general organization for 
basic research." The demands of the future indicate that 
"merchant shipbuilding should take its place alongside 
of naval construction as a partner in basic research to 
keep our nation foremost on the seas." 

Europe just prior to World War II had nine model 
basin establishments "actively engaged in self-propelled 
tests on ship models"; Japan had 3; United States had 
one operated by the Navy. 

The author recommends the following projects: 

A. Extend cooperative research on plasticity in steel 
and strain in ship structures. 

B. Observe the dynamic loads imposed by Nature on 
ships at sea, and the response to these loads. 



C. Study the mechanics of boundary layers, gravity 
waves, and potential flow patterns around moving in a 
water surface and immediately below it. 

D. Intensify research on the resistance, propulsion, 
seagoing qualities, maneuverability, route stability, and 
control of high-speed surface and subsurface bodies. 

E. Investigate comprehensively propeller — excited vi- 
bration, and all possible forms of propulsion in water. 

F. Initiate basic research on cavitation, compression 
waves, bubbles and vorticity in water. 

Development of Ice Breaking Vessels 
For U. %. Coast Guard 

By Rear Admiral Harvey F. Johnson, U.S.C.G. 
(Retired) 

This is one of those monumental papers. It presents 
in very compact form the history of the development of 
the ice-breaking art and the fundamental ideas of hull 
design and power requirements for vessels devoted to 
that purpose. It was written (to use the words of the 
author) in the hope "that the material presented — will 
stimulate interest in the design of ice-breaking vessels, 
to the end that ice-breaking characteristics will be in- 
corporated, at least moderately, in certain vessels that 
operate in areas subject to ice, so that they may proceed 
unassisted when occasion demands." 

The text and the illustrations of this paper would fur- 
nish any competent naval architect with the basic ideas 
and fundamental data to fulfill this hope. The author 
was for many years Engineer-in-Chief of the U. S. Coast 
Guard. 



FLEET OF TUGBOATS CHURN THE WATERS OF NEW YORK HARBOR AS THEY BERTH THE QUEEN ELIZABETH, 
WORLD'S LARGEST PASSENGER LINER. 




Selection of 
marine Diesel Drives 



By SAUL BELILDVE, Enterprise Engine S. Foundry Company 



S J ELECTION OF SUITABLE DRIVE for sea -going 
f vessels demands consideration of the following char- 
acteristics: 

Reliability Required skill of operating personnel 

Fuel economy Variable torque conversion 

Overall initial cost Weight 

Maintenance cost Size 

Torsional vibrations Flexibility of installation 

Noise Maneuverability 

It is'unlikely that any two ship operators would rank 
the aforementioned factors in the same order. Even for 
a given type of operation, and where operations differ, 
other variables are encountered. 

First cost of machinery is important from an invest- 
ment standpoint, but plays an inferior role in operating 
costs. Fuel costs are far more important. Analysis of 
machinery operating cost, made for a tramp motorship, 
operating 250 days per year, is as follows: 

Per cent of 
total cost 

Fuel at sea 51 

Engine-room crew — food and wages 24 

Repairs 10 

Fuel in port 2 

Freight of machinery 4 

First cost 9 

Total 100 

Diesels are used because of their thermal efficiency 
which is the highest of any heat engine that we have 
yet developed. 

Also diesel unit efficiency remains fairly high for small 
as well as large engines. Thus, in competing with the 
steam engine in smaller size and smaller powered vessels, 
a simple compact diesel engine can be used. 



'Presented before the Northern California Section of the 
Society of Naval Architects & Marine Engineers, November 7, 
1946. 



Again diesels are used because their maintenance cost 
has been reasonable. Both maintenance costs and relia- 
bility have been improving consistently year after year. 
The fact is that the modern diesel engines are extremely 
reasonable in both these respects, and are improving. 

Direct Drive 

The predominant application of engines having large 
horsepower is the direct drive. Direct - drive engines, 
operating at low speeds, enjoy low specific fuel con- 
sumptions. These engines are reliable, quiet and have 
low maximum firing pressures and wear rates. The instal- 
lation is simple, straightforward, easy to inspect and easy 
to operate; and, the developments of diesel engine design 
over the past few years has affected considerably and 
favorably the use of engines connected directly to the 
propeller. 

Increase in allowable loading, accomplished by the 
turbo-charging of four-stroke diesels and more effective 
scavenging and supercharging of two-stroke cycle diesels, 
has increased the direct-connected engine's compeutive 
position. These advances have enabled engines identical 
in size to ones in previous use, to deliver more than pre- 
vious ratings. Since the speed does not increase, these 
greater horsepowers can be used without sacrificing pro- 
peller efficiency. 

However, the direct-drive engine is large in size (de- 
tracting from payload space and adversely influencing 
vessel design), heavy (detracting from payload displace- 
ment), expensive and cumbersome to install and main- 
tain. It is inflexible from the standpoint of adjustment 
to the various operating conditions of the vessel, and, in 
some instances, neither offers the necessarily wide speed 
range required nor the speed of maneuvering that is 
desired. 

Modern diesel engines have been improved to the 
point where they operate reliably at much higher speeds 
than did their ten-year-old brothers. Greater general 
design experience; greater precision in production; new 
and better functions for lubricating oils; new and better 
materials for valves, pistons and bearings; precision, local- 
ized hardening techniques; surface treatments of liners. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 59 



rings and pistons; better piston cooling — all these have 
contributed to this development. 

The Geared Drive 

The reduction gear drive has had only indifferent suc- 
cess in the long years since its inception. Although higher- 
speed engines can be used for geared applications, with 
a consequent reduction in weight and size and cost of 
the engine itself, the overall equipment may very well 
cost the same or more than the direct drive. Gears for 
heavy equipment of this kind, manufactured in small 
quantities, have been disproportionately costly. 

As engine speeds increase, noise and maximum cylin- 
der pressures become greater, and, despite improved 
design, wear increases, complexity increases, and over- 
all fuel consumption increases. With slow-speed engines 
and irregularity of power transmission, hammering of 
the gears can be expected. Mechanical, torsionally flexible 
couplings have been an inconsistent remedy. 

Diesel-electric Drive 

The other marine transmission in appreciable prewar 
use was the electric drive, using direct current. With this 
type of drive two or more engine generating units are 
electrically connected to one or more propulsion motors, 
which are either directly, or through gears, coupled to 
the propeller. The diesel generating units can be in- 
stalled at any convenient point, and the propulsion motors 
can be located in the after-hold, thus requiring only a 
minimum amount of shafting. This flexibility of ma- 
chinery arrangement. allows more emphasis to be given to 
hull efficiency considerations. 

Electricity is a flexible medium; thus, diesels generat- 
ing,electricity open up possibilities for using their power 
for purposes other than propulsion. One possibility is 
auxiliary service during vessel operation at sea. Another 
is its use for operating cargo-handling machinery in port. 

Direct-current electrical drive can, from the standpoint 
of operating performance and flexibility, out-perform all 
other types of marine equipment. Reversing and a com- 
plete range of operating speeds from zero to maximum 
are accomplished electrically, allowing very rapid and 
smooth action. 

In marine propulsion, as the propeller speed decreases, 
the load on the engine decreases as the square of the 
speed. For example, at a propeller speed one-half of full 
speed the load on the engine is only one-quarter of full 
load; and, the specific fuel consumption has increased 
appreciably. Therefore a single, direct-drive diesel will 
operate unfavorably for an appreciable proportion of the 
time. With multiple power plants, either geared or elec- 
tric, a portion of the plant may be shut down during low 
power periods allowing the remainder to deliver the 
requirements at a relatively high load factor. 

Also \\ nil electrical direct-current drive the maximum 
power I • he supplied for several different conditions of 
operatit 



Direct-current electric drive, like the geared drive, has 
the advantages that the equipment is smaller and lighter 
than the direct drive; can be serviced and installed more 
conveniently and economically; and can offer greater 
reliability, the vessel being able to continue operation 
even when one engine is forced out of commission. 

The applications where these advantages are important 
are not so extensive and the advantages themselves are 
counterbalanced by serious disadvantages. 

Direct-current diesel-electric equipment costs close to 
50 per cent above the cost of direct or geared drives. 

There is a loss of approximately 15 per cent in the 
electrical equipment, a major factor in comparing fuel 
costs. Electrical equipment is large in size and requires 
special techniques for operation, maintenance, and repair. 
Controls are extensive and complicated. 

Direct-current generating units operate at moderate 
speeds ( 500-850 revolutions per minute ) , so that diesel- 
electric plants require more room than a geared diesel 
plant. 

There is increased noise, maximum firing pressures and 
wear. 

Direct -current diesel-electric propulsion equipment 
cannot be used for shipboard auxiliary purposes, because 
it operates on a variable voltage. 

New Developments 

The aforementioned types constitute the present basic 
diesel marine drive. Direct-drive units are far and away 
the most popular. Engine manufacturers have learned to 
build praiseworthy reliability into their equipment, and, 
as a result, there are actually many makes of diesels, of 
various horsepower ranges, which can offer continuous, 
reliable, close-to-full-load operation for many days or 
weeks at a time without respite. With this dependability 
available, and with the excellent fuel economy of direct- 
drive units, their continued popularity is understandable. 
However, new developments are bound to exert pressure 
from the standpoint of less weight, less space, greater 
overall vessel reliability, and, possibly, less initial cost. 

Alternating Current 

One promising new development is the use of alter- 
nating current rather than direct current. It is lighter, 
cheaper, can be run faster and is much more rugged and 
cheaper to maintain than direct-current equipment. Its 
efficiency, however, is not much better than direct-current 
and in maneuverability characteristics it is complicated, 
slow, and in general, is not even as good as the direct- 
reversible diesel. Also, it is inflexible from the stand- 
point of supplying maximum power for various operating 
conditions, and it cannot vary its torque conversion prop- 
erties at all. This means that it acts identically as a fixed 
ratio reduction gear and, where hull resistance changes, 
the machinery cannot change to suit. 

Alternating-current equipment, however, can be useful 



Page 60 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



in multiple generating sets for large powers, in cases 
where maneuverability and variable torque conversion is 
not important, and where the overall vessel requirements 
preclude mechanical coupling of the engines to the pro- 
peller. It also can offer large amounts of power in port, 
without the necessity of special or extra-sized auxiliary 
units for that purpose alone. However, since the main 
propulsion equipment is operating on variable frequency 
its electrical power is not suitable for auxiliary purposes 
at sea, except for limited periods and particular appli- 
cations; but one or two of the main generating units 
could be operated on constant frequency as auxiliary 
units, thereby effecting a uniformity of major power 
units on the vessel. 

The Bowes Drive 

A highly interesting variant of the alternating-current, 
variable-frequency drive, now attracting attention, is the 
Bowes Drive, an ingenious electrical device which effec- 
tively combines an alternator and a synchronous motor 
into one piece of equipment. There are three major ele- 
ments composing the equipment: (1) an engine element 
with field winding, attached to the engine crankshaft and 
rotating with it, ( 2 ) a doughnut-shaped secondar)' ele- 
ment outside of the engine element, with windings on 
both the inner and outer circumferences and mounted on 
either the propeller or the pinion shaft, and ( .t ) a sta- 
tionary element, concentric with the other rotating pieces 
and outside them, with field windings on its inner circum- 
ference. 

The advantage of this drive is that it transmits a great 
deal of its torque by reaction exactly as does the electrical 
coupling. The balance is transmitted electrically just as 
any alternator-synchronous motor combination. Because 
some of the power (depending on the gear ratio) is 
transmitted by reaction, the efficiency is high and actually 
can be higher than 95 per cent. Also, there is available 
a design for electrical reversing. 

The advantages claimed are: (1) a disconnectable 
coupling, ( 2 ) speed reduction from engine to propeller 
shaft, (3) elimination of torsional vibrations, (4) elec- 
trical reversing, ( 5 ) electrical power available at the dock 
by braking the propeller shaft, and ( 6 ) electrical power 
at sea under certain conditions. 

It has, of course, the operating disadvantages of alter- 
nating current — no variable torque conversion, and slow 
electrical maneuvering operation. However, as a single 
engine, moderate ratio, electrical reduction gear, it is far 
better than anything else available. For this function, and 
perhaps with the use of a rectifying unit to obtain a 
useful auxiliary voltage, it will have applications .and 
should be watched. 

The Controllable Pitch Propeller 

A further new development which will find popularity 
for some applications, particularly as a competitor for 
the variable torque conversion features of the direct 



current electric drive, is the controllable pitch propeller. 
A large number of patrol vessels, built during this past 
war, were equipped with controllable pitch propellers, 
driven by radial diesel engines, mounted with crank- 
shafts vertical, through a right-angle gear drive. 
Advantages are: 

1. Variable torque conversion without loss of effi- 
ciency. 

2. Reversibilit)', smoothly and speedily, eliminating 
the need for the engine reversing mechanism. 

3. Smooth speed regulation from full speed to zero. 

4. Better adjustment of the engine load factor for all 
operating conditions. 

Hydraulic Drive 

One of the most promising power transmission me- 
diums of the future is the hydraulic equipment of the 
rotary, pump-and-motor combination type. This hydrau- 
lic equipment can compete closely in efficiency, weight 
and size with electrical equipment; has as good, if not 
better, torque conversion and maneuvering properties; 
and has the additional attractiveness of being completely 
mechanical. In cost, too, it should be competitive with 
marine electrical equipment, particularly since its con- 
trols are very simple. 

War Developments in Geared Diesels 

Even before the war, the problem of gear pounding 
was brought under control successfully by importations 
from Europe — electric and hydraulic couplings. A large 
number of ships have been built in the United States 
with this equipment during the war. The coupling, 
either electric or hydraulic, is installed between the engine ' 
and the gear and isolates engine speed pulsations from 
the reduction gear, thus allowing smooth transmission of 
power; serves as a disconnecting coupling, allowing in- 
stantaneous disengagement should one of the engines 
become disabled; and in the case of towboats allows one 




JANUARY • I 947 



Page 6 1 



of the engines to run "Ahead" and the other "Astern, " 
which with coupling manipulation, gives excellent ma- 
neuvering characteristics. 

Couplings add to cost and decrease efficiency ( 2 to 3 
per cent) but they eliminate one of the major problems 
of geared equipment. 

Experience shows that the gears themselves are reliable. 
It might reasonably be concluded that the geared diesel 
drive will enjoy an increase in popularity. 

Applications to Various Types of Ships 

Towboitti. The harbor tug requires low propeller 
speed for maximum thrust at low vessel speeds. Full 
torque conversion for all types of tows and rapid ma- 
neuverability for speeding up the docking operation are 
definitely desirable. These requirements may best be 
filled by the direct-current electric drive, although the 
problems of cost and complication are difficult hurdles. 
Installation of electrical drives on seagoing tugs, where 
rapid maneuverabilit)' is not often required, is not equally 
justified. 

Ferries. In general, the direct drive, direct reversible 
diesel has been most popular for ferryboat installations. 
It is to be expected that this type engine and the geared 
diesel will continue in popularity. However, for runs 
where ability to maneuver may be an appreciable factor 
in overall operating time, direct current diesel electric 
drive may be useful. 

Cargo Vessels. Low fuel consumption and high reli- 
ability are the major requirements of the cargo vessel. 
Low - speed, direct - drive, or multiple, medium - speed, 
geared diesels answer these requirements. 

The major auxiliary load for cargo vessels occurs at 
the dock during winch operation. Therefore, diesel- 
electric propulsion machinery, which can handle this 
auxiliary load at the dock and thereby fill a dual purpose, 
has an attractive first-glance argument. The penalty, how- 
ever, of electric propulsion losses at sea, as well as first 
cost, is a distinct disadvantage. 

Furthermore, with tendency for carrying refrigerated 
cargo and air-conditioning equipment, which can con- 
stitute an appreciable sea-load, there is additional reason 
for separate auxiliary power. 

Tankers. The direct drive or geared diesel seems, for 
the same reasons as for cargo vessels, most suitable for 
tankers. However, like cargo vessels, tankers need appre- 
ciable power at the dock for loading and unloading. 
Nevertheless, the penalt)' of electrical propulsion losses 
and first cost is high. 

Dredges, in general, have an appreciable power load 
besides the main pumps. Cutting equipment, jet pumps 
and swinging machinery all require appreciable amounts 
of flexible power. There is good reason, therefore, for 
careful study of a diesel-electric installation. Indeed, the 
flexibility required is so great that many installations 
have used se\eral independent generators driven by a 
single engine. 



When the dredge is self-propelled, there is additional 
reason for a diesel-electric installation. The power re- 
quired by the main pumps and the power required for 
propulsion are both appreciable and, since peak pumping 
and propulsion loads occur alternately, and practically 
never simultaneously, one set of prime movers is sufficient 
for both functions, thereby saving appreciable space and 
weight. 

Yachts. Reliable, light, and compact machinery is re- 
quired for yachting service. Medium-speed direct-drive 
or probably geared diesels are particularly applicable for 
this service. 

Ice-Breakers, Survey Boats. Coast Guard Cutters and 
Salvage Vessels. Electric drive's torque conversion, ma- 
neuvering and operating capabilities have particular use- 
fulness in such vessels. The versatility of the direct- 
current power plant in performing the various assigned 
duties is an expensive but generally useful feature. 

Fishing Trawlers and Seiners. Reliability and simplic- 
ity are the dominating requirements for all kinds of fish- 
ing vessels. 

Since auxiliary loads are periodic and moderate, the 
use of electric drive appears to have the important advan- 
tages of being able to accomplish a dual function. How- 
ever, the necessity of simplicity and low first cost explains 
the direct drive's continuing popularity. It is to be 
expected, however, that geared units will enter the field. 

The torque conversion quality of electrical equipment 
is advantageous when towing nets, thus making electrical 
equipment desirable for more reason than its ability to 
supply power to the winches. A careful study may show 
it sufficiently valuable to warrant an introductory instal- 
lation. 

Technical progress has made available engines which, 
while operating at much higher speeds, have retained the 
dominant feature of reliabilit)'. This technical progress 
cannot be ignored. The higher speeds require either the 
use of indirect drives, or the acceptance of a lower pro- 
peller efficiency, at least until further developments are 
made by the propeller designers. 

Although the indirect drive will find more and more 
consideration in the future, it is hoped that the low fuel 
consumption and extreme simplicity of the direct drive 
will be retained to as great a degree as possible. 

A logical corollary to low fuel consumption is the use 
of low-cost fuels. Too much emphasis can hardly be 
placed on the importance of this single item on the over- 
all cost of power production in many applications. In 
this connection, choice of engine speeds for indirect drive 
should take into account the use of low-cost fuels. 

Finally, it is suggested that motorship operators give 
consideration to the establishment of a cost analysis con- 
sumer organization similar to the Diesel Engine Users' 
Association which has operated for many years to the 
great benefit of stationary plant operators and engine 
builders. The returns should be well worth the relatively 
small expenditure required. 



Page 62 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Selection of 
Dlarine Diesel Drives 

Discussion of Preceding Paper 
By W. EDGAR MARTIN* 

MR. BELILOVE has written an excellent paper on this 
subject and it should stimulate considerable good 
thinking amongst those interested in using diesel engines 
in various forms for marine propulsion. 

With particular reference to the diesel electric drive, 
the author mentions cost as the first disadvantage. I think 
this should be mentioned as a consideration rather than 
a disadvantage. This additional cost, which may be as 
low in some cases as 20 per cent, brings certain advan- 
tages which may more than offset it. 

The second objection concerns efficiency. On large 
installations the combined motor and generator efficiency 
may be as high as 90 per cent for direct current and up 
to 95 per cent for alternating current. This loss would 
not be all loss in view of the fact that with the electric 
drive a much more efficient propeller could be used than 
with the direct drive. Of course, with geared drive, the 
low speed propeller efficiency could be maintained and 
in this case only about 2 per cent loss in the gear would 
obtain plus the loss in the electric coupling if one were 
used. 

The third disadvantage of diesel electric drive is special 
technique to operate and maintain it. In the case of direct 
current which has been used in most cases to date, the 
motors and generators are no more complicated than the 
ordinary auxiliary generator with which the chief engi- 
neer or electrician on the ship would be familiar. The 
control ordinarily used on the variable voltage type is 
equally simple and on installations of the type, operation, 
maintenance and repair has been very successful and has 
not required any specialists. 

As to diesel electric plants requiring more room than a 
geared diesel plant, in some instances the propelling 
motor can be located completely aft and in addition to 
giving better trim to the vessel, it has made the engine 
room length in some cases even shorter than geared drive 
with electric couplings. 

Regarding the author's diesel electric disadvantage as 
to the main propulsion equipment not being used for 
auxiliary purposes because of variable voltage, this of 
course would apply to direct current. Some alternating 
current installations have been made which would permit 
taking auxiliary power from the main generators. This, 
however, might be limited in certain applications where 
constant frequency was necessary. However, on T-2 tank- 
ers the cargo pumps are run from the propulsion gen- 
erator over a range of 45 to 63 cycles. 

The author mentions the possibility of conversion of 
part of the ac current to direct current for winch motors. 




Mr. Martin 


vas invited to co 


nment on the pi 


ececling pape 


its presentat 


on before the No 


rthern California 


Section, Na 


tects & Mar 


ne Engineers. 







W. Edgar M 
of Westingh. 
Electric Corp 



It may be of interest to mention here that at least one 
electrical manufacturer has developed and is installing an 
alternating current operated winch. As the use of ac 
deck machinery becomes more prevalent, it may change 
the picture considerably as to selection of ac or dc equip- 
ment both for propulsion and auxiliary power. 

We note no mention of using electric drive on tuna 
clippers. This type of vessel offers a splendid opportunity 
to apply electric drive successfully. Using alternating 
current, the main power plant can consist of two or three 
main diesel generator sets, operation on each being at 
full load the number of units involved depending upon 
the speed of the vessel and other auxiliary requirements. 
The large refrigeration load on this type of vessel makes 
it particularly desirable to use the same generators for 
auxiliary power as main propulsion. At times maximum 
auxiliary load would be required to get temperatures of 
refrigerator compartments down, after which the power 
could be utilized to give the vessel maximum speed in 
coming back to port with a load of fish. Other advan- 
tages would seem apparent by use of the main generators 
in parallel for both propulsion and auxiliary load. 

Two large installations of diesel electric drive have 
proved very successful. 

The Navy, in 1942, placed in service a twin screw 
12,000 shp vessel using alternating current. Each 6000 
hp 140 rpm motor derived its power from four 1150 kw 
diesel generator sets operating at 750 rpm. The gen- 
erators operated in parallel and it was found that gener- 
ators could be added and taken off the main bus quite 
easily. Speed control through the engines gave a variable 
frequency system which worked out very well. 

A more recent installation is that of some direct current 
diesel electric ice breakers for the U. S. Coast Guard. An 
interesting feature of this installation is the bow pro- 
peller driven by a .3300 hp dc motor. Twin screw astern 
motors are e.ich 5000 shp. Six generator sets supply the 
power. 



JANUARY • I 947 



Page 63 





UieltLD 
TRflD€ 



Bet. U. S. Ptt. Off. 



By T. Douglas MacMullen 



mi Outlook for UJorld Trade 

By ALVm C. EICHHOLZ. Manager World Trade Ilept, 
San Francisco Chamber of Commerce 

THE COMING YEAR will probably again see a large 
volume of exports from the United States and also 
for the Pacific Coast. The fa\orable factors that have 
been responsible for the ten billion dollar volume of 
exports during 1946, continue operative, namely, supplies 
of exchange are still available in many countries in con- 
siderable volume, the pentup demand for most products 
still exists. American manufacturers and exporters and 
those of other countries have not been supplying the 
needs of the foreign countries as rapidly as was expected 
early in 1946 or as was hoped for by the importers in 
foreign countries. Furthermore, a number of the coun- 
tries, especially in Europe, that were not export markets 
in 1946, have made remarkable recovery and will be 
important purchasers during 1947. 

However, the year 1947 will probably be the most 
crucial year in the history of American foreign trade in 
so far as the long term picture is concerned. During 
1947 we will mold America's foreign commercial policy 
which will determine the volume of our foreign trade 
for many years to come. Early in the year, our govern- 
ment will carry on negotiations first with 18 specific 
countries for the conclusion of new broad reciprocal trade 
agreements, which will obtain further reductions in tar- 
iffs, removal of trade barriers, enlargement of quotas, and 
non-discriminatory treatment on granting of exchange 
that will mean opening new markets and enlarging old 
ones. Later on in the year, further negotiations with a 
larger group of countries should make further advances 
in unclogging the channels uf world trade for all coun- 
tries. Secondly, there will be carried on the important 
meetings to perfect the International Trade Organization. 



Alvin Eichhol; 




The preliminary meeting held in London at the end of 
1946 was productive of encouraging results. Matters 
which appeared to be major stumbling blocks were 
quickly adjusted and there was general agreement by all 
delegates on all of the important topics designed to recon- 
cile the divergent commercial policies. Furthermore, the 
expected tendencies toward nationalism with consequent 
protective tariff systems on the part of a number of coun- 
tries failed to materialize to any great extent. A second 
preliminary meeting with a larger number of countries 
will be held about the middle of the year. In the early 
fall it is anticipated to hold a meeting of all of the United 
Nations with a view to perfecting the structure of the 
international trade organization. If these meetings are 
successful in accomplishing the objectives desired, then 
the United States and the countries of the world will 



Page 64 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



have created a favorable economic climate in which world 
trade and world employment can expand. The World 
Bank and the International Monetary Fund, which began 
to function toward the end of the year, will make their 
contributions toward stabilizing currencies and economic 
conditions in the various war-torn countries. Should the 
reciprocal trade agreement negotiations and the efforts to 
perfect the international trade organization prove unsuc- 
cessful, then 1947 may well be a fateful year for the 
future of American foreign trade. 

Imports 

In these major efforts being made by our government 
to make possible a greater volume of world trade, Amer- 
ican industry, agriculture, producers, exporters and im- 
porters must view with a different attitude the impor- 
tance of imports in the future of American life. With 
the world poor in financial resources and exchange, the 
only certain way of assuring the establishment of export 
markets expanding for the years ahead is the develop- 
ment of a larger volume of imports into the United 
States. The two projects referred to above are funda- 
mental to increasing our imports. 

It is little realized that the United States normally is 
the best customer for nearly one hundred foreign coun- 
tries. If we are to anticipate re-establishment of their 
economies, we must think in terms of increasing our 
purchases from them. Our purchases from overseas will 
be large when our economy at home is operating on a full 
capacity basis. Thus, it is evident that a prosperous 
United States is the greatest assurance for larger markets 
for the products of other countries. 

Not only must we think in terms of increasing our 
purchases of various raw materials from other countries, 
but we must consider purchases of greater quantities of 
their manufactures. It is through larger purchases of 
manufactured items that greater employment openings 
will be supplied in foreign countries, their standards of 
living re-established, and the purchasing power provided 
to pay for American manufactures export. We cannot 
continue to make loans to countries to pay for our ex- 
ports. We should have learned a good lesson from this 
practice after World War I. 

Credits 

Extensions of credits and loans should and will be 
made for the purpose of reconstruction and rehabilita- 
tion, with a view to restoring markets that existed prior 
to World War II. However, the most satisfactory way 
of assisting foreign countries re-establish their economies 
is for us to increase our purchases from them. It is gen- 
erally believed that this can be done without harm to our 
existing industry and agriculture. 

Asia 

We should now consider a review of the regional situa- 
tions and their bearing upon the possible volume of 1947 
trade. In the Pacific Area, we find various conditions, 
some favorable, some unfavorable. The boom purchases 



of China and the Philippine Islands were to be expected 
in view of the shortages of products and the tremendous 
volume of dollars available with which to pay. The sat- 
uration point has been reached for many consumer items, 
and the volume of these will decline considerably. Basic 
conditions in the Philippine Islands are now reaching a 
point where their economy will settle down and as indus- 
try and business are re-established their purchases will 
take the form of building materials, machinery, tools and 
equipment rather than consumer goods. The progress 
made thus far in restoring Philippine production and 
export of native products is most encouraging for the 
future. 

The Chinese situation is more confused than ever at 
the turn of the year, and it is quite apparent that the boom 
proportions of the Chinese market so widely heralded 
may not develop for years. A great deal needs to be done 
by China herself to establish political unity, and carry 
out needed financial reforms and reorganization. China's 
new customs regulations have already precluded large 
shipments of luxury products and consumer goods in 
view of the developing shortage of exchange. We may 
hope for, although there is no assurance of, early efforts 
to settle the confused currency and exchange situation. 
Progress, however, will be made although at a slower 
rate on some of the basic projects for the restoration of 
China's transportation and communication facilities, in- 
dustries and other business enterprises. Recent word 
from our State Department is that private business will 
not open in Japan until toward the end of 1947. How- 
ever, there is some hope that this may take place earlier. 

In Southeastern Asia there is some encouragement re- 
garding the situation with the formation of the Nether- 
lands-Indonesian Union, which should bring about a 
solution of the political differences there. Good progress 
politically and otherwise is being made in Siam and 
British Malaya and we can anticipate some business with 
these regions during 1947. The French Indo-China situa- 
tion still needs solution. Already there are some encour- 
aging developments with regard to Australia, New Zea- 
land, British India, British Malaya and Hong Kong. The 
availability of exchange in these territories should im- 
prove steadily, and by September, on the anniversary of 
the approval of the British loan, we can look for steps to 
be taken to dissolve the sterling pool and modify im- 
perial preference. 

Latin America 

Looking now at Latin America, we are overlooking 
substantial opportunities there in the failure of our man- 
ufacturers and exporters to seriously study these markets 
and meet their specific requirements and conditions. 
All of these countries still have large stocks of exchange 
and they are protecting these by regulations in order to 
conserve them for the purchase of machinery, tools, 
equipment and industrial materials in order that they can 
further their efforts toward industrialization. Our manu- 
facturers of all goods and materials, other than consumer 
goods, should lose no further time in getting their prod- 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 65 



7IUOIII 



UlOltlD 
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ucts introduced in Latin American countries. The great- 
est assurance to expanding Latin American purchases in 
the United States is for us to increase our purchases from 
them. 

Europe 

Looking at the European market, we can find a num- 
ber of specific signs there which are particularly encour- 
aging to the Pacific Coast. With our impending large 
agricultural and food production, the Pacific Coast States 
will need foreign markets commencing in 1947 more 
than ever in their history. The current interest on the 
part of a number of European countries now being shown 
in dried fruits and other foodstuffs, which augurs well for 
the future. Particularly noteworthy in the restoration of 
the European markets for our foodstuffs is the rehabilita- 
tion work done in the past year in Norway, the Nether- 
lands and Belgium all of which are showing new interest 
in West Coast foodstuflfs. France has not made the 
progress in rehabilitation expected of her, but she will 
become an increasingly important factor in Western food 
business. Increases in quantities and numbers of the 
British import token list, has permitted the importation 

H Time to Remember 




Eleven clocks salvaged from ships su 
during the infamous attack were displa 
The Mosler Safe Company by the War . 
as a feature of the IMt observance of 
which the clocks were taken were the 
ryland and Arhona. the destroye 



Ma 



ey, the subn 



Na>it:ius, 
Holl 



k or damaged at Pearl Harbor 
ed in the Fifth Avenue window of 
ssets Administration and the Navy 
Pearl Harbor Day. The ships from 
battleships Colorado, Tennessee. 
Badger, the destroyer transport 



subrr 



: fende 



of large quantities of foodstuffs. This seems to indicate a 
steady improvement of basic conditions that may well 
mean larger British purchases of West Coast foodstuffs. 
Of course, Sweden and Switzerland, which suffered little 
from the war, will continue to enjoy a good business and 
should both increase their purchases from the West Coast. 
These countries along with the Low Countries expect to 
increase their sales to us during 1947. 

The Central European situation is not very encourag- 
ing and will be dependent upon the conclusion of the 
peace treaties and other factors. The business people in 
several of these countries, notably Poland, Czechoslo- 
vakia and some of the Balkans are anxious to get their 
commerce restored, but political and other factors are 
holding up these developments. 

U. S. Industries 

Our manufacturers must lose no further time in con- 
sidering their policy regarding exports. Our most im- 
portant manufacturing industries such as automative, 
industrial machinery, agricultural machinery, electrical 
equipment and apparatus, machine tools and so forth, 
will find themselves, possibly before the middle of the 
year faced with the fact that they have supplied a major 
part of the backlog of the domestic market demand and 
will have to develop foreign markets to enable them to 
keep up their volume of production. We believe that 
at the turn of this year all manufacturers should review 
their company policies with regard to their participation 
in exports. More and more, those now endeavoring to 
enter foreign markets are finding that manufacturers and 
exporters of other countries are getting well established 
in the Latin American and Far Eastern markets particu- 
larly, and by the end of 1947, they may find highly com- 
petitive conditions in most foreign markets for their 
products. 

Shipping 

1947 may well be a year in which shippers and the 
shipping industry could work closer together to further 
the interests of the American Merchant Marine and 
American import and export trade. It is not the volume 
of our commerce in 1947 that concerns us so much as 
what the years after hold for us as a trading and shipping 
nation. We must shape the pattern in 194"^ so that the 
future will be assured. 

International Postal llloney Order 
Service Renewed to Certain Countries 

The U. S. Postal Bulletin for December 3. 1946, an- 
nounced the renewal of international postal money order 
service with a number of foreign countries, the service 
having been discontinued during the war. These coun- 
tries are Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Finland, France, 
Greece, Hungary, Luxembourg, and Yugoslavia, as well 
as with the places for which they act as intermediary. 
Other places and countries to which monev orders can 



Page 66 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



again be sent through the intermediary of other countries 
are Gibraltar, British Somaliland, the Azores, Madeira, 
Mozambique, and Angola, but they cannot now be sent 
to Borneo, Burma, and the Channel Islands. 

Money-order service with the British Solomon Islands 
is conducted through the intermediary of New South 
Wales, but the only post office at which United States 
international money orders can be paid there now is 
Haniara, Guadalcanal. At the present time there is no 
provision for the payment of orders in Istria. 

The countries with which the United States has an 
exchange of money orders at the present time on the 
international basis are the following: 



Argentina. 

Australia (Commonwealth 
of) consisting of — 

New South Wales. 

Queensland. 

South Australia. 

Tasmania. 

Victoria. 

Western Australia. 
Belgium. 
Brazil. 
Chile. 
Colombia. 
Costa Rica. 
Czechoslovakia. 
Finland. 
France. 
Great Britain and Northern 

Ireland. 
Greece. 
Guatemala. 



Honduras. 
Hungary. 
Iceland. 

Ireland (Eire). 
Lebanon. 
Luxembourg. 
Mexico. 
New Zealand. 
Palestine. 
Peru. 
Salvador. 
Surinam. 
Syria. 

Union of South Africa 
consisting of — 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Natal and Zululand. 

Orange Free State. 

The Transvaal. 
Uruguay. 
Yugoslavia. 

The maximum amount for which a single money order 
may be drawn is SI 00, but more than one order for that 
amount can be purchased on the same day. However, 
the limit for a single order payable in Honduras is SIO, 
and only one order for that amount may be purchased 
on any one day by one remitter in favor of the same 
payee. 

S. F. Foreign Trade llssociation 
Elects 1947 Officers 

Fred B. Galbreath, manager. Pacific Department, Ma- 
rine Office of America, has been elected 1947 president 
of the Foreign Trade Association of the San Francisco 
Chamber of Commerce. 

W. B. Gribble, assistant manager. Export Department, 
W. P. Fuller and Company, is first vice president; W. J. 
Gilstrap, assistant vice president. Wells Fargo Bank & 
Union Trust Company, is second vice president; and G. 
A. Gumbrecht, resident partner, Henry W. Peabody & 
Company of California, is third vice president. 




Treasurer for the coming year is J. S. Curran, vice 
president, Anglo California National Bank of San Fran- 
cisco, while Alvin C. Eichholz, manager World Trade 
Department, San Francisco Chamber of Commerce, is 
re-named secretary. 

Elected to the Board of Directors are; Ralph V. Dewey, 
Harry C. Dunlap, B. S. Pong, James C. Morrison, Daniel 
Polak, J. H. Rogers, Austin H. Roy, David Mann Taylor 
and Richard S. Turner. Directors re-elected include: 
Frank Cook, A. Gemperle, R. H. Kahman, E. Russell 
Lutz, H. A. Magnuson, George H. Mahoney, M. J. Mc- 
Carthy, R. J. Roesling and Harry R. Sims. 



Dew Officers for Oakland Foreign Trade Club 

At the December meeting of the Oakland Foreign 
Trade and Harbor Club, the following officers and direc- 
tors were elected to serve for the 1947 year: President, 
M. D. McCarl of the Port of Oakland; Vice President, 
Wallace B. Worswick of Galen Company; Treasurer, 
Frank McCarthy of Central Bank: and Secretary, Lyford 
M. Morris of the Oakland Chamber of Commerce. Two 
new directors were elected to serve for two years on the 
Board of Directors; they are, Richard H. Steuben of Cut- 
ter Laboratories, and William J. Gleason of Kaiser Export 
Division. 



TlUQi^l 



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JANUARY 



I 947 



Page 67 



Promoting Ulorld Trade 
Through Education 



By E. GEORGE DAVIS 



MUCH OF THE BUSINESS of San Francisco has to 
do with international commerce, which includes 
shipping, aviation, importing, exporting, marine insur- 
ance, communications, advertising, banking and other 
activities. It has been estimated that one-third of the 
business of a community like Metropolitan San Francisco 
is either directly or indirectly connected with the inter- 
national exchange of goods and services. 

While the various colleges and universities of the Bay 
Region have for many years included many courses of 
study in such subjects as international economics, politi- 
cal science, history, and foreign languages, very little 
importance has been given to foreign commerce as a 
specialized field of study. This has been due, in part, to 
the fact that before the war, many business firms pre- 
ferred high school graduates to college-trained men. 
Although this was not the case in the East, it was as far 
as the West is concerned. There are several universities 
in the East that have colleges of foreign service or for- 
eign commerce affiliated with them, which has provided 
the larger eastern firms with men who are adequately 
trained to handle the many different activities that have 
to do with international commerce. As a matter of fact, 
many of the executives of different companies engaged 
in world trade in the west received their college training 
in an eastern university. 

In the Bay Region, there are several specialized col- 
leges in law, medicine, dentistry and teachers' training. 
But in spite of the fact that world trade is the most 
irnportant activity in this community, we do not have a 
specialized college of world trade, which would provide 
the many firms engaged in that type of endeavor with the 
kind of trained personnel that is required for their local 
offices and foreign branches. 

As a result of the war, there has been a substantial 
increase in population in the San Francisco Bay area. 
The San Francisco Chamber of Commerce states that in 
1940 the total population of the Bay Region was 1,734,- 
308, while in 1946 it was 2,543,100, or an increase of 
about 45 per cent. As a result of this increase in popula- 
tion, augmented by four years' accumulated demand for 
college training by returned service men, all of the edu- 
cational facilities of the Bay Area, including those of 
higher learning, are overtaxed. For instance, the Univer- 




sity of California in Berkeley has an enrollment this 
semester of 22,000 students, which is twice the number 
that the campus is supposed to handle. Other local col- 
leges and universities are experiencing the same thing, 
which is another reason why a College of World Business 
in downtown San Francisco would be most desirable for 
the present and future. 

The proposed San Francisco College of World Business 
would be a regular day time school, open to students who 
have completed two years of undergraduate work in an 
American college or university or have the equivalent 
academic background from a foreign university. It would 
be a three-year course, with the last year being supple- 
mented by a certain amount of on-the-job training, or 
interneship, in the offices of local steamship companies, 
airlines, foreign departments of banks, freight-forwarding 
offices, travel agencies, import-export houses, communi- 
cation companies, or marine insurance agencies. After 
having successfully completed three years of training, 
the graduates would receive a degree, say of Bachelor of 
Science in World Business. 

In addition to the American students in attendance, 
encouragement would be given to the training of foreign 
students, particularly from the countries of the Far East, 
South Pacific and Latin America, who might come here 
on scholarships to learn American business methods. 
During the war many students of engineering were 
brought to this country from the Far East and Latin 
America under the auspices of the International Train- 
ing Administration, to learn something about United 
States production and transportation methods. Here in 
San Francisco we played host to a large number of Chi- 
nese students who were returning to China. Such a 
school as this proposed College of World Business would 



Page 68 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



be an opportunity for business firms to promote their 
foreign business by awarding scholarships to foreign 
students of business, who might be the sons or nephews 
of men with whom they do business abroad. 

As time goes on, it will be possible to arrange orien- 
tation classes for these foreign students in their own 
language. In addition to giving certain training to these 
foreign students in their own languages, these classes 
would provide an opportunity for English-speaking stu- 
dents who are desirous of perfecting their existing knowl- 
edge of the particular foreign language, to hear lectures 
in those languages. 

Also, in addition to those activities related to the im- 
porting and exporting of merchandise, there are many 
other activities in the field of world business, all of which 
will be more and more important to San Francisco. 
Overseas advertising, tourist travel, foreign investment, 
and newspaper reporting are a few examples. The gov- 
ernment is now recruiting people trained in civil affairs, 
information and publicity or agriculture, for foreign 
assignments in Europe and the Far East. 

A college such as this could serve a very useful purpose, 
in supplementing existing educational facilities, in train- 
ing men for service with agencies of the United States 
Government, the United Nations organization or even 
for specialized service for foreign governments. The 
writer, for instance, has worked for two Latin American 
governments. 

Alvin C. Eichholz, in his booklet "Opportunities for 
Employment in World Trade and Foreign Service," says 
that in many instances, an individual with special indus- 
trial, technical or professional knowledge can take a lim- 
ited number of courses in the field of international rela- 
tions to acquire special knowledge of the country or 
region to which he plans to go. The application of his 
special knowledge in the terms of a new race, a different 
language and a different environment may be an im- 
portant factor in assuring his success. 





Before the war, many complaints were heard from stu- 
dents of local colleges to the effect that the courses offered 
in world trade were too theoretical. The following were 
some of the complaints that were heard from business 
men: Students graduating from our local universities are 
incapable, due to the inadequacies of their college train- 
ing, to assume greater responsibilities in a business office 
than high school graduates; many of them know nothing 
of salesmanship and a large percentage cannot write a 
good business letter in the English language, let alone 
in a foreign language, as far as knowing the mechanics of 
the foreign department of a bank, the import section of 
a department store, or the traffic department of a steam- 
ship company are concerned; college graduates usually 
did not possess any more ability than high school grad- 
uates and therefore, as far as employers were concerned, 
were not worth any more money. 

These complaints were largely justified, because here- 
tofore, the local universities had not felt that the need 
for more practical "down-to-earth" training in the field 
of world business was in sufficient demand. The war has 
brought about a changed attitude in this regard, due 



lUeifLD 
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JANUARY • 1947 



Page 69 






TRflD€ 



primarily to the fact that so many veterans now going 
to college seem to be interested in how they can earn 
a living quickly, while at the same time, employers, 
instead of seeking untrained people who will require 
several years of close supervision, prefer people to whom 
they can delegate responsibility within a comparatively 
short period of time. 

While a certain amount of knowledge of such subjects 
as philosophy, psychology, literature and mathematics is 
entirely desirable, and a person going into foreign service, 
either for the government or a private firm, should have 
a background of economics, political science and history, 
a college training program can be so balanced that a 
student can complete all of the different courses he will 
require to earn a living, while at the same time have 
enough cultural background to give him that personality 
he should have to make a good impression on people 



with whom he comes in contact, either at home or 
abroad. 

Experience has shown that practical men oftentimes 
make very good instructors of the subjects in which 
they specialize. As a result of the World Trade Institute, 
which was held in San Francisco during the early part 
of last year, hundreds of favorable comments have been 
heard. At that Institute all of the speakers and members 
of the panels were practical men in business or govern- 
ment service. As a result of that conference, night classes 
in foreign trade subjects were started at the University 
of California Extension and the results have been very 
satisfactory. 

Therefore, by having the proposed College of World 
Business located in downtown San Francisco, moving to 
the World Trade Center when that most worthwhile 
project is completed, teaching talents can be drawn from 
the offices of the import-export houses, banks and ship- 
ping companies. Many executives of foreign trade or- 
ganizations or similar types of firms, in addition to know- 
ing their own specialized field, have university degrees 
and happen to have teaching talent. Arrangements could 
be made with these men and their firms for them to give 
a one-hour lecture two or three times a week during 
the daytime. Full-time professors and instructors would 
also be used, particularly for teaching the more highly 




AT RECEPTION OF FAR 
EAST-AMERICA COUNCIL 
OF COMMERCE AND 
INDUSTRY FOR INDIAN 
TRADE MISSION TO THE 
UNITED STATES, WAL- 
DORF-ASTORIA HOTEL, 
NEW YORK CITY. OCTO- 
BER 23, l?4«. 
From left to right: Clyde 
N. King, Vice President, In- 
ir Ex- 



Hi 



port Co.; S. G. Shah, Vice 
Chairman of the Indian 
Delegation; Charles Kend- 
rick. Vice Chairman of the 
California Region,:! Board 
of the Far East -America 
Council; Sir Mokshagun- 
dam Visvesvaraya, Presi- 
dent of the All-India Manu- 
facturers' Organization ana 
Chairman of the Indian 
Delegation; and Arthur B. 
Foye, President of the Far 
East-America Council. 



■'age 



70 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




SHIPPING MAN IN 
HAWAII 
W. W. MacFarUne, 
Castle & Cooke. Ltd., 
Steamship Operating 
Department, one of ttie 
best known men on the 
Honolulu waterfront 
He is one of the pro 
ising younger men 
this shipping commu 
tY and is president 
The Propeller Club 
the United Slates, Pi 
of Honolulu. 



academic and theoretic subjects. If there is sufficient 
demand for night classes, they could be arranged for. 

The San Francisco College of World Business should 
be affiliated with one of the local universities, in order 
to give it the necessary prestige and academic standing, 
but would be administered by the parent institution, 
which would be advised by a board of directors, in a 
manner similar to the way the Hastings College of the 
Law operated as an affiliated branch of the University of 
California. The Dean would have to be a man with an 
outstanding reputation in world affairs and one who 
would be acceptable to both the parent institution and 
the board of directors. All activities connected with 
world business would be represented on the board of 
directors. For instance, the board would be composed 
of an outstanding steamship executive, banker, marine 
insurance broker, importer, exporter, publisher, and ad- 
vertising executive. Such organizations as the Institute 
of Pacific Relations, the San Francisco Bay Area Council, 
the World Trade Association and World Trade Center 
might be represented. In that way, both the parent in- 
stitution and the business men would be able to work 
together in carrying out matters of policy, selection of 
faculty, and in deciding which courses should be given 
and in what manner. 

To give an idea of what kinds of courses of instruction 
might be offered at this proposed San Francisco College 
of World Business, it has been suggested that courses 
include the following subjects, which are considered 
pertinent to any study of present and future interna- 
tional commercial relationships; 

World Trade and Shipping 

Foreign Market Analysis 

Theory of International Trade 

Principles and Practices of Exporting 

Principles and Practices of Importing 

Financing Imports and Exports 

Technique of Export Salesmanship and Advertising 



Technique of Foreign Buying ^ 

Controlling World Trade by Private and Government Monop- 
olies 

World Trade Promotion by Foreign Business and Goveinments 

Marine Insurance 

Doing Business in Latin America 

Air Transportation 

Inland Transportation 

Ocean Transportation 

Technique of Overseas Advertising 

Traffic Management 

Custom House Brokerage 

Staple Commodities of World Trade 

Foreign Trade Education ( How to Develop Public Opinion in 
Favor of World Trade) 

How to Teach World Trade ( For Teachers of the Subject) 

Travel Agency Management 

International Communications 

Economics and Political Science 

Comparative Government 

American Government and Institutions 

Principles of Economics 

Political Science 

World Economic Development 

Money, Banking and Foreign Exchange 

International Economic Policy 

Business Finance and Organization 

Industrial Relations (Personnel Management) 

World Trade and World Organization 

Marketing 

Statistics 

Accounting 

Seminar, Comparative Governments of Latin America 

Seminar, Comparative Governments of the Far East 

Regional Geography and History 

Economic Geography of Latin America 

Economic Geography of the Far East and South Pacific 

Economic Geography of Europe, Africa and the Near East 

History of the United States ( Economic and Political ) 

History of Latin America (Economic and Political) 

History of Europe and the Near East (Economic and Political) 

Seminar in Current Inter-American Affairs 

Seminar in Current Far Eastern Affairs 

Law and Diplomacy 

American Foreign Policy and Foreign Service 
Commercial Law (Contracts, Negotiable Instruments, etc.) 
Foreign and Domestic Corporation and Income Tax Laws 
Diplomatic and Consular Practice 

Structure and Function of International Organizations 
Latin Ametican Law- 
Far Eastern Law 
Admiralrj' Law 

Miscellaneous Subjects of Importance 

Foreign Languages 
Salesmanship and Public Speaking 
Foreign Customs and Religions 
Journalism and Foreign Correspondence 
Public Relations 



71U91^1 



lUOl^lD 
TRflDf 



JANUARY 



947 



Page 71 




Launching of U. S. 
Coast Guard Lightship 
Diamond. The Pollock 
awaits her turn for the 
ducl(ing. Both vessels 
were launched at Defoe 
Shipbuilding Company, 
Bay City. Michigan. 
October 14. 



Coast Guard 
Photo. 



Two Oew Ulelded 
Diesel Lightships 



THE LIGHTSHIPS DIAMOND AND POLLOCK 
are the first light vessels to be designed and built by 
the Coast Guard since the amalgamation of the Light- 
house Service with the Coast Guard in 1939. They were 
launched at the Defoe Shipbuilding Company, Bay City, 
Michigan, on October 16, 1946. 

The vessels are also the first all-welded lightships ever 
constructed, and first to have alternating current through- 
out. They have a higher degree of subdivision than pre- 
vious vessels of their type, and have more than suflScient 
power to maintain station during weather approaching 
hurricane force. 

The vessels, when commissioned and manned, will take 
station at Diamond Shoal, North Carolina, and Pollock 
Rip, Massachusetts. 

In the all-welded steel frame and shell design, a special 
efifort was made to minimize the possibility of sinking in 
the event of collision. Watertight transverse bulkheads 

Page 72 



have been carried up to the weather deck. Sufficient trans- 
verse bulkheads have been provided so that flotation can 
be maintained with two adjacent compartments flooded. 
The hawsepipe is carried up to the weather deck before 
leaching to the chain locker. 

The main deck of each vessel is continuous. There are 
two tubular steel masts, one for the light and the other 
for radio apparatus. The mainmast is fitted for the use of 
spanker sails. 

The vessels are constructed entirely of fireproof and 
fire-resistant material. 

The complement of each lightship is: 1 commissioned 
ofiicer, 2 chief petty officers, and 14 enlisted men of ap- 
propriate ratings. Accommodations are provided for a 
larger crew than the authorized complement. 

The vessels are single screw, each with a General 
Motors Model 6-278A diesel engine, with clutch reverse, 
and reduction gearing. This is a six-cylinder air-starting 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



engine cooled by a closed type fresh water system. It will 
provide 500 shaft horsepower at 650 engine rpms. 

Each ship is fitted with three auxiliary diesel-electric 
generators, each of 60 kw capacity. A fire tube heating 
boiler, using diesel fuel, supplies heat for all compart- 
ments, and for a single effect evaporator. The evaporator, 
operating on a 5-pound steam pressure, has a service 
capacity of "50 gallons per day with a salinity not ex- 
ceeding one-half grain. 

Pertinent specifications of the lightships Diamond and 
Pollock are as follows: 



Length over-all 128 feet 

Length on load water line 112 feet 

Beam, molded at second deck 30 feet 
Depth, molded main deck at side amid- 
ships.- 21 feet 6 inches 

Mean draft H ^e" 

Height of light above water line 57 feet 

Candlepower of light 15,000 candlepower 

Displacement 630 tons (about) 

Shaft horsepower 500 at 240 rpm of shaft 




BAA^^MMM 





l^j^^p >ooyii.t 



Inboard and outboard profile view! of the first liqlitship. I. bo dosiq-.ed and built 



nd built by the Coast Guard since 1121. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 73 



Ulashington Digest 

Editor's note: Voluminous data on most of these items is on file in 
our office, and added details will be furnished by mail, on request. 



flcheson Reveals Details of 
Proposed Shipping Body 

Details of the recommendations of the United Mari- 
time Consultative Council made at the meeting of the 
international shipping group which closed October 30, 
1946, were revealed when Congressional maritime and 
foreign affairs leaders received from Dean Acheson, Act- 
ing Secreary of State, copies of the UMCC recommenda- 
tions, of a draft convention for a permanent Inter-Gov- 
ernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, and a 
draft of an agreement for a Provisional Maritime Con- 
sultative Council to bridge the gap until the participating 
Governments ratify the proposed agreement for a per- 
manent organization. 

Scope and putpose of the proposed permanent organi- 
zation were set forth in the draft convention, as follows: 
"1. To provide machinery for cooperation among Gov- 
ernments in the field of Governmental regulation and 
practices relating to technical matters of all kinds affect- 
ing shipping engaged in international trade, and to en- 
courage the general adoption of the highest practicable 
standards in matters concerning maritime safety and effi- 
ciency of navigation; 2. To encourage the removal of all 
forms of discriminatory action and unnecessary restric- 
tions by Governments affecting shipping engaged in 
international trade so as to promote the availability of 
shipping services to the commerce of the world without 
discrimination; 3. To provide for the consideration by 
the Organization of any shipping problems of an inter- 
national charactet involving matters of general principle 
that may be referred to the Organization by the United 
Nations. Matters which are suitable for settlement 
through the normal processes of international shipping 
business are not within the scope of the Organization; 
4. To provide for the exchange of information among 
Governments on matters under consideration by the Or- 
ganization." 

ijew United States Trade-IDark law 

The Lanham Trade-Mark Act which will be the Trade- 
Mark Law of the land beginning July 5, 1947, has been 
summarized in layman language in a pamphlet issued by 
the New York Patent Law Association. The law is of 



direct interest to a good many exporters, and importers 
should be generally familiar with the new statute, par- 
ticularly Section 44, which is summarized as follows by 
Lyford M. Morris of the Oakland Chamber of Commerce. 

"Foreign nationals and residents of convention coun- 
tries are entitled to the same benefits undet the new Act 
as citizens and residents of the United States provided 
they have home registrations or have used their marks 
in commerce with the United States. If applications for 
registrations are filed by this class of persons within six 
months of the basic foreign applications, United States 
applications will be accorded the same force and effect 
as though filed on the same date as the basic foreign 
applications, but rights acquired by third parties in this 
country before the foreign applications were filed will 
not be affected." 

The New York Patent Law Association has a limited 
number of copies available at 25 cents each. Those inter- 
ested should contact the Secretary, Elmer R. Helferich, 
6 East 45th Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



Export-Import OPfl Control Off 

Almost unnoticed in the flurry over junking of OPA 
price controls was the fact that those applying to exports 
and imports went out the window, too. The effect of the 
removal of price controls from export is to eliminate 
checking of prices in connection with the issuance of 
licenses to export. In the case of imports, the removal 
means that importers can now compete in buying in 
world markets and pay world competitive prices for the 
goods and products they wish to buy. Other government 
controls over exports and imports, however, are not af- 
fected, such as licensing, priority ratings and allocations. 



California Sales Tax on Exports Invalid 

On November 25, the Supreme Court in Washington 
declared invalid the California 3 per cent sales tax when 
levied against oil sold for export. Validity of the tax 
was challenged by the Richfield Oil Corporation of Los 
Angeles in a suit to recover $1515 paid under protest 
as a 3 per cent sales tax on a cargo of fuel oil sold to the 
New Zealand Government. According to the United 



Page 74 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Press release from Washington, Justice Douglas said: 
We concluded that the tax which California has exacted 
from ( Richfield ) is an impost upon an export . . . and is 
therefore unconstitutional. " Richfield had contended that 
the tax was illegal because it violated the ban in the State 
Constitution against State taxes on exports. The State of 
California had maintained that deliveries of the oil to 
foreign governments was unconstitutional within the bor- 
ders of the State, and consequently the tax was on inter- 
state sales, not exports. It is understood that about S2,- 
500,000 in taxes, interest, and penalties are involved in 
similar suits by other companies now pending in Cali- 
fornia courts. 



Texaco Charts at 
Boat Show 



Largest single booth on the third floor of Grand Cen- 
tral Palace, the Texaco exhibit at the 1947 National 
Motor Boat Show offers an interesting display of the com- 
pany's outstanding special services to boat owners and the 
large and varied line of Texaco marine lubricants and 
fuels. 

The exhibit covering 800 square feet of floor space 
occupies booths 77 to 84, directly opposite the north 
bank of elevators, the same location used by Texaco in 
prewar years. Comfortable chairs and settees are arranged 
around the display for the comfort of foot-weary show 
visitors. 

Texaco Waterways Service is well represented at the 
exhibit and information about the waterways may be 
obtained for the asking. 

Texaco Cruising Charts 

The 1947 Texaco Cruising Charts are now being pre- 
pared and will be available for distribution in April. The 
new charts, completely redrawn and containing consider- 
ably more detail than the prewar issues, may be ordered 
at the Boat Show and will be mailed as soon as they come 
off the press. Although not intended as a substitute for 
Government publications they are an invaluable aid in 
planning cruises. Principal lights and buoys, tide tables, 
distances between ports, refueling points and many other 
items of interest to the cruising yachtsman are shown. 



large Stern Fender by C. J, Hendry ► 

This is a large stern fender for Standard Oil tug, Despatch =9, 
made by the C. J. Hendry Co. of San Francisco. The center heart 
is of chain surrounded by a pudding of hennp fibre which Is all 
enclosed In a new mesh of VAi: sisal rope. All rooe products 
are by the Columbian Rope Company. The fender Is 24" manimum 
diameter and 27 feet in length, tapered to suit. The total weight 
is approximately 3000 pounds. 

Two other bow fenders of somewhat similar type and construction, 
but tailored to the hull, are also In process of manufacture. 



The list of 1947 Texaco Cruising Charts, obtainable 
without cost, follows: 

( 1 ) Eastport to Block Island 
( 2 ) Long Island and Long Island Sound 
( 3 ) Staten Island to Cape May 
( 4 ) Delaware and Chesapeake Bays 
( 5 ) Cape Henry to Key West 
(6) Gulf Coast 

( 7 ) Hudson River and Lake Champlain 
( 8 ) Great Lakes and Illinois Waterway 
A third edition of Texacos famous "Cruising With 
Safety" has been prepared and is ready for distribution. 
Tens of thousands of copies of the second edition were 
used during the war for instruction purposes by the 
armed services and U. S. Power Squadrons, and the new 
book, while retaining many of the basic features of the 
previous issue, has been brought up to date to meet 
modern developments. 

Murals depicting the company's modern marinas and 
special services decorate the booth and a mural of Miss 
Great Lakes which, fueled and lubricated with Texaco 
products, broke every Gold Cup class record in winning 
the President's Cup Regatta at Washington, D. C, illus- 
trates the company's postwar interest in the development 
of racing craft. 




JANUARY • 1947 



Page 75 




CRflfT 




Stability Problem of 
Tuna Clippers 



By DAVID W. DICKIE 

MOST STABILITY DIFFICULTIES can be ascribed ro 
carelessness. Probably the only exception to this is 
the tuna clipper and in that case the complications arise 
out of the fact the tuna clipper is a tanker that is being 
loaded at sea. 

The tuna boats that fish close to shore and pack the 
catch in ice give very little trouble from a stability point 
of view provided the design is intrinsically stable in the 
first instance. The tuna clippers are perfectly stable in 
all conditions when the fish are stowed either wholly or 
in part. It is during some of the operations between 
times that all of the trouble has occurred. 

The tuna clippers are divided into three general classes: 

(a) Boats under 90 feet long overall with a flush deck 
extending the full length or a flush deck extending to the 
middle of the house with a raised deck 2 to 3 feet high 
extending from the middle of the house to the bow. 

(b) Boats from 85 feet to 110 feet long with a flush 
deck extending the full length and a boat deck 7 .feet 
above the main deck extending from the forward end 
of the bait boxes to the bow. 

(c) Boats over 100 feet total length, the same as type 
(b) but with a house on the boat deck for the crew's 
quarters. 

The ict boats are practically obsolete except in the 
Page 76 



smaller sizes. They have bins in the hold to stow the fish 
in ice — a layer of crushed ice — then a layer of fish — 
alternately until they are loaded. This type of boat is 
now fitted with refrigeration to keep the ice from 
melting. 

The brine boats have bulkheads subdividing the hold 
into wells having a sea water capacity of from 15 to 24 
tons each along both sides, and an alleyway down the 
center for the piping and refrigeration control equip- 
ment. 

The refrigeration equipment is governed by the size 
of the largest pair of wells — the stability is affected by 
the free surfaces of four wells, two port and two star- 
board, and the loading is affected by the number of wells. 
Several of the boats have had to be altered dividing one 
or more of the wells to facilitate loading. Ninety-foot 
boats should have 4 wells on each side of the alley; 100 
to 115-foot boats, 5 wells on each side; 125 to 140 feet, 
6 wells on each side; 140 to 150 feet, 7 wells on each 
side. 

All of the tuna clippers are fitted with bait boxes on 
the after deck for live bait and with some of the wells in 
the hold also fitted to carry live bait. 

The fuel capacity is divided so part is in tanks for the 
voyage home — part is carried in steel wells which are 
cleaned for stowing fish and in some instances fuel is 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



-mrMT-o.iV ...L 




DISPLACEMENT TABLE 








m-jW 




















NAME PAN AMERICAN 
















LONGITUDINAL INTEORAT.ON Br 






...r, o> .... fo.T,o. r.o. ....IT ^ 




TCHCBTCMEFF'S SECOND RULE 






0.*fT""OfmeL .tLO" .*..tT 






























•'"•>•'"' ."Tt.v.t 


ji- 






JANUARY • 1947 



Page 77 



carried is one or two of the bait boxes for the outbound 
voyage. 

The stability problem consists in making a calculation 
that: 

1. Will take into account furnishing flowing water to 
all compartments that are used for live bait. 

2. Permit fuel to be used from wells, bait boxes and 
tanks in proper sequence. 

3. Permit cooling water for refrigerating the fish to be 
fiUed and discharged as the varying temperatures and 
procedure dictates. 

4. Provide for lish on deck in the interim between 
catching and stowing them. 

5. Provide for the contingency of water coming over 
the rail to flood the deck. 

6. Provide a margin of safety to cover complete 
changes of fishing procedure. It does not occur to the 
fishermen to ask in advance what effect an operation 
will have on the stability of the boat. 

The disconcerting phases of the problem are the ones 
on which it is most diflicult to obtain even approximate 
data. Fishing is done where the depth of water ranges 
in the neighborhood of 50 fathoms. The wave period 
from crest to crest is reported to be about 8 seconds. 
If the rolling period of the boat is 8 seconds, the boat 
and wave periods will synchronize. Water will come over 
the rail flooding the deck and the angle of roll will 
increase until the vessel overturns. 

The wood boats are from 15" to 24" thick from the 
outside of the planking to the inside of the well. The 
bulwark is at least 12" thick; so the moment of inertia 
of the free surface of the water tends to be less than 
that of the waterplane of the vessel itself, thereby pro- 
viding some margin of safety. 

The steel vessels are only 1" thick in way of the wells 
and the moment of inertia of some of the deck spaces is 
the same as the outside of the hull. This has added a 
new complication to an already difficult problem. 

William Lambie calculated cross curves of stability 
by hand and the writer made them with the integrator 
for some of the vessels, but beyond finding that the van- 
ishing angle was approximately 40 to 50 degrees not a 
great deal was learned from them. 

The effect of free surfaces of liquids in the tanks was 
calculated for every possible combination of tanks and 
the loss of metacentric height very seldom exceeded 3". 

However, it is important to keep the volume of the 
individual double bottom spaces in the steel boats as 
small as possible on account of the oscillation of the fuel 
oil therein when it is being transferred elsewhere and 
consequently has a free surface effect. In other words, 
in addition to the static effect, if the weight of the fuel 
oil in any space having free surface is of sufficient mag- 
nitude so its dynamic moment progressively increases 
the angle of roll of the vessel, she will overturn. A later 
article will discuss the rolling of the vessels. 

If the boat is to carry a full load of fish the relationship 



between the salt water capacity and the fish capacity has 
to be kept in mind. The weight of fish in any given 
space is 82 per cent of the salt water that formerly occu- 
pied the space. 

Therefore, if the boat is loaded with fish to a proper 
draft, she is going to be loaded with the deck under water 
if the same spaces are full of salt water. Consequently, 
certain spaces equal to the difference, or 18 per cent of 
the space, must be left empty while fishing and salt water 
is carried in the remaining space. 

These considerations left only two other reasons for 
the vessels overturning — some weights were omitted or 
moved without being accounted for — or — the metacen- 
tric calculation had an error in it somewhere. 

Metacentric Calculation 

The table. Figure 1, is the form designed by the writer 
to investigate the metacentric calculation. Tchebycheff's 
rule is used longitudinally and Simpson's rule vertically. 
Each waterline is treated as a separate entity and is di- 
vided longitudinally into Tchebycheff's spacing using the 
three ordinate rule. The actual length of the waterline 
is used in each case so the waterlines of the table are 
short in the lower body and long in the upper body. 
This uncovered one of the errors and at the same time 
eliminated the problem of correcting for the piece at the 
end that either extended beyond, or did not extend to, 
the proper ordinate of the rule used. 

Occasionally it is advantageous to plot the curve of 
Tons per Foot Immersion and integrate it on the adding 
machine by means of the trapezoidal rule using intervals 
one foot apart to get the displacement. By making a 
second integration of the displacement curve from the 
first tape of the machine the vertical moment is obtained. 

At the time of making the inclinations there are sev- 
eral cases where the vessel is not floating at the trim 
used when making the Curves of Form. One of the 
advantages of this table is that the observed waterline 
can be put on the lines. If as sometimes happens it 
approximately coincides with waterline 7 aft and water- 
line 4 forward, it is possible to take from the table the 
cubes or ordinates (Column C) for parts of waterlines 7, 
6, 5 and 4 and make an approximation for BM right 
on the job. This would not be possible if corrections 
had to be made for change of form and length at the ends. 

The table shows ( Column C ) cubes of ordinates for 
alternate waterlines only, but for these vessels the work 
must be performed for all the waterlines, in fact on some 
of the boats it had to be done for intermediate water- 
lines between to get the curves to come fair. 

The tuna boats change trim as much as 8 feet from 
the Light Ship condition to the "Condition where the 
First Catch is made." In other words the change of trim 
is 10 per cent or more of the overall length of the vessel. 
The waterline length changes from 8 feet to 20 feet due 
to trim alone depending on the size and model of the 
boat and it was found that the change of trim no longer 



Page 78 



P AC! Fl 



MARINE REVIEW 



took place about the Center of Gravity or Center of 
Flotation of any mathematically known Waterplane. 

A separate calculation was made at the actual Light 
Ship" trim and an attempt was made to develop a rule 
that would correlate it with the calculation made at what 
might be called the mean trim, but it did not work out 
very well. The reason is inherent in the model of the boat. 
The builders have made an effort to correct the excessive 
change of trim by forming the model about a semi- 
ellipsoid. The segment is placed with the longitudinal 
axis low at the forward end and high at the after end. 
The after deadwood is built on below the segment and 
the flare of the bow is built on above it at the forward 
end. The additions complicate the mathematics of the 
problem to such an extent that it becomes impractical 
to use commercially on account of the time necessary to 
take all the factors into account. 

The custom in the beginning was to put the vessel in 
the Light Ship condition, find the Center of Gravity of the 
vessel Itself by an Inclining Experiment and add the other 
weights to it. Unless a separate complete calculation is 
made for the Light Ship condition there will be an error 
of from 6 to 8 inches in the height of the Metacenter 
above base and consequently in the height of the Center 
of Gravity of the vessel above base, because the height of 
the Center of Gravity of the vessel is found by deducting 
the "GM" or Metacentric Height from the "KM" or 
Metacenter above base. 

A change in procedure was made so Inclining Experi- 
ment No. 1 is performed with the fuel and water piit' 
aboard the ship through a meter into the ship's tanks. 
Each pair of wells is filled in sequence and the draft 
taken and each bait box filled and the draft taken. When 
the vessel is in approximate fishing condition Inclining 
Experiment No. 2 is made. Then one pair of wells is 
filled half full of cooling water and Inclination No. 3 is 
made. A separate calculation for "KM" minus "GM" 
is made for Inclinations No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3, and the 
weights aboard deducted. The greatest error of "KG" to 
date is found to be 0.13 feet. 

When the three Inclinations were made and the data 
for "KM" taken from the regular Curves of Form, the 
errors in "KG" ranged from a minimum of 0.50 feet to 
1.62 feet. The curves of form were correct, but in each 
case were made for one trim only as usual. The change 
of trim of the vessel taken in conjunction with inac- 
curacies in capacity of the tanks accounted for the errors. 

Later it was found prudent to incline the vessel at 
various conditions of loading covering the whole range 
amounting in all to 6 or more inclinations. 

Practically all the offices collaborating In the stability 
work have had trouble missing some of the weights to 
go aboard as the boats have had to sail without some 
important weights due to the war effort. 

Refrigeration 

In the November 1939 issue of the Pacific Marine 
Review the writer published the Refrigeration Loads of 



the Tuna Clipper. An extensive series of experiments 
covering the methods of removing the heat from the fish 
was made by Dr. O. W. Lang, Research Associate of the 
University of California, Hooper Foundation, which de- 
veloped the following procedure and certain precautions 
have to be taken to make sure the vessel has adequate 
stability to be seaworthy while each step of the procedure 
is carried out: 

1. A catch is made when the school of fish is found. 
Anywhere from 2 to 20 tons of fish are brought on deck, 
depending on the size of the boat. 

2. A well on each side is filled either half full or en- 
tirely full with water which has been cooled to receive 
the fish. 

3. As the fish are dropped in, the water rises or over- 
flows out through the deck valve until fish and water 
reach the top of the well. 

4. Some of the cooling water is pumped overboard and 
more fish are added. This is called repacking. 

5. If the vessel has coolers to supply fresh chilled sea 
water, some of the cooling water can be pumped over- 
board again and more fish added. The second repacking 
is attended with some risk of spoiling the fish already in 
the well, especially if there are no coolers to supply fresh 
chilled water. 

6. It is customary to add salt to the sea water to form 
brine for a final wet freezing, but salt cannot be used 
throughout without it penetrating the fish. 

7. When the temperature of the fish stowed in the 
well is brought down to 30 degrees the cooling water is 
pumped overboard and the fish are chiUed dry until the 
temperature falls to zero. 

8. The weight of the fish remaining in the well is from 
80 to 82 per cent of the sea water required to fill the well. 

There is some difference of opinion about how the 
coils should be fitted in the wells. The coils are spaced 
about 8" centers of 1]V pipe galvanized outside. Garnet 
Wallace Stevens maintains that the coils should be at- 
tached directly to the sides of the wells to absorb the 
heat coming from the outside. The coils gather a triangle 
of frost which is a maximum at the coil and tapers oft" 
to nothing half way between adjoining coils. Ralph E. 
Manns of the company of the same name advocated 
keeping the coils 1" away from the wall. By this method 
the coils can be installed closer than 8" centers, but some 
space otherwise available for stowage of fish has to be 
sacrificed. 

The worst condition that has to be contended with is 
at the fishing banks just after making the first catch. 
Taking account of the weights: 

1. The steel wells are full of fuel. 

2. Some wells are full of flowing sea water containing 
live bait. 

3. At least two of the bait boxes are full of flowing sea 
water containing live bait. 

4. All the fuel'"tanks of the ship are- full, the fuel for 
the outbound voyage having been used from a bait tank 
on deck. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 79 



5. The fresh water tanks are three-quarters full pro- 
viding free surface. 

6. About 15 tons of fish are on deck which are fluid 
providing free surface. 

7. Two wells are either full, reducing the freeboard. 
or are half full, providing free surface. 

8. The stern is down so the deck is as close to the 
water as safety permits to avoid the effort required to 



heave the fish over the rail. 

In the above condition the vessel must have sufficient 
freeboard and metacentric height to be seaworthy. 

The membership of the China- American Council. 
which was organized in October, 1943. now comprises 
approximately 450 companies representing a cross- 
section of American industry interested in trade with the 



Pacific areas 



The Oeptune 

A new all-steel welded combination purse seiner and 
tuna boat, the 82-foot Neptune I has been launched by 
the Heo Boat Company of Oakland, and is now fishing 
out of San Pedro. The Neptune I was designed as a 
year-round fishing boat and has many new features of 
design and equipment. 

The boat is owned by K. Hovden of Monterey. H. E. 
Ottenbreit. W. C. Crittenden, and A. Simmon of San 
Francisco. 

The boat has an 82-foot length. 21' 6" beam, and 
10' 6" draft. She carries 175 tons of pay-load and has 
an 18.000 mile cruising range at better than II knots. 
Generous use of high tension corrosion resistant steel 
has resulted in a saving of weight and is expected to 
reduce the maintenance expense due to rust. The gen- 
eral construction is along dreadnaught lines with a bul- 
bous bow. a raised pilothouse, and a flying bridge. Be- 





Prov. »ie» of Neptune I. 



sides the saving in weight, the steel construction has 
other advantages in that more space is obtained in the lish 
hold when brine tanks are used due to the fact that the 
tanks can be built out to the wall without an air space as 
is customary, to avoid dry rot, in wood construction. 
There are ballast tanks aft which are used to trim the 
ship allowing the stern to be lowered while working with 
the nets, regardless of the load in the hold. Wing tanks 
in the side of the vessel provide control of the list which 
is very helpful during brailing operations. The use of 
these wing tanks also eliminate the center line spreader 
board which is normally used to keep the load from 
shifting. 

There is a capacity on board the 7000 gallons of water 
and 18,000 gallons of fuel, and the fuel is transferred by 
an electric transfer pump to a 400 gallon dry tank. There 
is also a 250 gallon lube oil tank. 

The Neptune I is powered with a General Motors 
twin diesel engine comprised of a matched pair of Series 
71, 2-cycle, 6-cylinder diesel engines mounted on a com- 
mon steel sub-base and geared to one 5" propeller shaft. 

Each engine is coupled to its driving pinion through a 
clutch which allows either engine to be cut in or out of 
operation while running, thereby imparting a degree of 
security not to be found in more conventional propul- 



Page 80 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



sion units. Either engine can drive the ship at about 
two-thirds speed. 

The engines are fresh water cooled by built-in heat 
exchangers, and they are fully protected by an alarm sys- 
tem against low oil pressure or high water temperature. 

Adel hydraulic controls make operation from the en- 
gine room, crows nest, wheelhouse, or bridge equally 
convenient. 

This twin engine, supplied by Bay Cities Equipment 
Company, GM distributor at Oakland, is rated at 330 hp. 
With the present reduction gear, a 63" propeller is 
turned at 320 revolutions. The boat is soon to be pow- 
ered with a General Motors Quad engine consisting of 
four 6-cylinder engines driving a common shaft through 
a 4: 1 reduction gear. This will double the horsepower to 
660, and is expected to turn the same propeller 400 revo- 
lutions per minute. Trial riins indicate a speed of over 
1 1 knots will be used for cruising. 

The compact arrangement of these 2-cycle diesel en- 
gines has eliminated much of the weight and bulk usually 
found in engines of this horsepower class, and has re- 
sulted in many worthwhile features, among which is the 
saving of from 8 to 10 feet of hold capacity and of about 
9 tons in weight! 

The ease with which this engine was installed, the 
process requiring but one hour, using the ship's own 
boom, is typical of the careful planning that has gone 
into this design toward reducing maintenance expense. 
In a matter of hours, replacement engines may be in- 
stalled and the old ones reworked at leisure under most 



favorable conditions, thereby avoiding the costly tieups 
at major overhaul periods. 

The deckhouse is luxuriously paneled in hardwood 
and equipped for a twelve-man crew. It is completely 
insulated with fibre glass. More than the usual number 
of flood lights are provided for working the nets at night. 
All wiring to lights and various electrical units are on 
independent circuits in leaded and armoured cable. 

Modern equipment aboard includes the following: 
Sperry Gyro magnetic compass and power steering: Kaar 
40-watt, 2-way radio phone and direction hnJer: Sub- 
marine Signal Company fathometer; one 3" electric bilge 
pump and a 2" electric fire pump built by the Pacific 
Pump Company; 25 hp electric winch as well .is the 5 hp 
electric anchor windlass, built by the Heo Boat Works 
and are supplied by a 50 kw Westinghouse Generator 
driven by a 6-71 General Motors diesel engine supplying 
120 volts dc throughout the ship. All units are push- 
button control. 

The propeller shaft is 5" diameter, Tobm Bronze, run- 
ning in a Goodrich Gutless bearing, and the propeller is 
a bronze Doran type "D." The rudder provides for 
counter steering and is supported on thrust bearings on 
both top and bottom. Both the wheel and rudder can 
be changed at sea. The engine room is protected by a 
Walter Kidde COv equipment. The galley has a Lang 
oil range and a Frigidaire. Both fresh water and sanitary 
pumps as well as the bilge pump can be cross connected 
and used for fire pumps. Engines are silenced by Maxim 
Silencers. 



Neptune I 
under way. 




JANUARY • I 947 



Page 81 



UarJne Insurance 



Reinsurance 



The lay mind does not readily visualize the immense 
capacity of the ordinary freight steamer. Into its im- 
mense holds are stowed carload after carload of valuable 
merchandise. When the loading is completed, many 
hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of goods, as well 
as phe value of the ship and its freight, are at risk in a 
single adventure. An underwriter doing a large and 
varied business cannot control, except in a very limited 
way by restricting the maximum amount insured under 
each policy, the aggregate amount which he may have 
at risk in any one adventure. 

This condition necessitates reinsurance by which the 
underwriter shares his risk with other underwriters. This 
is done in a variety of ways by sharing on a percentage 
basis each individual item making up the aggregate 
amount, by reinsuring all in excess of a given retention, 
say $100,000, or by reinsuring any loss which he may 
suffer in excess of a named amount, say 550,000. 

Whatever the method, the result desired is to arrange, 
so far as is practicable, to have average lines on all insured 
adventures and thus conform to the basic theory of insur- 
ance. All of the principles of marine insurance that apply 
between owner and underwriter apply with equal, if not 
greater force, in the reinsuring of interests by under- 
writer with underwriter. Marine insurance, being inter- 
national in its scope, sees an interchange of reinsurance 
between the nationals of various countries. With this 
interchange passes information of a commercial namre, 
vital to the interest of foreign nations. Not a few of 
the large German reinsurance companies were sources of 
vital commercial information to the German Government 
prior to and during the World War. 

It is therefore of the greatest importance that, in so far 
as possible, reinsurance of export overseas risks should 
find lodgment in the United States. 

— J. D. Winter, president 

■ Atlantic Mutual Ins. Co. 

Published by Insurance Society of N. Y. 



London Letter 



ii/ar Risk Underwriting by ID. C. Stopped 

Effective December 31, 1946, the United States Mari- 
time Commission discontinued underwriting marine and 
war risk insurance under authofifies that were granted 
the War SJnipping Administ'rat-i.onsiuiing>war,ye4^s. 

Page 82 



By Our British Marine 
Insurance Correspondent 

Ulelded Ship Warranty 

During the past year or two, a lot has been written 
regarding the disasters which have overtaken about six 
out of some 3,000 American war-built welded ships. The 
few broke up afloat, for no apparent cause. The latest 
interest in these few losses centers around the wording 
of a warranty. Attention has been called to certain risks 
which are being placed on American-built welded ships 
with the policy conditions "Warranted strengthened or 
. . . additional premium." 

Underwriters writing the risks and the brokers placing 
them are satisfied with the wording of the warranty, but, 
according to an opinion expressed in technical quarters, 
the wording may lead to controversy, if not litigation. 

The discussion which is proceeding gets on to the 
difficult and technical question of "crack arresters" and 
"rounded inset plates," and the difference of opinion 
seems to resolve itself into one of "adaptation" as against 
"strengthening." 

In development of this marine insurance shipbuilding 
problem, the effect of the Marine Insurance Act on the 
question of "Warranted Strengthened" is given as fol- 
lows: A ship is insured with the warranty and the risk 
goes forward at the rate of the slip without the addi- 
tional premium. She is lost by a peril insured against, 
stranding, fire, collision, foundering, it does not matter 
what. The adjuster of claims to the leading underwriter 
observes the warranty and, very properly, asked whether 
it had been complied with. It transpires that the ship 
has been "adapted," that the crack-arrestors have been 
fitted, that the holes have been drilled in the bilge keels, 
and so forth. 

If the loss were by stranding, fire or collision, the 
claims adjuster would raise no further point, but suppose 
that the ship had foundered after breaking up from no 
apparent cause? The underwriters would have what ap- 
pears to be a cast-iron case for rejecting the claim. They 
would contend that the warranty that the ship had been 
strengthened had not been complied with. If the matter 
were taken to law, the court would only be concerned 
with that precise issue. 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



If ir could be proved that the process carried out had. 
in fact, strengthened the ship, then the under^-riters 
would be liable. If it could only be proved that the 
process had improved the risk but had not strengthened 
the ship, it would be of no avail. This defence, in the 
view of one authority, would be opened to underwriters 
in the event of a loss from any peril insured against, but 
it is not thought they would take advantage of a tech- 
nicality if the loss was from any cause that could not be 
associated with the feared weakness or defect which 
caused the warranty to be inserted in the policy. 

Hew [Daster Cover 

News has reached London marine insurance circles 
that discussions are now being held in Holland about the 
various aspects of an insurance scheme, so as to simplify 
its application for everyday use as much as possible. The 
scheme referred to is the so-called master cover for goods 
imported from the United States. It is stated, says a 
Dutch informant, that import licenses, which include a 
currency license for the import of goods from the United 
States, are not granted by the official organization for 



import and export, unless the importer binds himself to 
declare the goods upon this cover. This cover stipulates 
a maximum of 58,000,000 per any one steamer and a 
location clause of 150 per cent. The further contents are 
practically confined to the fixation of the limit of each 
underwriter participating in this cover. Twenty-five per 
cent have been placed in New York with five American 
companies, and the balance has been split up between 
the ArHsterdam and Rotterdam underwriters, each for 
371/2 per cent. At Amsterdam 43 firms are to be engaged 
in this business, and at Rotterdam 22. 

The correspondent continues; 

"The master cover leaves the fixing of conditions and 
rates to the negotiations between importer and first under- 
writing firm at Amsterdam and Rotterdam. For this pur- 
pose, however, it is obligatory for them to make use. 
directly or indirectly, of an insurance broker at the Amster- 
dam and /or the Rotterdam exchange, at their own option, 
provided, of course, that the broker is in possession of a 
special license of the Netherlands Bank for an insurance 
account in foreign currency'. Brokers in the provinces are 
obliged to make use of the intermediary of an exchange 
broker. Premiums and claims are payable in United States 
dollars." 



ymiralty Decisions 



By HAROLD S. DQBBS 

of San Francisco Bar 

lien Holder Seeks Direct 

Action Hgainst Insurance Company 

It is a common practice for plaintiffs in state court 
civil actions to attach assets of the defendants wherever 
they may be found so that, in the event of judgment, 
satisfaction can be easily accomplished. State courts 
permit attachments of almost any type of asset provided 
the grounds for attachment are in existence. The situa- 
tion is slightly different, however, in admiralty and the 
rule is better and more clearly understood by the facts 
and decision of the case of the Donald T. Wright, 1940 
A. M. C. 291, U. S. D. C, Western Disc of Ken. The 
libelant in this proceeding brought an action in admir- 
alty against the SS Donald T. Wright in rem and against 
her owner, the Sewell Transportation Coriipany, in per- 
ionam for claims arising our of labor performed on the 
boat and for goods and merchandise furnished for the 
use of the boat at the request of the owner. 

The Boston Insurance Company was made a party 
respondent, the libel alleging that it had issued a policy 
of marine insurance in the amount of S^.OOO protecting 



the steamboat Donald T. Wrighr against loss by fire, and 
that the steamboat had been destroyed by fire while the 
policy was in full force and effect, and asking that the 
insurance company be required to pay inro court the 
sum which was owing to the Sewell Transportation Com- 
pany by reason of this loss under its policy. The Boston 
Insurance Company filed exceptions to the libel on the 
ground that it stated no cause of action against it and 
that the libelant could not impress a lien by substitution 
upon the proceeds of rhe insurance. 

The respondents, steamboat Donald T. Wright and 
the Sewell Transportation Company, filed an answer to 
the libel and by separate paragraph made it a cross libel 
against the Boston Insurance Company, setting out the 
issuance of the insurance policy, the loss of the steamboat 
by fire while the insurance was in full force and effect, 
and asking that the Boston Insurance Company be re- 
quired to pay into the registry of the court the proceeds 
due the Sewell Transportation Company by reason of its 
loss under the policy. The Boston Insurance Company 
filed exceptions on the ground that it set up new and 
distinct matters not involved in the issues raised by the 
original libel, and that the question of liability under the 
policy of insurance was in dispute and was being liti- 
gated in a declaratorv judgment suit filed in the Federal 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 83 



Court by the Boston Insurance Company prior to the 
filing of the cross libel. 

The case arises before the Federal District Court upon 
exceptions by Boston Insurance Company to both the 
libel and the cross libel. The court said it is unquestioned 
that the libelants have an action in rem in admiralty 
against the steamboat Donald T. Wright for the value 
of the labor and materials furnished by them to the boat, 
and it is also true that they have an action in personam 
against the Sewell Transportation Company who con- 
tracted with them for the furnishing of the labor and 
materials in question. But they have no action in per- 
sonmn against the Boston Insurance Company and any 
liability which the insurance company has by reason of 
its policy of insurance covering the steamboat Donald 
T. Wright is to the Sewell Transportation Company, its 
insured. The only way in which the libelant could prop- 
erly bring the insurance company into the action would 
be to substitute for their lien against the steamboat the 
proceeds from the insurance covering the steamboat. The 
libelant claims that this is permissible under Admiralty 
Law and relies upon the decisions of the Supreme Court 
in the cases of Sheppard rs. Taylor. 30 U. S. 675, and 
O'Brien I's. Miller, 168 U. S. 287, as supporting their 
position. The Boston Insurance Company relies upon 
the case of the City of Nortvich. 118 U. S. 468, and sub- 
sequent decisions following the rule expressed in that 
case, in support of its contention that the lien against 
the boat cannot be extended to cover the insurance pro- 
ceeds. The cases referred to, and their respective rul- 
ings, are not in conflict. In the case of Sheppard is. 
Taylor, supra, the King of Spain seized the vessel War- 
ren, imprisoned the crew and condemned the vessel and 
its cargo. Subsequently the crew was permitted to return 
to the United States and the King ordered the proceeds 
to be repaid to the owners. The seamen proceeded against 
the owners by libel for their wages and were permitted 
to have their lien against the boat attach to the proceeds 
which had been paid to the owners as compensation for 
the illegal seizure of the boat. In that case the court said 
"the lien will follow the ship and its proceeds into 
whosoever hands they may come by title or purchase from 
the owner." In the case of O'Brien vs. Miller, the steam- 
boat Johnson was required to put into port for repairs. 
The master executed a Bottomry bond to meet the ex- 
penses of the repairs, which bound the boat, its cargo 
and freight. The Johnson collided at sea with a British 
vessel and was sunk with a total loss. The owners of the 
Johnson libeled the British vessel and recovered judg- 
ment for the value of the vessel. The consignors and the 
consignees of the original cargo of the Johnson filed an 
action to recover from the owners of the Johnson their 
share of the sum paid on the Bottomry bond, and the 
court held that the owners of the Johnson, to the extent 
of the damages paid on account of the collision, were 
liable to the libelants as creditors of the ship. In both 



of these cases the owners of the ship had a claim against 
others arising out of the operation of the ship and 
wrongful acts done to it. In such cases a creditor's lien 
against the ship attaches to the proceeds which are re- 
covered by reason of such a claim for damages. In the 
case of the City of Norwich, the vessel took rire and sank 
with loss of cargo but was subsequently raised and re- 
paired. The owners of her cargo filed a libel against the 
boat and against the owner. The owner claimed limita- 
tion of liability to the value of his interest in the ship 
and freight as provided under the Act of 1851, 9 Stat. 
6.35, which permitted the owner of any vessel to limit 
his liability for damages to the value of his interest in 
the vessel and her freight then pending. The libelants 
claimed that in order for the owner to take advantage 
of this statute he must surrender the insurance which he 
collected from the insurance company by reason of the 
sinking of the vessel. The court held that insurance 
placed by the owner was no part of the owner's interest 
in the ship or freight within the meaning of the law, 
and that the owner did not have to surrender the proceeds 
of such insurance in order to take advantage of the limi- 
tation of liability. The opinion pointed out that the 
proceeds from the insurance was by reason of an inde- 
pendent contract and was a matter entirely collateral to 
the owner's interest in the vessel, the owner's interest 
in the vessel remained the same regardless of whether 
insurance had been taken out or not, and that taking of 
insurance was optional with the owner as additional pro- 
tection. This ruling was followed by many cases. 

The court, using the foregoing authorities as a basis 
for ics opinion, held that the lien of the libel against the 
SS Donald T. Wright did not attach to the proceeds of 
insurance which might be payable by the Boston Insur- 
ance Company to the Sewell Transportation Company. 
The court also disposed of the additional question of 
pleading under Rule 56 which did not aftect the decision 
of the point explained above. 

Revised Coast Guard 
manuals Hvailable 

The Merchant Marine Personnel Division, at Coast 
Guard Headquarters, Washington, D. C, recently an- 
nounced the revision of two booklets of interest to active 
members of the merchant marine: "Specimen Examina- 
tions for Merchant Marine Deck Officers," and "Manual 
for Lifeboatmen and Able Seamen." The revision date of 
each pamphlet is June, 1946. The booklets are now 
available upon request to the Commandant, U. S. Coast 
Guard, Washington, or any Coast Guard field Marine 
Inspection Office. 



Page 84 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




U(m/L (^'umtm& dniwf^uL 



by "The Chief" 

"The Chief's" department welcomes questions — Just write "The Chief," Pacific Marine Review. 



The IDarine Steam Boiler 



I. Historical Development 

In a steam plant the center of operations — the heart 
of the process — is the boiler or steam generator. If the 
boiler can supply steam continuously at the proper con- 
ditions there is seldom any trouble with the prime mover. 
This is increasingly true in modern steam plants where 
the pressures and temperatures are relatively high and 
the prime mover is a turbine. 

Boiler design was one of the "headaches" of the engi- 
neers w ho in the early days sought to apply steam to ship 
propulsion. Our illustration shows some of these early 
efforts. It IS an interesting side light that the "digester" 
of Denys 'Dioniseus) Papin { 1680) is designed on ex- 
actly the same principle as "The 20th Century Pressure 
Cooker" which is now engaging the admiring attention 
of so many American housewives. 

Denys was a professor of Physics in the Sorbonne, 
Paris. In his time the butcher shops of the poorer quar- 
ters of Paris sold horse meat collected from battlefields 
or from carcasses of worn-out old farm or delivery horses. 
Much disease and death resulted from this practice and 
Denys Papin invented his "digester" to cook this meat 
at higher temperature and so make it more palatable and 
safer for human consumption. Many of these heavy cast 
iron pressure cookers with clamped covers and weight- 
loaded safer)' valves may be found in the kitchens of 
France to this day. Incidentally, Papin was the inventor 
of the safety valve. 

Later, in Hesse, Germany, Papin applied this boiler 
successfully to the rowing of the state barge on the river 
Fulda. However, he found a "goon squad" from the 
GRB ( Guild of River Boatmen ) waiting for him around 
the bend. These toughs beat up the inventor, dumped 
his boiler and engine into the river and rowed the state 
barge back in triumph to its boat house. Papin escaped 









JANUARY • I 947 



Page 85 



to England where he wrote a book describing his inven- 
tion and telling of his research into steam as a powerr 
producer. 

A century later steam began to take serious hold on the 
imagination of inventors in many parts of the world, 
particularly in Great Britain and in America. In America 
it is interesting to note that most of the early marine 
boilers were of the water tube variety. This was true of 
the early boilers patented by Fitch, Stevens, and others, 
during the last quarter of the 18th century. The French- 
man Carnot had already demonstrated mathematically 
that higher pressures and temperatures were the keys to 
fuel economy, but the practical application of his prin- 
ciples had to wait for three-quarters of a century. 

That canny Glasgow Scotsman James Watt had added 
greatly to the economy and performance of steam engines 
by designing an external condenser and making the cyl- 
inder double-acting. All his life he opposed pressures 
above 10 psi. Did this opposition rise from the fact that 
at such low pressures more power was obtainable from 
the use of Watt's condenser than from the action of the 
steam on the piston? 

The first description of a multitubular fire box boiler 
is contained in the patent issued by U. S. Patent Office to 
Nathan Read in 1788. This shows a vertical boiler very 
similar to the coal burning donkey boilers used for many 
years by sailing vessels and cargo steamers for working 
cargo in port. 

Fire tube boilers gradually evolved into the familiar 
cylindrical "scotch " marine boiler which was a very serv- 
iceable and fairly efficient steam generator and on which 
practically all the refinements of steam generation and 
combustion control were applied and tested. Air pre- 
heaters in the uptakes, induced and forced draft systems, 
various rypes of superheaters, various systems of inducing 
circulation — the old "scotch" boiler has used them all and 
before the end of the 19th century it had with its com- 
panion the vertical triple expansion engine pushed steam 
navigation into every port and every river on the earth. 

By 1900 marine steam plants were almost unanimously 
"scotch" marine boilers of 100-260 psi working pressure 
feeding steam to triple expansion steam engines. These 
boilers were single or double coders with from two to 
four coal burning furnaces in each end and made in 
dimensions ranging up to 24 feet in length and 18 feet 
in diameter. The larger sizes of these boilers would have 
a weight with their mountings of 100 to 110 long tons 
and would take 50 to 60 long tons of water. 

Since 1900 the trend has been definitely to water-tube 
boilers and higher pressures and temperatures. 

In all of the literature on the subject of marine power 
plants up to very recent years credit is given to the engine 
for fuel economy records. Thus the introduction of com- 
pound expansion reciprocating engines about 1850 and of 
triple-expansion engines in 1881 brought about very 
marked improvements in fuel consumption per horse- 
power hour. 



Since 1850 the fuel economy has been improved from 
3.5 to 4 lbs. of coal per shp hour to about 0.75 lbs. of 
oil or about 1 lb. of coal per shp hour; thus showing a 
reduction in fuel consumption of approximately 75 per 
cent. 

While it is true that this remarkable improvement 
could not have been made without a great improvement 
in the steam rates of prime movers, it is equally true that 
the boiler must generate the necessary steam with the 
economy of fuel required. 

In modern plants the boiler and its accessories require 
intelligent supervision and should have attention from 
the engineers on watch at least equal to that given the 
prime mover and its auxiliaries. If the engineer can 
adjust the boiler installation to continuously provide the 
necessary quantity of steam at the proper conditions then 
( barring emergencies ) the prime mover will produce the 
required horsepower with efficient smoothness. 

It is very important, therefore, that the engineer should 
thoroughly understand: the theory of boiler design and 
construction; the maintenance of boilers; the theory and 
practice of feed water treatment; the importance of clean 
heat exchange surfaces m boilers; and the nature and 
heat content of fuels. 

It will be the purpose of this series of articles to treat 
some or all of these subjects in a simple practical manner 
and it is hoped that any reader who has a question or a 
criticism will submit same in writing addressed to The 
"Chief," Pacific Marine Review, 500 Sansome Street, San 
Francisco. 



Bactericidal Efficiency of Low 
Pressure Double Effect Distilling Plants 

By William W. Payne 

iContinued from December) 

Feed Water Preheated 

In this series the plant was operated as previously ex- 
cept that auxiliary steam was supplied to the combined 
sterilizing feed heater and air ejector condenser. This 
steam supply was regulated either by a hand operated 
valve or a thermostatically controlled valve so that the 
feed water entering the first effect shell would be main- 
tained at a fixed temperature. This temperature was 
maintained at either 165" F. or 175° F. The rate of feed 
varied for the different runs, and this in effect varied the 
length of time the water was maintained at the given 
temperature. 

This portion of the study was included to determine 
the effectiveness of heating the feed water to kill coliform 
bacteria in the event a plant required this adjunct to insure 
a safe water. Any possible effect of evaporation on the 

I Please turn lo page 144) 



Page 86 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 






KnOiUlEDCE IS THE STRHICHT 

lOURSE TO RounniEmEnT 
by "The Skipper" 

Questions Welcomed. Just Address "The Skipper," Pacific 
Marine Review, 500 Sansome St., San Francisco, California 



THE SEHflilT 

Chapter IX 

The Sextant and Coastal navigation 

The sextant is of the greatest value when in sight of 
land because by measuring the angular height of a light- 
house or .a mountain ( or any object of which the height 
is known), the distance off may be found. This opera- 
tion is known as taking a "vertical sextant angle. " With 
the distance ofT known, as well as the bearing of the 
object, a "fix" can be fairly well determined. 

A ship's position can also be fairly well fixed by meas- 
uring with a sextant the angle between three or more 
points of land. This operation is known as taking a 
horizontal sextant angle." 

Taking a Vertical Sextant Angle 

Set the index arm of the sextant at zero. Use either 
the star telescope or just the plain blank tube. Look 
directly at the object, and by moving the index arm bring 
the reflection of the upper part of the object ( seen in 
the silvered half of the horizon glass ) down to the level 
of the lower part of the object ( seen through the plain 
glass half of the horizon glass) — generally the horizon. 

When observing the sextant angle of a lighthouse, it 
must be borne in mind that it is the center of the glass 
lamp that must be reflected down to the sea ( high water 
mark to be strictly accurate) and not the top of the 
lighthouse, as illustrated in Fig. 19- 

In practice no allowance is made for height of tide or 
height of eye, as by ignoring these the observer is led to 
believe that he is closer to the object than he really is 
and therefore, in most cases, is given an added margin 
of safety. As very small angles are being observed and 
as accuracy is desired, always take the mean of the read- 
ings both "on and off" the arc. This eliminates any sex- 
tant index error. The height of lighthouse and headlands 



— above high water — are shown on charts and in light 
lists. 

Position by Vertical Sextant Angle 

For the benefit of those who are not familiar with this 
method of fixing a ship's position, it should be explained 
that if the height of any object is known, its distance 
may at once be found in the daytime by taking a vertical 
sextant angle of it. If at the same time the bearing of 
the object is taken by compass the ship's position is 
determined. This gives a fairly accurate fix and should, 
when practicable, be used in preference to other methods 
when in tidal waters, as it gives the ship's position with- 
out delay, and without the possibility of error which may 
occur when using the four point and other running fixes. 
In modern navigation whenever possible, in the daytime, 
especially when passing abeam of an object (i e., 90° 
from ship's course), always fix the ship's position by 
taking a vertical sextant angle of the object. 

In practical navigation Tables 9 and 10 in Bowditch 
are used. Table 9 is used when the distance off is esti- 



D 



Fig. 19, Taking the v 
seitant angle. 




JANUARY • 1947 



Page 87 



mated to be less than 5 miles, and Table 10 when the 
distance off is estimated to be more than 5 miles. These 
tables are simply a series of columns under headings for 
various heights of objects on shore. In each column 
under the heading for the height of the object will be 
found a series of sextant angles, and at the outer edge 
of the table will be found the distance off comparing to 
the sextant angle. In many cases some mental interpola- 
tion is necessary, but as a rule the distance off can be 
found in using these tables without the use of pencil 
and paper. 

In practice, if you have no tables, an excellent rough 
method is: Multiply the height of the object by 0.565, 
convert the sextant angle into minutes, and divide. The 
result wiU be the distance off in miles and tenths of 
miles. This rough method is practicable only to to five 
miles, but it is very simple. 

The Vertical Danger Angle 

To avoid sunken rocks and shoals, or other dangerous 
obstructions which are marked on the chart, the naviga- 
tor may use what is known as a danger angle. The verti- 
cal danger angle requires a well-charted object the height 
of which is known. The angle which is to be used must 
be obtained before entering the dangerous area. Use of 
the vertical danger angle is shown in Figure 20. 




Assume the ship to be on a course XY, and that the 
navigator wants to pass between shoal areas I and II, 
and in doing so must keep clear of both shoals. Light A 
is shown on the chart to be 100 feet in height. By 
measuring the distance from the base of Light A to clear 
shoal area I, it is found to be one mile. By entering 
Table 9 ( Bowditch ) the sextant angle necessary to keep 
the ship one mile from Light A is found to be 0° 57'. 
The navigator then measures the distance from the base 
of Light A to clear shoal area II, which is found to be 
one and one-half miles. The sextant angle necessary to 
keep the ship one and one-half miles from Light A is 
found to be 0" 38'. Therefore, just as long as his sextant 
angle does not become greater than 57', or less than 
0° 38', he will keep clear of both shoals. 




The Horizontal Sextant Angle 

To determine position by means of the horizontal 
sextant angle three objects are required, which are plainly 
marked on the chart and the horizontal angle measured 
between the center object and the object on either side. 
To take the horizontal sextant angle between two objects, 
hold the sextant horizontally (flat), mirrors upwards, 
and bring the reflection of the right-hand object directly 
below the left-hand object, when the left-hand object is 
seen through the plain portion of the horizon glass. To 
pick up the reflection of the right-hand object the index 
arm should be set at zero. The observer looks directly 
towards the left-hand object, and by moving the index 
arm to the center of the arc gradually brings the right- 
hand object to the point where it will be superimposed 
on the object to the left. The angle is then read. 

Perhaps the best method in plotting horizontal sextant 
angles is to use a three-armed protractor. Select three 
objects whose positions are accurately given on the chart. 
With a sextant measure the angles between the center 
object and the objects to the right and left. The pro- 
tractor should be placed on the chart with the fixed arm 
away from the navigator, the right movable arm set for 
the right angle and the left movable arm for the left 
angle. Verify the settings and clamp the arms. Place the 
protractor on the chart with its center about the estimated 
position of the ship, with the straight edge of the fixed 
arm passing through the plotted position of the center 
object. Move the protractor about until the straight edges 
of the right and left arms pass through the plotted posi- 
tions of the right and left objects. The center of the 
protractor is now right over the position of the ship at 
the time the sextant angles were taken. Mark this posi- 
tion on the chart. 

The three-armed protractor has the advantage of giv- 
ing chart positions which are independent of compass 
errors. Figure 21 illustrates the method of determining 
{Please turn to page 1 44 1 



Page 88 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



0^ 



4^(H' 



SHIPS in THe nriRKinG 



Pacific Coast Shipbuilding 

The casual reader of the press 
these days is very apt to conclude as 
he did in 1920 that shipbuilding is 
dead. In fact this assumption is 
more or less common even in the 
industrial departments of our Cham- 
bers of Commerce. This assumption 



is very far from the fact for ship- 
building is not dead but is going 
through a period of adjustment and 
in that period is fairly busy as com- 
pared with normal prewar ship- 
building. 

On the Pacific Coast a casual sur- 
vey of the shipyards indicates as of 
December 1, 1946, the following 
partial list of contracts. under way: 



Bethlehem Steel Co. 
Alameda Shipyard 


2 Passenger Liners 
5-.V X -5' 6" X 43' 6" 
Turbo-Electnc 20,500 shp 
American President Lines 
(both launched J 


Gross tons 
Total 30,900 


Bellingham Iron Works 


14 Steel Purse Seiners 

~6' 6" X 22' X 10' 11" 

250 shp diesel 

U. S. Treasury Department 

5 Wood Purse Seiners 


Total 


1,610 




same dimensions 

U. S. Treasury Department 


Total 


5"'5 


Consolidated Steel Corp. 


2 Steel Tuna Clippers 
115' X 28' X 14' 6" 
900 shp diesel 


Total 


680 


Northwest Marine Iron 
Works 


1 Stern Wheel Tow Boat 
186' X 42' X 9' 








Steam reciprocating 
1625 shp 


Total 


"50 


Oregon Shipbuilding 
Corporation 


3 Passenger and Cargo Steamers 
436' 6" X 62' X 38' 
U.S.M.C.-Alcoa Steamship Co. 


Total 


24,600 


Pacific Bo.^tbuilding Co. 


5 Steel Purse Seiners 

78' 9%" X 22' X U' 2" 

240 shp diesel 

U. S. Treasury Department 


Total 


600 




3 Wood Purse Seiners 


Total 


330 


Tacoma Boatbuilding Co. 


5 Steel Purse Seiners 
same as above 


Total 


600 




4 Wood Purse Seiners 


Total 


440 


United Concrete Pipe Co. 


2 Tuna Clippers 
840 shp diesel 


Total 


685 


Bjrchi ield Boiler Works 


4 Tuna Clippers 
Diesel engine 


Total 


1 ,300 


GuNDERsoN Bros. Engineering 

Corp.. Portland, Oregon 


1 Kelp Harvester 


Total 


250 


Total Vessels 


51 T< 


tal tons 


6x320 



This compilation does not include 
every fishing vessel under construc- 



tion nor does it indicate any of the 
naval work in progress. 



JANUARY 



1947 



An interesting feature of the pres- 
ent situation is noticed in the report 
of the California Labor Commis- 
sioner which shows that during No- 
vember employment in the privately 
operated shipyards of the San Fran- 
cisco Bay district increased 4 per 
cent or 400 men. That indicates 
10,000 employees still busy in the 
privately owned shipyards of this 
district, and means that including 
the Navy shipyard establishments 
on the Pacific Coast there are from 
.^5,000 to 40,000 employees still 
working in shipyards on the West 
Coast. 

Those who knew the lean years 
prior to 19.t9 will agree that such 
figures indicate a continuing ship- 
yard activity far in excess of what 
was then considered normal. With 
careful planning by management 
and the cooperation of labor, there 
should be a very respectable ship 
construction, ship repair, ship con- 
version, and ship scrapping indus- 
try on the Pacific Coast, and this in- 
dustry should have a healthy growth 
as Pacific world trade develops. 

Barges Delivered 
Ahead of Schedule 

Use of an assembly line designed 
specifically for the construction of 
harbor craft enabled Bethlehem Steel 
Company's Staten Island Yard to de- 
liver two of four barges being built 
for M. & J. Tracy Company, De- 
cember 12, or eight days earlier than 
the original schedule date. Keels 
for the barges were laid less than 
one month ago. 

Immediately after launching of 
the first two units, keels for the sec- 
ond two barges will be laid on the 
same building ways. It is expected 
that these craft will be ready for 
delivery a month later. 

These four barges are of the 
hopper-type for coal and incorporate 
new features, including an improved 
method of bottom framing on which 
a Bethlehem patent is now pending. 
They are 146 feet long, .^8 feet 
beam and 1 7 feet 6 inches deep, 
with a capacity of 2,050 long tons. 

Two barges of the same type also 

Page 89 




lie dredge Papoose, owned by the Hydraulic 

:alifornia. on the drydock at Bethlehem's San 

of the 50-foot section in her dredging ladde 

dredge for new berthing facilities at the Sa 

yard at Hunter's Point. 



Dredging Company of 
Francisco yard for re- 
r in preparation for a 



will be built for the Berwind-White 
Coal Mining Company. In addition, 
two dump scows with a length of 
223 feet 6 inches, beam of 44 feet, 
depth of 15 feet and capacity of 
1,500 cubic yards, are scheduled to 
be built for the Great Lakes Dredge 
& Dock Company. 



Fam&us Liner Sold 
To Portugese 

American President Lines during 
December sold the veteran trans- 
pacific and Round-the-World pas- 
senger-cargo liner President Johnson 
to Portuguese interests who have ar- 
ranged to operate the vessel under 
Panama registry in an immigration 
service from Portugal and Mediter- 
ranean ports to Brazil and Argen- 
tina. 

Bids were called for recondition- 
ing and conversion of the vessel re- 
sulting in a low bid from General 
Engineering and Dry Dock Com- 
pany. At this writing contract had 
not been let. Cost will be in the 
neighborhood of §400,000. 

President Johnson, a troop carrier 
in two world wars, is the former Pa- 



cific Mail liner Manchuria. Built at 
the New York Shipbuilding Com- 
pany yard, Camden, New Jersey, in 
1904, she has a length of 600 feet 
b.p., a beam of 65' 3", a molded 
depth of 43' 4", a gross measure- 
ment of 16,111 tons, and is pro- 
pelled by twin screws each driven 
by a quadruple expansion steam en- 
gine with cylinder diameters 30"- 
43"-63"-89" and a stroke of 60". 
From 1904 to 1914 Manchuria 
was operated in the transpacific 
service of the old Pacific Mail and 
became one of the most popular 
liners in that service. Transferred 
to the International Mercantile Ma- 
rine, she was operated by them as a 



transport throughout World War L 
After that war, she operated in the 
New York-Hamburg service and 
later was transferred to the Panama 
Pacific line in the intercoastal pas- 
senger and cargo service. New York- 
San Francisco. In 1929, Manchuria 
was acquired by the Dollar interests 
who changed her name to President 
Johnson and placed her in their 
Round-the-World Service. 

The President Johnson was one 
of the few vessels which served 
through two world wars. Her serv- 
ice in World War II was particu- 
larly distinguished. In January, 
1941, she was loaded with 18,000 
tons of cargo destined for the Bur- 
ma Road via Rangoon. She re- 
turned by way of Straits Settlements, 
Manila and Hong Kong, Baltimore 
and New York, with a full load of 
desperately needed rubber, tin and 
other strategic materials. She was 
then chartered by the British Minis- 
try of Ships for a voyage to India 
via Capetown, bring home another 
full cargo of critical raw materials 
from the Straits Settlements and 
Manila to the East Coast. 

In November, 1941, the President 
Johnson was chartered by the Unit- 
ed States Army Transport Service 
and after proper conversion, she 
sailed from San Francisco Decem- 
ber 5, 1941 (two days before Pearl 
Harbor) for Manila loaded with 
Army personnel. From then on she 
continued to operate throughout 
World War II as a troop transport 
in the Pacific, during which service 
she transported more than 30,000 
troops to battle zones overseas. 

sold to the Portugese. 




Page 90 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Queen Elizabeth 
Serviced Prior 
to Sailing 



A Texaco iruc't supplies lubri- 
catinq oil fo the R.M.S. Queen 
Elizabeth at her dock at South- 
hampton, England, prior to her 
maiden voyage as a passenger 
ship. Tc«aco Regal Oil 



closl 



the 



ely in 
of the 





Bethlehem's Busy San Francisco Yard 

The veritable forest of ships' masts, etched against a background of 
cranes floating drydocks" and other shipyard facilities, part of which 
is shown in our illustration, indicates the diversification and extent of 
ship repair activity now going on at Bethlehem Steel Company's San 
Francisco Yard. 

At the left, in drydock No. I. is the SS Fort Moultrie, a T-3 tanker 
operated by the Keystone Shipping Co., which is being restored to 



service from layup. In the center, on drydock No. 4. is the M V Carrick 
Bend freighter undergoing routine drydocking and painting. Moored to 
the wharf at the right of the Carrick Bend is SS W. H. Berg, tanker 
owned and operated by the Standard Oil Company, which came to 
Bethlehem for drydocking and voyage repairs. Behind the W. H. Berg, 
with lifeboats visible, is the SS tvlarine Phoenix, which is being converted 
from a trooper to a passenger vessel to be operated by Matson Naviga- 
tion Co. in service to Australia. 



Not shown in the photograph, but also at Bethlehem's San fn 
for repairs, are nine other vessels. 



Yard 




• 1947 



Page 91 




' Cunard-White Star 
enger cargo liner 
Media 



hwi Cunard 
White Star Liner 

sponsored by Mrs. Alfred Barnes, 
wife of the British Minister of 
Transport, the Media was launched 
in John Brown's Shipyard, Clyde- 
bank, Scotland, at approximately 
2:40 p. m., December 12. 

Media is built to comfortably 
accommodate about 250 passengers 
in one class. She is 540 feet in 
length, has a breadth of 70 feet, a 
gross tonnage of 14,000, and is the 
second new liner to be launched 
under the Cunard White Star Line's 



postwar building program, and will 
enter transatlantic service in the 
summer of 1947. 

On the promenade deck a lounge, 
smoking room, writing room and 
cocktail bar are provided for passen- 
gers. The lounge is two decks in 
height and is equipped with a full- 
size stage and screen for showing 
motion pictures. The dining room, 
located on "B " deck, extends the full 
width of the ship. Air conditioning 
covers all the public rooms. 

Offering considerable space for 
passenger recreation and relaxation, 
the ship has a glass-enclosed prome- 
nade deck, and open sports and 




bridge decks. Her cabins are all 
equipped with baths or showers. 

Special attention has been given 
to providing comfortable accommo- 
dations for the officers and crew of 
the ship. The entire boat deck has 
been set aside as Officer's Country, 
and the crew is quartered on a lower 
deck in cabins of two to five berths. 
Lounges and recreation space are 
available for all the ship's company. 

Media will carry general cargo 
amounting to about 7,000 tons, in- 
cluding refrigerated freight in spe- 
cial insulated compartments. 

Propelled by two sets of double 
reduction geared turbines, she will 
have a service speed of 17 knots. 
Her auxiliary machinery is almost 
entirely driven by electricity, sup- 
plied by four diesel generators. 

Media is the first Cunard White 
Star vessel built by John Brown Ltd. 
since Queen Elizabeth was launched 
from the same yard in 1938. A sis- 
ter to the Media is presently under 
construction at Harland and Wolff's, 
Belfast. 



Launching of the 
President Wilson 



Mrs. E. Russell Lutz, wife of executive vice president 

of American President Lines, at the launching of the 

SS President Wilson, November 24, IM4. 



Page 92 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Eights 



UJHO'S UJHO 

RFLOflT nno 

ASHORE 



Edifed by B. H. Boynfon 



The Cddct-Midshlp- 
men held their for- 
mal dance of 1946. 
This dance was 
sponsored by the 
Propeller Club, Stu- 
dent Port of the 
U. S. Merchant Ma- 
rine Cadet School 
San Mateo, and was 
held in Matson Hal 
on the Cadet Schcc 
grounds. 




San niateo Cadet-IDidshipmen 

Have Resumed Studies Mter Holidays 



Cadet-Midshipmen of the U. S. 
Merchant Marine Cadet School, San 
Mateo, California, fresh from holi- 
day leave, have settled down once 
again to the rigorous routine of 
training to become ship's officers in 
the U. S. Merchant Marine. How- 
ever, after study hours, many tall 
holiday yarns of the 225 Cadets have 

JANUARY • 1947 



been swapped among the caprai.is- 
to-be of the future. 

Christmas Eve was moved up to 
the evening of December 19 as far 
as the Cadet-Midshipmen were con- 
cerned. On that evening the annual 
Christmas party was held at the 
school, with Santa and all on hand 
round the huge Christmas Tree. At 
this time the newly formed Glee 



Club of Cadet-Midshipmen made 
their appearance with appropriate 
carols. The Cadet School orchestra 
rounded out the musical portion of 
the evening party. 

The start of holiday leave was 
December 20. One hundred thirty 
Cadet-Midshipmen from homes in 
Eastern cities chartered five planes 
for their transcontinental flight and 
were home in short order. They 
were not required to report back to 
the station until late January 1 and 
all reports received by Captain Ar- 
thur O. Brady. USMS, superintend- 
ent, indicate that everyone enjoyed 
his holiday to the utmost. 

Page 93 



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At 


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Left 


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right: Wil- 


liam 


S. 


Newell. 


pres 


ident of the So- 


:iet, 


' of 


Naval Ar. 


:hite 


!CtS 


and Marine 


Enqi 


neer 


s, and Vice 


Adrr 


liral 


E. L. Coch- 


rane 


. U S N , pres;- 




den 


t-clect. 



Society of Haval Hrchitects 
and IHarine [ngineers 



Vice Admiral Edward L. Coch- 
rane, U.S.N., chief of the Bureau of 
Ships of the Navy during the war 
period, and now chief of the Office 
of Materiel, was elected President 
of The Societ)' of Naval Architects 
and Marine Engineers at the 54th 
Annual Meeting of the Society at 
the Waldorf-Astoria, New York. 

William S. Newell, president of 
the Society for the past two years 
and president of Bath Iron Works 
Corporation, was elected an Honor- 
ary Member of the Society for life. 

Captain Wilbur N. Landers, U.S. 
N., who was attached to the New 
York Navy Yard during the war, 
was elected Secretary of the Society' 
for a one-year term. 

J. H. King, secretary of the So- 
ciety for many years and vice presi- 
dent of the Babcock and Wilcox 
Company, was elected treasurer for 
a one-year term. 

Four vice presidents were elected 
for the term ending December 31. 
1949, as follows: Arthur B. Homer, 
president, Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany; John E. Burkhardt, technical 
manager, Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, Shipbuilding Division; Wal- 
ter C. Hemmingway, vice president 
and general manager, Federal Ship- 
building and Dr)' Dock Company, 
and J. Lewis Luckenbach, president 
of the American Bureau of Ship- 
ping. 

William Francis Gibbs was award- 
ed the David W. Taylor Medal 
which is awarded by the Societ)^ for 
notable achievement in Naval Ar- 
chitecture and Marine Engineering. 
Mr. Gibbs has had a long and dis- 
tinguished career as a designer of 
naval and merchant vessels. 

The Linnard Prize was awarded 
jointly to Harold F. Robinson, naval 




architect. Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, Shipbuilding Division, and 
Eugene P. Worthen, chief engineer 
of the same company, for their 
paper presented at the Annual Meet- 
ing of the Society in 1945 entitled: 
"The Ore Carrier S. S. Venore." 

A new award recently established 
and presented for the first time this 
year designated, "The President's 
Award," went to Dr. K. S. M. Da- 
vidson, Professor of Mechanical En- 
gineering and Director of the Ex- 
perimental Towing Tank, Stevens 
Institute of Technology, for his pa- 
per entitled: "Seaworthiness with 
Special Reference to Bilge Keels," 
presented before a meeting of the 
local Philadelphia Section of the So- 
ciet)- in 1945. 

Fift)' - year Membership Scrolls 
were presented to: Clinton H. 
Crane, famous yachtsman, and presi- 
dent of the St. Joseph Lead Com- 
pany; Charles F. Bailey, Engineer- 
ing Director ( Ret. ) , Newport News 
Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Com- 
pany; James A. Thompson, of San 
Francisco, for many years superin- 
tendent of the U. S. Army Transport 
docks. Fort Mason, San Francisco,- 
and Miguel Rebolledo, naval archi- 
tesf, Mexican Navy. 

Representing members and asso- 
ciate members of the Society, the fol- 



lowing council members were elect- 
ed for the term ending December 
31, 1949: Vice Admir'al Earle W. 
Mills, U.S.N., recently appointed 
Chief of the Bureau of Ships of the 
United States Nav-i,-; 'VX'illiam E. 
Blewett, Jr., vice president. New- 
port News Shipbuilding and Dry 
Dock Company; James L. Bates, 
director of Technical Division. Unit- 
ed States Maritime Commission; 
John W. Hudson, naval architect. 
Sun Shipbuilding and Dr\' Dock 
Company; Roy S. Campbell, presi- 
dent and general manager. New 
York Shipbuilding Corporation; and 
Richard H. Tingey. assistant techni- 
cal manager, Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, Shipbuilding Division. 

Council members representing as- 
sociate members of the Society, who 
were elected for the term ending 
December 31, 1949. were: Major 
General John M. Franklin, presi- 
dent. L'nited States Lines; Alton B. 
Sharp, president, Eastern Steamship 
Lines; and David W. Niven, for- 
merly head of the Federal and Ma- 
rine Division, General Electric Com- 
pany, now retired. 

O. B. Whitaker. head of the Ma- 
rine Division. Sperry Gyroscope 
Company, was elected Assistant 
Treasurer of the Society, and Arlo 
Wilson was re-elected as Assistant 
Secretary of the organization. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 95 




The Port of San Francisco, Pro- 
peller Club of the United States, 
nominating committee, appointed 
by the club's president, Joseph J. 
Geary, and consisting of Messrs. Jo- 
seph A. Moore, Jr., chairman, Fred 
L. Doelker, Hugh Gallagher, A. B. 
Poole and Chas. L. Wheeler, have 
proposed the following for officers 
and new board members to serve 
the club during the year 1947: 
For President; W. Miller Laughton 
1st Vice President: Lewis Lapham 
2nd Vice President: J. J. Coney 
3rd Vice President: Edward H. 

Harms 
Secretary - Treasurer: Eugene F. 

Hoffman 
Asst. Secty.-Treas. : Carl McDowell 

For Board of Governors for the 
next three years: Joseph J. Geary, 
C M. LeCount, D. N. Lillevand, 
Vincent P. McMurdo, and Hamilton 
B. Perrin. Holdover Governors in- 
clude: E. H. Harms, Earl Living- 
ston, E. Russell Lutz, Joseph A. 
Moore, Jr., George E. Swett, Dear- 
born Clark, J. J. Coney, Gregory 
Harrison, W. Miller Laughton and 
K. C. Tripp. 

The annual meeting, election and 
installation of officers was held Jan- 
uary 15, 1947. 

W. M. Laughton, district manager 
of Bethlehem's West Coast Yards, 
has been associated with Bethlehem 
organization for more than 20 years, 
having begun as a machinist's helper 



Proposed Dew Officers of the 

Port of San Francisco 

Propeller Club 



W. M. Laughton. district manager 
Bethlehem's V/est Coast Yards, n 
president of Propeller Club. San Fr, 



Lewis A. Lapham, assistant to the 
President, American - Hawaiian Steam- 
ship Company, and new first vice presi- 
dent of Propeller Club, San Francisco. 



in the Company's steel plant at Spar- 
rows Point, Md. He has served in 
various capacities in the Moore plant 
in Elizabethport. N. J., the ship- 
building office of the Company in 
Bethlehem, Pa., and in the ship- 
building yard in Quincy, Mass. 

In 1936 Mr. Laughton was trans- 
ferred to the San Francisco shipyard 
and on June 22, 1937, he was made 
general superintendent. On Oct. 23, 
1939, he was appointed assistant 
general manager of the West Coast 
yards, and on February 9, 1944, 
manager of the San Francisco yard. 
On February 9, 1944, Mr. Laughton 
was made general manager of the 




associated company, Bethlehem-Ala- 
meda Shipyard, Inc., at whose yard 
in Alameda are now being turned 
out the largest commercial vessels 
built on the Coast. 

On December 1, 1944, Mr. Laugh- 
ton was appointed general manager 
of San Francisco, Bethlehem - Ala- 
meda Shipyard, Inc., and San Pedro 
yards of its Shipbuilding Division. 




NATIONAL OFFICERS OF THE PROPELLER CLUB OF THE UNITED STATES 
FOR \1At-\9A1 
At the 20th Annual Convention held at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York the 
above were elected officers of the National Propeller Club. Left to right: Com- 
mander Harold J. Harding, USNR, National Secretary; Lewis D. Parmelec, president, 
Atlantic, Gulf i West Indies Steamship Co., National President; LI. Comdr. Arthur 
M. Tode. USN (Ret.), Honorary President; Joseph H. Godwin. The Texas Company, 



Natic 



al Tr. 



Page 96 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



General [lectric Hward Civen 
George Barr in San Francisco 



George Barr, widely known General Electric marine 
superintendent, has been given the company's highest 
recognition, the Charles A. Coffin Award, for his out- 
standing work during World War II in supervising 
installation and repair of turbines and gears in both 
Navy and marine ships that were built in or came to 
the Bay Area for repairs. Allan G. Jones, Pacific District 
manager of the Apparatus Department, in presenting the 
award on behalf of the company, commended Mr. Barr 
for his selfless devotion in keeping uppermost the welfare 
of his country at all times. 

The San Francisco engineering division faced the 
largest supervision of installation jobs in its history back 
in July '41 — namely, the installation of the main pro- 
pulsion turbines, gears, rurbo-generator sets, and motors 
and auxiliary turbo-generator sets for U. S. Naval vessels 
and U. S. Maritime Commission vessels undergoing con- 
struction in Bay Area shipyards. As marine superintend- 
ent, Barr was responsible for this work. 

The shortage of engineers required training a non- 
technical crew but, because of Barr's ability and prestige, 
he was able to attract able and competent men. His 
selection and training of a group of 25 speaks for itself 
in the accomplishments made — /'. e., the installation of 
main propulsion equipment aggregating a total of 2,603,- 
500 hp on a total of 320 ships. In addition, they super- 
vised the installation of auxiliary turbo-generator sets 
aggregating 134,350 kw. 

As the tempo of Pacific warfare increased, the Bay 
Area became the home port of a great fleet. The job of 
making untold repairs on many and varied ships in record 
time presented a major problem. George Barr sensed 
that the repair load would become greater and greater, 
and laid plans. He trained his instaUation supervisors as 
repair supervisors, so that they in turn could supervise 
repairs, reconditioning, alterations and additions to all 
classes of naval and merchant vessels. In 1942, repairs 
were supervised on four ships — in 1945, 377 were put 
back on the seas. The maximum load was reached in 
June '45 when 51 vessels were supervised. And Barr 
constantly developed new and better methods for in- 
stalling equipment quickly and correctly. 

Mr. Barr won the admiration, respect and gratitude of 
high officials in the U. S. Navy, U.S.M.S.. W.S.A., and 




Allan S. Jones (left). Pacific District manager of the General 

Electric Apparatus Dept.. congratulates George Barr of the Marine 

Section, who received the Chas. A. Coffin Award for outstanding 

services in marine installations in the Bay Area. 



many shipyards, both Navy and private, in the Bay Area, 
the ship operators, and — by no means the least — the 
respect and affection of his own installation and repair 
supervisors. 

Rear Admiral G. C. Klein, Commander of the Mare 
Island Shipyard, wrote: "Mr. Barr, throughout the entire 
war and the demobilization period . . . has exhibited the 
greatest interest in our problems and has rendered sound 
engineering advice which has saved us valuable time and 
manpower in accomplishing our mission. . . . We could 
count on him regardless of the time or the day. . . . The 
Navy can pay no higher compliment than to express to 
Mr. Barr its gratitude and state that we consider he has 
earned a Navy Well Done. " 

Born in Paisley, Scotland, he had his first training in a 
technical academy there in steam and applied mechanics. 
After seven years of drafting and machine shop appren- 
ticeship, he was marine engineer with the British India 
Steam Navigation Company. In 1907 he came to Gen- 
eral Electric in Schenectady where he started as a ma- 
chinist. For the past 28 years, he has been with the 
company in the San Francisco engineering division as 
turbine supervisor and marine superintendent. Recently, 
he became part of the Federal Marine section as contact 
man for the marine fraternity. He lives at 1285 Hamilton 
Avenue, Palo Alto, California. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 97 




Building exterior or 
Harrison Street. 



nordberg's Dew Pacific Coast Headquarters 



The Nordberg-^anufacturiri^ Company recently 
opened new headquarters at 674 Harrison Street, San 
Francisco, from which will be served the Pacific Coast 
and Alaskan territory, including the dealers in Hawaii, 
the Philippines, and the Orient. 

The building covers an area of 11,000 square feet and 
houses the Administration offices, and facilities for the 
staff to handle sales, service and spare parts. The stock 
housed here consists of all parts required for emergency 
replacements, as well as regular spare parts used in the 
maintenance of the various classes of Nordberg engines. 



operating in the different types of ships in Pacific waters. 
Space is also available for storage of similar spare parts 
and complete engines of the new line of smaller Nord- 
berg four-cycle units. 

The office will provide headquarters for the Pacific 
Coast dealer organization which will market the new small 
engine line, and render service to the users of this new 
type equipment. 

Charles G. Cox is in charge of all Pacific Coast terri- 
tory, and George Lienhard is chief installation and service 
engineer. 




Charles G. Cox, Pacific 
Coast manager. 



George Lienhard, in- 
stallation and service 




Page 98 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Columbia Steel Buys 
Consolidated's Rssets 

William A. Ross, president of 
Columbia Steel Company, the Pa- 
cific Coast subsidiary of United 
States Steel Corporation, announces 
that Columbia Steel had concluded 
an arrangement to purchase the 
principal fixed assets and inven- 
tories and work in process of Con- 



solidated Steel Corporation, a Cali- 
fornia Corporation, subject to ap- 
proval of this sale by the stock- 
holders of Consolidated Steel Cor- 
poration. The announced price was 
58,293,319. 

Consolidated Steel Corporation is 
engaged in the fabrication and erec- 
tion of structural steel, plate and 
sheet products, its major plants be- 
ing located in the Los Angeles and 
San Francisco areas. 

The fabricating operations of 
Consolidated on the West Coast 
should provide a market for a con- 
siderable tonnage of plates, sheets 
and structural steel to be produced 
at the steel plant at Geneva, Utah, 
recently purchased from the Gov- 
ernment by United States Steel Cor- 
poration. This should be helpful in 
enabling the Geneva Plant to be 
continued in operation as a peace- 
time project. Large plate and struc- 
tural steel capacities, in excess of 
those called for by the normal needs 
of the Far West, were installed ini- 
tially at Geneva by the Govern- 
ment to meet the requirements of its 
wartime shipbuilding programs on 
the Pacific Coast. One of the peace- 
time problems of the Geneva Plant 
is how to utilize advantageously 
these large capacities. 




Alden G. Roach, 
Consolidated Ste 



At the present time United States 
Steel Corporation has no steel fabri- 
cating operations on the Pacific 
Coast, other than the drum and con- 
tainer plants of United States Steel 
Products Company at Los Angeles 
and Alameda. Calif'^rnia. 

President A. G. Roach, for Con- 
solidated, makes a similar announce- 
ment, adding that if the sale goes 
through Consolidated will be dis- 
solved and liquidated. 




Personalities in the 
Shipping World 



The Inferior Design Division of George G. 
Sharp is honored to have in ifs ranlcs fhe 
first woman to be elected to the Society 
of Naval Architects and Marine Engi- 
neers. Miss Jo Anne Steane ha% worked 
with color, paints, fabrics and other 
phases of marine interior design under the 
expert direction of Jack hfcancy. She 
was notified that she had been elected to 
the status of a Junior Member shortly 
after her return from the Ingalls Yards at 
Pascagoula, Mississippi, where she inspect- 
ed the interiors of the Sharp - Designed 
S.S. Del Norte, a luxurious, completely 
postwar passenger cargo vessel which has 
|ust been delivered to the Mississippi Ship- 
ping Company of New Orleans. 




JANUARY • 1947 



Page 99 





Donald Helson and Hlaverick Speak 
flt L. R. Foreign Trade Meeting 



"We can't be prosperous and we 
can't have world peace without 
world trade, " said Donald Nelson 
last month to 200 Los Angeles ship- 
ping people and traders; and Maury 
Maverick, whom he introduced at 
the annual banquet of the Junior 



Foreign Trade Association of South- 
ern California, expressed the same 
belief. And they might well have 
said, with equal conviction, "We 
can't have shipping without world 
trade! " 




Committeeman Ja 
Loudon, Jr., of Ja 
Loudon & Co., ( 



left: C. F.Yen- 



ley (left), 
manager, T 
rransportati 



spac 



Co., 



■ith S. M. 
Campbell, F. de 
Berna, Stanley Lindo 
W. D. Rogers, H. J. 
Hayes, all of Trans- 
pacific except Mr. 
Lindo, who is an ex- 
porter. 

Los Angele 
offices w e 
sented by, left 
right: E. R. Gordon. 
J. S. Vernay, Jr., and 
faul W. Carter; Fred 
E. Laughlin was also 



repre- 



James Brodie, Pacific Coast Representative of the 
Stan Line of London (center) guest of its Southern 
' California Agency, Transmarine Navigation Corp. 
Left is Max Under, president, and right is R. C. 
Stevens, executive vice president. 



At left. Guest Speaker Donald Nelson and Max 

Linder, Jr., president of Junior Foreign Trade 

Association of Southern California. 



The Coast will have as part of its 
development the development of 
world trade, for the Pacific coun- 
tries are our natural customers, said 
Nelson, and we should seek "nat- 
ural" business arrangements with 
these countries to develop their in- 
dustry and resources for more trade 
and improved living standards for 
ourselves. 

Maury Maverick, apologizing for 
the political nature of the subject, 
pointed out the pressure that will 
be in and on the new Congress to 
abolish the International Trade Or- 
ganization and return to the protec- 
tive tariff. 

The speakers were introduced by 
President Max Linder, Jr., and toast- 
master Russell Goode at the first 
postwar banquet of the Association. 
This group was active before the 
war, and is now embarked on an 
aggressive postwar program. Others 
responsible for the success of the 
event were James Louden, Jr., Wil- 
liam Ziegler, Brae Loveless, Frans 
Benson, and Harry Lawrence. 





Shoreside Personalities 

WILLIAM F. SCHORN, of 198 
Broadway, New York City, was re- 
cently a visitor in San Francisco in 
connection with the interior design 
of the P-2 liners for the American 
President Lines. 

Schorn was formerly Chief of the 
Marine Interior Design Section of 
the U. S. Maritime Commission. 
Prior to that he was engaged in 
private practice as an architect on 
interior design. 

He is responsible for the interior 
design on many of the passenger 
ships of recent construction in the 
United States, and is currently en- 
gaged on the Uruguay, Brazil, Ar- 
gentina and the Washington. The 
design of the interiors on the six 
reconverted C-.Vs being completed 
in the Federal Yard at Kearny for 
the American South African Line 
are also from his board. 
» * * 

MARINE INSTRUMENT 
CHANGE: The Marine Instrument 
Company of 1539 Folsom Street, 
San Francisco, is now being oper- 
ated by Charles H. Peabody. Joe 
Benoit has severed his connection 

with the firm. 

* * * 

PACIFIC COAST ENGINEER- 
ING COMPANY, of Alameda, CaH- 
fornia, C. H. Ramsden, president, 
has announced the appointment of 
Bodon Company, Pasadena, as South- 



ern California representative. The 
Bodon Company, headed by R. F. 
Hurt and D. C. Gafney, will handle 
the complete line of Pacific Coast 
Engineering Company standard 
products and will promote the en- 
gineering design and manufactur- 
ing services of the company to all 
industry in the area. 

* # * 

MARINE SALES MANAGER 
FOR GENERAL PETROLEUM 

Appointment of Ragnar "Rags" 
Giske, as manager of marine sales 
for the Washington Division of the 
General Petroleum Corporation is 
announced by Clarence S. Beese- 
myer, vice-president in charge of 
marketing. 

Mr. Giske succeeds Carl J. Waage, 
who passed away in Seattle on No- 
vember 17. 

The new marine sales chief, a 
graduate of the University of Wash- 
ington, where he majored in for- 
eign trade and water transportation, 
joined General Petroleum in 1934 
as a clerk at Tacoma. Subsequently 
he specialized in lubrication sales 
and joined the marine sales depart- 
ment as a salesman in 1939. AH of 
his service has been in the north- 
west except for the period from 
1944 to 1946 when he was sta- 
tioned in Los Angeles. 



Ragnar Giske. 
of Washingto 





CARGOCAIRE ENGINEERING 
CORPORATION recently opened 
an office at 726 Jackson Place N.W., 
Washington, D. C, under the di- 
rection of James W. Speer, as was 
announced in the December issue 
of Pacific Marine Review. In 
addition to Cargocaire, Mr. Speer 
will also represent the divisions of 
Cargocaire, Carswell Marine Asso- 
ciates and The Landley Company, 
in the Washington district. 



Obituary 



JACK YOUNG PASSES: Jack 
Young, regional manager of the 
Portland area of the Repair and 
Maintenance Department for the 
War Shipping Administration, 
passed away on November 22. Be- 
fore going to that city in March of 
1945, he was assistant to the man- 
ager of the similar department of 
the WSA in San Francisco. 

Born in England, 68 years ago, he 
came to the U. S. A. when 1 5 years 
of age, and spent most of his life 
in the maritime industry on the Pa- 
cific Coast. At different periods of 
his career he served as chief engi- 
neer of the Matson Company ves- 
sels, port engineer for the Nelson 
Line, and also with the Struthers 
and Barry Company. 

He was a fine fellow and held in 
the highest esteem by all who knew 
him. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 101 




Captain Ulinser (Danages 
niackay Radio's IDarine Station 

The appointment of Captain Lind- 
ley Winser, U.S.N. R., as manager of 
WSL, key coastal marine radiotele- 
graph station of the Mackay Radio 
and Telegraph Company is an- 
nounced by E. H. Price, vice presi- 
dent and general manager of the 
Marine Division of Mackay Radio, 
WSL. This station, one of Mackay 
Radio's most powerful links in its 
shore-to-ship communications oper- 
ations, is located at Amagansett, 
Long Island. 

Captain Winser, Navy veteran of 
World War I, was called to active 
duty in June, 1940, and served as 
Communications Officer on the U. S. 
S. Utah until it was sunk at Pearl 
Harbor in December, 1941. Follow- 
ing Pearl Harbor he was stationed 
successively at Tutuila, Samoa, Gua- 
dalcanal, and the Eleventh Naval 
District at San Diego, California. 
Upon his release from the Navy in 
October, 1945, Captain Winser 
served as district manager for Mac- 
kay Radio and Telegraph in Los An- 
geles for twelve months. Prior to 
entering Naval service in 1940, he 
had been associated with Mackay 



Radio and Telegraph, and its prede- 
cessor, the Federal Telegraph Com- 
pany, in Los Angeles for eighteen 
years. 

Mackay Radio and Telegaph is an 
operating unit in the American Ca- 
ble & Radio Corporation system, 
which is affiliated with the world- 
wide International Telephone and 
Telegraph Corporation. 

H British Expert on 
Cargo Stowage 

Sidney J. Duly, world famous 
British authority on the stowage of 
ships' cargoes, left recently for Eng- 
land after two months in this coun- 




Sydney J. Duty 

try observing shipping practices in 
the handling and storage of cargo. 
He was quite impressed during his 
survey with the great strides made 
in this field since his last visit. 

After graduating with honors 
from Cambridge University and the 
University of Berlin, Mr. Duly was 
engaged as a consultant by British 
shipping interests and designed and 
operated the general physics, chem- 
istry and microscopy laboratories 
that were erected by the City of Lon- 
don College 

Awarded the Mitchell Research 
FeUowship in 1926 to investigate 
moisture damage aboard merchant 
vessels, he won the Royal Society of 
Arts Silver Medal for his discov- 
eries. In 1937, he was appointed to 



the Leverhulme Fellowship for the 
investigation of storage conditions 
aboard ships. 

During the war, Mr. Duly served 
as a technical advisor to the Royal 
Air Force from 1940 until 1945. 

While in this country, Mr. Duly 
collaborated with O. D. Colvin, 
president of the Cargocaire Engi- 
neering Corporation, on a technical 
paper entitled "Control of Humidity 
in Cargo Spaces on Board Ship." 
that will be presented in February 
1947 before the North East Coast 
Institute of Engineers and Shipown- 
ers at Newcastle on Tyne, England. 

He is a Director of Cargocaire 
Ltd., a British company formed ear- 
ly in 1946 for the manufacture of 
Cargocaire dehumidification equip- 
ment in Great Britain. Since the 
formation of this company, three 
major British shipping lines, Blue 
Star, Ltd., Furness Withy & Co., 
Ltd., and the Peninsular and Orien- 
tal Steam Navigation Co. have con- 
tracted for the installation of Cargo- 
caire in many of their vessels now 
under construction. 

Bethlehem Pacific Coast Steel 
Public Relations Head 




Willard S. Briscoe has been made man- 
ager of Publications, in charge of a 
newly created Public Relations Depart- 
ment of Bethlehem Pacific Coast Steel 
Corp. 



Page 102 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Detroit Diesel Engine 
Appointments 

The appointment of John C. 
Campbell as manager of industrial 
engine sales and of James W. Brown 
as advertising manager was an- 
nounced recently by V. C. Genn. 
general sales manager for the De- 
troit Diesel Engine Division of Gen- 
eral Motors. The appointments were 
made by Mr. Genn at a sales con- 
ference held recently in Detroit 
where plans were laid for activities 
during 1947. 

Mr. Campbell, who will now di- 
rect industrial sales of the GM Se- 
ries 71 diesel engine through De- 
troit Diesel's distributors and deal- 
ers, brings to his new job a wide ex- 
perience in many phases of the 
business. Following his graduation 
from the University of Detroit with 
an engineering degree, he spent sev- 
eral years with the Wright Austin 
Company and with the Frigidaire 
Division of General Motors. He 
joined Detroit Diesel in 1942 as a 
member of the Sales Department, 
studying the wide uses of the GM 
Series 71 engine in industrial appli- 
cations. Since 1945, Mr. Campbell 
has been in charge of Advertising 
and Sales Promotion activities f ^r 
the company. 

Mr. Brown, who now takes over 
as advertising manager, has been 



Left to right: J 
W. B 

J. C. Campbell 
Detroit Dies I 
Engine Divisi( 
of General M 
tors. 



nd 




directly connected with advertising 
and publication work since his grad- 
uation from Yale in 1927. He spent 
several years on the advertising 
staffs of leading publications in 
Cleveland, Memphis, and Dallas, 
and for the past year has held the 
position of product news manager 
for Detroit Diesel. Mr. Brown, who 
is well known as the author of 
"What Do GM Diesels Do? ", will 
continue to be in charge of product 
news for the company. 

niouiton and Buist Ramed 
Turco Sales Chiefs 

Appointment of L. H. Moulton to 
the post of national sales director 
and D. T. Buist, assistant national 
sales director, was announced re- 



Left to right: Lou Moulton and Dan Buist. chiefs of Turco Sales Div 




cently by Ray Sanders, vice presi- 
dent and general manager, Turco 
Products, Inc. Their headquarters 
will be the firm's main offices in Los 
Angeles. 

Fifteen years' experience in the 
selling of Turco's broad chemical 
line gives Lou Moulton excellent 
qualifications to direct the nation- 
wide sales-service staff. 

Dan Buist, assistant national sales 
director, joined Turco in 1936 as a 
specialist with 20 years' experience 
in the automotive field. Trans- 
ferred to the Aviation Division in 
19.39, he was promoted to district 
sales manager in 1943, and Western 
Zone sales manager in 1944. 

During the past two decades 
Turco has established four factories 
in Los Angeles, Houston, and Chi- 
cago. Selling direct to the indus- 
trial consumer, Turco maintains 65 
warehouses and sales offices staffed 
with trained technical service men. 



Southern California Office 
of George S. tacy Company 

The George S. Lacy Company of 
San Francisco recently announced 
the opening of their Southern Cali- 
fornia office at 526 South San Pedro 
Street, Los Angeles. Clarence F. 
Herrmann, former sales director of 
Wiicox Crittenden & Company, Inc., 
for 20 years, is in charge of this new 
office. The company represents F. S. 
Getty & Company, Inc., of Philadel- 
phia, makers of five marine joiner 
hardware. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 103 



San Francisco Cadet-IDidshipmen 
lit 1). S. merchant IDarine Academy, 
Kings Point, Hew York 



At right: Cadet-Midshipman Carl H. Swadell pays tribute to Kings 
Point war dead. 

Below, left: Cadet-Midshipman B. J. Ronneberg plots a course in 
navigation at the Academy, Below right: The old sailing ship, the 
Emery Rice, serves as a reminder of the past when skill on a ship 
was determined by ability to scale the rigging, to the three S. F. 
Cadets, H. J. Bihier, J. E. Collins, and W. R. O'Brien. 

At bottom, left: Cadet Frederick Gross MacGurn, engineer candi- 
date, works on a lathe in the Academy machine shop. 



Engineer candidates receive instruction in steam, electrical and 
diesel engineering, machine shop and other subjects related to 
marine engineering. 





n [ ID S FLASHES 



c,y, srORPION (C-3) TO BE CONVERTED AT SAN FRANCISCO. 

SEA SCOKFiUW (^ oj Francisco will take delivery this month 

Pacific Transport Lines, Inc., of San ^^^^J^"° freighters recent- 

of the steamers Sea Quail and Sea Scorpion two of three C 3 tYPe J- g ^^^ 
ly purchased for its transpacific service at a jost of ^^°-^ JJ'^ ; ^^^ .e^.^ound 
Sea Quail has been completely ^^'^^"^^f ^^ f^^^f ' ^^^3 beinltaken over by the com- 



***** 



NEW TERMINAL COMPANY—SEATTLE ^oIIoH 

".he west waterway Bock Corporation has -^Z^;-- ^ --^e^I^Ie^^Prerifeif 
Todd Plant NO. 3. which was an -rf w va^J "^^est ^^^ ^J^^^^^^^ 3,,p^,,,3. 

of the --/-" -/^;/- Tester ;f he MacLean Construction Company. The yard will 
Vice President is Howe S. Foster °^ vessels and later will be developed 

be used for mooring and storage of deep-sea vessels, 

into an ocean shipping terminal. 

***** 

TWO ALL-ALUMINUM ^^^^^^^ J°J°f^^^^^^ ,3 ,3^,,,,, ,, ,^ ^.^nning construction of two 

The Aluminum Company of A">erica ^^^ P carrying bauxite from Dutch 
all-aluminum freight ships ^^^^/^^f^/^^rg^^il/.^L transferred to deep-draft car- 
Guiana to Trinidad, at which P°^f f ^^^^^° ^^ ,33, .derail, beam 60 and 54 feet, 
riers. The proposed v-se s wi b and^348^f^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

and maximum draft 20 and ly leei.. 

in thp wpieht of the hulls. 

in ^he^w-f;^^ ^^^^^ 3^,p3 ,,,, fi,,t discussed about a year ago. 



***** 



COLUMBIA STEEL OFFERS TO BUY CONSOLIDATED , ,i noAfi 

S^r" fe-s S::^t^Ler.r"rst!:;fo?^e.= : *s.,. = . n„t run, »o„t.«ne. .v Co.,- 

solidated, are not included in the deal. 



***** 



OPERATING-DIFFEREN AL ^^^^ ^^ ^^^p,,,,, 3,,3r the nation entered World War 
Operating-differential subsidies, su p^^^^^ ^^,,,,^, steamship companies. 

II, are being ^^^^^^^^J^^^^,^^/;,,', Ihe Merchant Marine Act of 1936 to enable Amer- 
These subsidies are authorized ^^aer ^.^^ foreign vessels 

lean operators to compete on essential foreign traae ro 
whose operating costs are lower. 

Page 105 
JANUARY • I 947 



PHILIPPINE CONSOLIDATED SHIPYARDS FORMED 

Several interests, connected with Consolidated Steel Corporation, have formed 
the Philippine Consolidated Shipyards to engage in ship repair operations in the 
Philippines. In addition to Consolidated Steel, they are the following: Philip- 
pine Industrial Equipment Company; K. D. Dawson; Andres Soriano; S. D. Bechtel ; 
A. K. Bechtel ; John R. McCone ; Morrison-Knudsen Company. Managers in Manila will be 
C. W. Lee and George S. Colley. 

***** 

DATE FOR OPENING BIDS TO BUY USS HARRIS IS POSTPONED 

Date for the opening of bids for the purchase of the USS Harris (ex-President 
Grant) has been postponed by the Maritime Commission from December 11, 1946, to Jan- 
uary 13, 1947. The ship, offered for operation in domestic trades only, is a twin 
screw passenger-cargo vessel with an overall length of 535 feet, beam 72 feet, depth 
50 feet, and draft 30 feet 7 inches. She is of 14,119 gross tons, 8,405 net tons, 
and 11,952 deadweight tons. She is driven by two steam turbines having a total of 
12,000 shp, and her reported speed is 18 knots. 

***** 
CONSOLIDATED STEEL GETS BIG PIPE ORDER 

A contract for the fabrication of 100 miles of 26 inch O.D. welded steel pipe 
for delivery during 1947 has been awarded by the El Paso Natural Gas Company to Con- 
solidated Steel Corporation. This is part of a natural gas pipeline project now 
under construction from Texas to Southern California. Last September, Consolidated 
was awarded a contract for 214 miles of 30 inch pipe by the Southern California Gas 
Company, for the western end of the line. 

***** 
MARITIME COMMISSION REORGANIZES 

Effective January 1, the work of the Maritime Commission will be performed by 
five departments. They will be: Legal, financial, purchase and sales, operations, 
and technical. A detailed outline of the functions of each department is available 
for readers who need it. 

***** 
LOS ANGELES TO HAVE BOAT SHOW 

Plans for an outdoor boat show and marine exposition to be held in the Los 
Angeles Coliseum from May 30 to June 8 are announced by California National Boat 
Shows, Inc., 6367 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles. 

***** 
EX-GERMAN MERCHANT SHIPS TO BE SOLD 

Until 2:30 p.m. EST, January 15, the Maritime Commission will receive bids for 
the purchase of 11 former German merchant ships, now anchored in the Hudson River 
Reserve Fleet Basin, New York. The ships are part of the reparations awarded to the 
United States. Bid opening date has been postponed from January 3. 

OLD PASSENGER-CARGO SHIPS FOR SALE 

Until 2:15 p.m., January 17, bids will be received by the Maritime Commission 
for the purchase of the USS Neville (ex-City of Norfolk, ex-Independence). The ship 
was built in 1918 by Bethlehem-Alameda, California, and is offered without opera- 
tional restrictions. She is 507 feet long, and was used by the Navy as a transport. 
Machinery was renewed in 1931. 

Page 106 PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



RESERVE FLEET STATUS .... .v. 

Although 96 vessels were withdrawn, 121 merchant ships were added to the 
jnited States Maritime Commission's Reserve Fleet during the month ending December 
5 raising the total moored at the nine fleet sites on that day to 1.742 Many of 
lie vessels withdrawn were sold under the Merchant Marine Act of 1946, under whxch 
iore than 700 war-built ships have been sold. The status of the Reserve Fleet sites 

December 15 was: 

Sites 

James River, Lee Hall, Va. 

Suisun Bay, Martinez, Calif. 

Mobile River, Mobile, Ala. 

Astoria, Oregon 

Olympia, Wash. 

Beaumont , Texas 

Hudson River, Tarrytown, N.Y. 

Wilmington, N. C. 

Brunswick, Ga. — 4. + „ j 

Eight of the vessels placed in sanctuary during the month were constructed 
prior to 1940. All others were war-built, 



Entered 


Withdrawn 


Total 




37 


663 


13 


8 


396 


15 


19 


231 


47 


2 


104 


1 


1 


96' 


3 


4 


42 


• • 


24 


127 


31 


1 


64 


11 




19 



SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA EXPANDING 

Following is a list of some 
Cisco Bay Area as of January 1: 



of the big industries expanding in the San Fran- 



Columbia Steel Company 
Fibreboard Products Company 
Johns-Manville 
Paraffine Companies 
Campbell Soup Company 
American Radiator & Standard 

Sanitary 
Green Industries 
Shell Chemical 
Blakes of Berkeley (Frozen 

pre-cooked meals) 
United Air Lines 
Tide Water Associated Oil Co. 
Leslie Salt Co. 
Marchant Calculator Co. 
H. J. Heinz Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Blaw-Knox Company 

SHIP CHARTERS END FOR ALLIES JUNE 30 

Under the wartime arrangements by wh 
ocean-going cargo ships that Britain has u 
States, and any ships similarly chartered 
or returned to the United States within si 
of hostilities. The deadline is June 30. 
; chase. The chartered ships are managed fo 
' British shipowners and many of the latter 
I understood shipowners can expect to receiv 
within the next few days and that in most 



$25, 
24, 
7, 
4, 
4, 
3, 

3: 
3: 

3 

3 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



000,000 
000,000 
000,000 
500,000 
500,000 
500,000 

,000,000 
,500,000 
,000,000 

,000,000 
,500,000 
,075,000 
,500,000 
,000,000 
,000,000 
,000,000 



Butler Packing Company 1,000,000 

Pacific Can Company 1,000,000 

Colgate, Palmolive-Peet Co. 1,000,000 

International Mineral & 1,000,000 

Chemical Co. 

Rainier Brewing Company 1,000,000 

Westinghouse Electric 1,000,000 

Corporation 

Sperry Flour Company 2,000,000 

Beechnut Packing Company 800,000 

Coca-Cola 1,000,000 

Gar Wood Industries 750,000 

Woolridge Manufacturing Co. 400,000 

Standard Oil Company 7,000,000 

Eastman Tag and Label Co. 400,000 

U. S. Envelope 500,000 

Schlage Lock Company 450,000 



JANUARY 



947 



ich they were chartered, all of the 229 
nder "bare boat" charter from the United 
by other Allies, must be bought outright 
x months of the declaration of the end 

More important is the question of pur- 
r the Ministry of Transport by various 
have put in bids for ships. It is 
e the Treasury decision on these bids 
cases the decision will be affirmative. 

Page 107 



I 

ALASKA RATE HEARINGS POSTPONED 

The Maritime Commission's rate hearings, covering places in Alaska and also to 
terminal rate increases at Puget Sound ports, have been postponed to January 20 and 
22 at the Olympic Hotel, Seattle. 

***** 

C-2 AND C-3 CONVERSIONS FOR LYKES BROTHERS 

Until 12:15 p.m., January 15, the Maritime Commission will receive bids for 
the reconditioning of the C-2 vessels Dyson Lykes and Red Gauntlet ; also the C-3 
vessels Almeria Lykes and Lipscomb Lykes. 

***** 

CARL FLESHER TO CONDENSER SERVICE CO. 

Carl W. Flesher, Pacific Coast regional director of construction for the U. S. 
Maritime Commission from 1942 to 1946, has become sales manager of the Condenser 
Service & Engineering Co., Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Mr. Flesher will make his 
headquarters in Hoboken, and will have charge of all the company's sales activities. 

***** 

LLOYD SHIPPING COMPANY JOINS CONFERENCE 

Lloyd Shipping Company, San Francisco, operating cargo, refrigerator and pas- 
senger service between California, Mexico, Central America, and Panama, has been 
admitted to membership in the Pacific Coastwise Conference. 

PARRY NAVIGATION COMPANY JOINS CONFERENCE 

The Parry Navigation Company, newest entry into transpacific trade, has been 
admitted to membership in the Pacific Westbound Conference. 



INDUSTRIAL EXPANSIONS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

New industries, and expansion in Southern California during November totaled 
more than $28,000,000, bringing the total of new factories built during the year to 
245 at $64,000,000, and expansions to 348 at |85,000,000. New industrial jobs were 
created for about 30,000. Included among the new industries are: Magna Box; Uni- 
versal Match Corporation; Miracold of California; Sun Harbor Packing Company; Swed- 
low Plastics Company; M & L Tool and Die Manufacturing Company. 

Current expansions include: Union Oil Company; General Petroleum; National 
Lead Company; U. S. Rubber Company; Pacific States Lacquer Corporation; Summers 
Gyroscope Company ; Joslyn Company. 

***** 

YOKOHAMA SERVICE RESUMED 

American President Lines has rescheduled Yokohama, Japan, as a regular port of 
call on its transpacific passenger service itinerary. Included also in the new 
schedule, as a regular port of call, is Honolulu, which had been by-passed by the 
big passenger carriers on their postwar emergency runs between California and the 
Orient. The first passenger vessel to call at Yokohama will be the General W. H. 
Gordon, sailing from San Francisco January 31 via Seattle, thence to Japan, arriving 
at Yokohama February 14, and continuing over the regular route to Shanghai, Hong 
Kong and Manila. 

Page 108 PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




PHCiriC CONST DIRECTORY 

or 

mnmsHip urn & oinRinE mmm 

mmm 



These Directories will be republishEd from time to time, and it is 
requested that changes and additions be sent to us promptly 



JANUARY • 1947 Page 109 





s^nmsHip 

DIRECTORY 




Ship Owners, Ship Operators and Their Agents with Offices on 
the Pacific Coast - Listed hy Cities 



CALIFORNIA 



LOS ANGELES 

AGwaiNES, mc. 

See, INTEBOCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

ALASKA PACKERS ASSOCIATION 

See, W. R. GRACE S CO., Agents 

ALASKA TRANSPORTATION CO. 

See, CONSOLIDATED S. S. COMPANY, 
Agents 

ALCOA STEAMSHIP CO 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 

AMERICAN EXPORT LINES, INC. 

See, PARRY NAVIGATION CO. INC. 
Agents 

AMERICAN-HAWAIIAN S. S. CO. 

530 West 6th St. TUcker 8181 

F. A. Hooper, Dist. Mgr. 

S. S. Harlow, Asst. Dist. Mgr. 

Berth 175, Wilmington Wilmington 4-4541 

T. C. Swanson, Pier Supt. 

W. A. Wahlgren, Port Engineer 

J. F. Walsh, Chief Clerk 

AMERICAN LIBERTY S. S. CORP. 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

AMERICAN MAIL LINES. LTD. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND 5 CO., Agents 

AMERICAN PACIFIC STEAMSHIP CO. 
541 S. Spring Michigan 7412 

H. H. Birkholm, President 

Eugene Overton, Vice President 6. Secretary 

Delmon M. White, Controller 

G. E. Phillips, Asst. to Pres. 
R. E. Morrell, Oper, Mgr. 
Martin Faerber, Insurance 
R. O. Lippens, Marine Supt. 
P. V. Gaudin, Supt. Engineer 



R. J. Armour, Port Capt. 

M. O. Barnett, Port Steward & Purchasing 

Agt. 
R. R. Campbell, Asst. Supt. Engineer 
G. W. Curran, Asst. Supt. Engineer 
H. Dreggors, Port Engineer 
C. Duggan, Port Engineer 
T. T. Overton, Port Engineer 
G. G. Gulvin, Port Engineer 

AMERICAN PIONEER LINE 

715 W. 7lh TRinity 8261 

AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES 

510 W. 6th Mutual 4321 

Edgar M. Wilson, General Agent 

R. M. DeLong, Gen. Pass. Agt. 

R. G. Dinwoodie, Dist. Pass. Agt. 

S. J. Hindle, Asst. to General Agent 

L. A. Menning, Dist. Freight Agent 

I. D. Anderson, Chief Clerk 

G. W. Schreader, Chief Accountant 
Agents for; 

JAMES GRIFFITHS & SONS 

LYKES BROS. STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 

ARROW LINE 

See, SUDDEN S CHRISTIANSON, INC. 



LTD. AGENTS 
TRinity 9051 



BALFOUR GUTHRIE & CO., 
530 W. 6th 

J. A. Sullivan, Dist. Mgr. 
Lines: 

DONALDSON LINE 
BEN LINE 
Service to U. K. 



BEN LINE 

See. BALFOUR GUTHRIE & CO., Agents 

BERNUTH LEMBCKE CO. 

See, POPE 5 TALBOT, INC., Agents 

BLUE FUNNEL LINE 

See, FUNCH, EYDE & CO., INC., Agents 

BLUE STAR LINE, INC. 

See, MARINE AGENCIES, LTD., Agents 



BURNS STEAMSHIP COMPANY 

727 W. 7lh TRinity 1061 

Also: 809 N. Avalon Blvd., Wilmington, 
Calii. 

L. G. Burns, President 

Vol Larsen, Vice President 

H. Neergaard, Marine Supt. 

Capt. M. E. Christensen, Port Captain 

H. Neergaard, Port Engineer 
Agents For: 

W. R. CHAMBERLIN & CO. 
Service To: 

All California, Oregon and Washing- 
ton (Puget Sound including Canadian) ' 
ports. Present operation covers all 
world ports under W.S.A. 

CANADIAN AUSTRALASIAN LINE 
CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAMSHIP LINES 
210 W. 7th VAndike 9890 

T. A. Dickson, Dist. Freight Agent 
Service To: 

Vancouver to Pacific Ports 

CHAMBERLIN, W. R., 4 CO. 

See, BURNS S. S. CO. 



COASTWISE LINE 
715 W. 7th 



TRinity 8261 



T. G. Maddox, District Manager 

CONSOLIDATED S. S. COMPANY 

Pier 1, Municipal Docks Phone 64996 

I. H. Fay 
Agents For: 
ALASKA TRANSPORTATION CO. 



CUNARD-WHITE STAR LINE 
WHITE STAR LINE 



Michigan 9478 



W. H. Hanniven, Mgr. 
Agents For: 
DONALDSON ATLANTIC LINE 



Page 110 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



LOS ANGELES— 

DECONHH. SHIPPING CO. 

305 N. Avalon Blvd. TErminal 4-7281 

Wilmington, CaUf. 

Agents For: 

HILLCONE STEAMSHIP CO. 

DE LA RAMA STEAMSHIP CO., INC., THE 
S30 W. 6th TUcker 5103 

Ralph M. Hyllon, Dist. Mgr. 
R. D. Kingsbury. Asst. Dist. Mgr. 
L. S. Copelomd, Port Supt. 
Sherman W. Elliott, Asst. Purch. Agt. 
Lines: 
DE LA RAMA LINES 
THE SWEDISH EAST ASIATIC CO. 
Service To: 
Philippines & China 

' DICHMANN, WRIGHT & PUGH, INC. 

i See, PARRY NAVIGATION CO., INC., 
Agents 

DODWELL & CO., LTD. AGENTS 

111 W. 7th VAndike 3102 

[ G. R. Bower. Manager 

Agents For: 
I FRUIT EXPRESS LINE 

' DONALDSON ATLANTIC LINE 

I See, CUNARD WHITE STAR LINE, Agent 

I DONALDSON LINE 

1 See, BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., LTD., 
Agents 

FRED OLSEN LINE 

530 W. 6lh Mutual 7323 

FRENCH LINE 

541 S. Spring Michigan 7412 

' See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., LTD., 
Agents 

FBUTT EXPRESS LINE 

See, DODWELL & CO., LTD., Agents 

FUNCH, EYDE & CO., INC. 
Ill W. 7th 

I. W. Zundel, Dist. Mgr. 
Agents For: 

BLUE FUNNEL LINE 

FURNESS (PACfflC) LIMITED AGENTS 

108 W. 6th TRinity8111 

R. V. Ross, Manager 
Agents For: 

HOLLAND AMERICA LINE 
ROYAL MAIL LINE 
PRINCE LINE, LIMITED 

GENERAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION 

OF CALIF. Mutual 0171 

Hlggins Bldg.. 108 W. 2Bd St. 

S. J. Dickey, President 

J. M. Jesson, Secretary 

H. Pew, Marine Buyer 

R. C. Jones, Supt. Engineer 

A. O. Woll, Manager Marine Dept. 

Box A. Terminal Island TErminal 2-8311 

Service To: 
TANKER 

GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., LTD. 

541 South Spring AGENTS 

OCEAN TERMINALS 

Berth 230G, Terminal Island 
W. B. Bryant, Dist. Mgr. 
H. Reese, Terminal Supt. 
W. W. Wynn, Chief Accountant 
H. P. Wynn, Dist. Passenger Agent 
Cox Birkholm. Traffic Dept. 

Operating Dept. (San Pedro): 

365 W. 7th St. TErminal 3-0151 

R. H, Hannah, Local Manager 



Agents For: 
FRENCH LINE 
INDEPENDENCE LINES 
KERR STEAMSHIP CO. 
PACIFIC AUSTRALIA DIRECT LINE 
PACIFIC ISLANDS TRANSPORT LINE 
PACIFIC MEDITERRANEAN LINE 
PACIFIC ORIENT EXPRESS LINE 
WESTFAL-LARSEN CO. LINE 
SILVER LINE 
SILVER-JAVA PACIFIC LINE 

GRACE. W. R., 4 CO. 

523 W. 6th Michigan 7811 

Wm. A. St. Amont, Manager 

J. E. McLaughlin, Marine Supt. 

D. Cutler, Traffic Mgr. 
Agents For: 
GRACE LINE 
JOHNSON LINE 

ALASKA PACKERS ASSOCIATION 
J. H. WINCHESTER & CO., INC. 
Service To: 

Mexico, Central America, Panama, 
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile 

GRACE LINE 

See, W. R. GRACE & CO., Agents 

GRIFFITHS, JAMES, & SONS 

See AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES, 
Agents 

HOLLAND AMERICA LINES 

See, FURNESS LINES, Agents 

HILLCONE STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, DECONHIL SHIPPING CO. 

INDEPENDENCE LINES 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

INTERNATIONAL FREIGHTING CORP. 

See, POPE 6 TALBOT, INC., Agents 

INTERNATIONAL TERMINALS, INC. 

215 W. 6th SL AGENTS 

Max G. Linder, President & Gen. Manager 
Roland C. Stevens, Vice President 
A. Malone, Superintendent 

INTEROCEAN LINE 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP. AGENTS 

111 W. 7th TUcker 3111 

W. F. Wilkinson, District Manager 

W. J. Sweeney, Traffic Mgr. & Purch. Agent 

J. Robert Gaffney, Operating Manager 
C. F. Staples, Customs & Claims Dept. 
266 W. 7th Street, San Pedro 
Lines: 

INTEROCEAN LINE 

KNUTSEN LINE 

PACIFIC COAST DIRECT LINE 

WEYERHAEUSER LINE 

AGWILINES INC. 

SALEN LINE 

AMERICAN LIBERTY S.S. CORP. 

ISTHMIAN LINE 

510 W. 6th TRinlly 7921 

W. C. Fulton, Manager 
J. Eilze, Pier Agent 
Service To: 

Inlercoastal; North Atlantic, Gulf. 

Transpacific; United Kingdom 



—LOS ANGELES 

JAVA PACmC LINE 
INDIES TERMINAL CO. 

R. R. Bennett, Marine Supt. 

Berth 230-B HArbor 6466 

Terminal Island, California 

See, TRANSPACIFIC TRANS. CO., Agents 

JOHNSON LINE 

See, W. R. GRACE & CO., Agents 

KERR STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., Agents 

KEYSTONE SHIPPING COMPANY 

See, W. H. WICKERSHAM S CO., Agents 

KLAVENESS LINE 

See, SUDDEN & CHRISTENSON OVER- 
SEAS CORP., Agent 

KNUTSEN LINE 

Los Angeles, California 
See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

LA LINIA DE VAPORES 

See, RED ANCHOR DOCK & S. S. CO., 
Agents 

LAMBERT BROS., LTD. 

See, TRANSMARINE TRANSP. CORP., 
Agents 

LAURITZEN LINE (P. F. Soto Shipping Co.) 
704 S. Spring VAndike 6666 

LLOYD SHIPPING CO. 

530 W. 6th Michigan 8497 

R. O. Vernon, Manager 
Service To: 

Mexico, Central America and Panama 

LUCKENBACH GULF STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 

LUCKENBACH STEAMSHIP CO,, INC. 

621 S. Hope THinity 7881 

E. A. MacMahon, District Manager 
B. J. Callighhn, Asst. Dist. Mgr. 
L. J. Miller, Terminal Supt. 

LYKES BROS. STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 

See, AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES, 
Agents 

MARINE AGENCIES, LTD. 

815 Preble Ave., Box 365 TErminal 4-7227 

Wilmington, California 

E. W. Horsman, Owner 

0. W. Pearson, Manager 
W. R. Dial, Asst. Manager 

Agents For: 

BLUE STAR LINE 
Service To: 

Pacific Coast — U. K. 
Passengers — Refrigerator and General 
Cargo 
MATSON NAVIGATION CO. 
Freight Offices. 550 So. Grand 

VAndike 2421 
R. I. Chandler, Vice Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 

1. B. Banning, Jr., Asst. Frt. Traffic Mgr. 

McCORMICK S. S. CO. 

See POPE & TALBOT, INC. 

MOORE-McCORMACK LINES. INC. 



530 W. 6th 

A. P. Smith, Manager 
R. R. Abbott, Frt. Agt. 
E. M. Salter, Oper. Dept. 

NORTON LILLY & CO. 
210 W. 7th 

OCEANIC S. S. CO. 
550 So. Grand 



TRinity 7171 



TRinity 3044 



VAndike 2421 



JANUARY • I 947 



Page 1 1 1 



LOS ANGELES— 

OLIVER I. OLSON & CO. 

106 East "F" St. TErminal 4-2694 

Wilmington. California 

Service; 

Coastwise Lumber Carriers 

PACIFIC ATIANTIC S. S. CO. 

606 So. Hill MAdison 7787 

W. C. Ricks, Dist. Mgr. 
J. D. Teague, Terminal Supt. 
Agents For: 

QUAKER PACIFIC LINE 
Service To; 
Intercoastal 

PACIFIC AUSTRALIA DIRECT LINES 

See. GENERAL S. S. CORP.. LTD., Agents 

PACIFIC COAST DIRECT LINE 

See. INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP.. Agents 

PACIFIC ISLANDS TRANSPORT LINE 

541 S. Spring Michigan 7412 

Service To: 

South Seas and New Caledonia 
See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., LTD., 

Agents 

PACmC MEDITERRANEAN LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

PACIFIC ORIENT EXPRESS LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

PACIFIC TRANSPORT LINES 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND <S CO., Agents 

PANAMA PACIFIC LINE 

See: UNITED STATES LINES CO., 
Agents 

PARRY LINES 

See, PARRY NAVIGATION CO., INC., 
Agents 

PARRY NAVIGATION COMPANY, INC. 
Rm. 216. 510 W. 6th MAdison 6-2037 

Wm. ]. Sweeney, District Manager 
Agents For; 
PARRY LINES 

AMERICAN EXPORT LINES, INC. 
DICHMANN, WRIGHT & PUGH, INC. 

PHILIPPINE-DE LA RAMA 

530 W. 6th TUcker 5103 

POLARIS STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, POPE 6, TALBOT, INC., Agents 
POPE & TALBOT, INC. 
McCormick Steamship Division 
714 W. Olympic Blvd. PRospect 8231 

W. Kenneth Pope, Vice President 

Geo. H. Bushnell, District Manager 

Berth 146, Wibnington TErminal 4-2531 

Capt. C. E. Larson, Dist. Op. Manager 
J. R. Waters, Dock Superintendent 
Agents For; 

ALCOA STEAMSHIP CO. 

INTERNATIONAL FREIGHTING CORP. 

PRUDENTIAL STEAMSHIP CO. 

POLARIS STEAMSHIP CO. 

SMITH & JOHNSON 

SPRAGUE STEAMSHIP CO. 

Page 112 



STOCKARD STEAMSHIP CORP. 
U. S. NAVIGATION CO. 
BERNUTH LEMBCKE CO. 
WESSEL DUVAL & CO. 
Service To: 

World Ports, Intercoastal, and Puerto 
Rico 

PRINCE LINE, LTD. 

See, FURNESS LINE, Agents 

108 W. 6th TRinity 8111 

PRUDENTIAL STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 

QUAKER PACIFIC LINE 

See, PACIFIC ATLANTIC S. S. CO. & 
STATES STEAMSHIP CO., Agents 

RED ANCHOR DOCK & S. S. CO. 

P. O. Box 345 Long Beach 639-00 

Long Beach, Calilomia 

D. A. Linthicum, President 
C. I. Chodzko, secretary 
Agents For: 

STOCKTON-LONG BEACH S. S. CO. 

RED ANCHOR S. S. LINES 

LA LINIA DE VAPORES 

Handle all lumber lines discharging 

at Red Anchor Docks. 

RED ANCHOR S. S. LINES 

See, RED ANCHOR DOCK & S. S. CO., 
Agents 

RICHFIELD on. CORPOHAHON 

555 S. Flower TRinity 2231 

P. C. Lamb, Manager Marine Department 
W. H. Wilder, Port Capt. 
C. G. Reed, Port Engineer 

ROYAL MAIL LINES, LTD. (FREIGHT) 

108 W. 6th TRinity 8111 

See, FURNESS LINE, Agents 

SALEN LINE 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

SILVER-JAVA PACIFIC LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., and 
TRANSPACIFIC TRANS. CO., Agents 

SILVER LINE 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., LTD., 
Agents 

SMITH & JOHNSON 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 

SPRAGUE STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 

STANDARD OIL CO. OF CALIFORNIA 

P. O. Box 910 

Harbor Blvd.. San Pedro 

Capt. T. W. Peters, Marine Supt. 

STATES STEAMSHIP CO. 
606 So. Hill 

W. C. Ricks, Manager 
J. D. Teague, Terminal Supt. 
Agents For: 

QUAKER PACIFIC LINE 

STOCKARD STEAMSH'P CORP. 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 



MAdison 7787 



—LOS ANGELES 

STOCKTON-LONG BEACH S. S. COMPANY 

See, RED ANCHOR DOCK & S. S. CO., 
Agents 

SUDDEN 4 CHRISTENSON, INC. 

Ill W. 7lh TRinity 8844 

Agents For: 
ARROW LINE 
WATERMAN S. S. CO. 

SUDDEN 4 CHRISTENSON OVERSEAS 

CORP. 
Ill West 7th TRinity 8844 

Agents For: 
BARBER LINE 

BARBER WILHELMSON LINE 
KLAVENESS 
FERN LINE 

SWEDISH EAST ASIATIC CO. 

See, DE LA RAMA S. S. CO., INC., Agents 



TRinity 9271 



TEXAS COMPANY, THE 

929 S. Broadway 

Berth 172 

Wilmington, Calif. TErminal 41181, 2 

Long Beach, Calif. Long Beach 71 122 

Daniel Dobler, Marine Supt. 

W. C. Clayton, Terminal Supt. 

Clarence Victor Peterson, Port Engineer 

TIDE WATER ASSOCIATED Ott CO. 
Box 227, Wilmington Rd. 
San Pedro, Calif. 

G. A. Reeve, Marine Supervisor 
G. H. Hayter, Asst. Purchasing Agt. 
Pacific Electric Bldg., Los Angeles 

TRANSATLANTIC S. S. CO., LTD. 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., 
Agents 

TRANSMARINE NAVIGATION COR- 
PORATION AGENTS 
215 W. 6th St. TRinity 5534 

Max G. Linder, Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 
Roland C. Stevens, Vice Pres. 
A. Malone, Superintendent 
Agents For: 

LAMBERT BROTHERS, LTD. 

WALLEN & CO. 

AGENT ASSOCIATIONS THROUGH- 
OUT THE WORLD. 
Terminals: 

Pier A Long Beach 66261 

Long Beach 2, California 

Berth 228-D TErminal 3-2741 

Terminal Island, California 

Terminal Operators, Ship Operators, 

Ship Agents, Freight Forwarders, 

Bunkering Agents, Chartering Brokers. 

TRANSPACIFIC TRANSPORTATION CO. 
530 W. 6th AGENTS 

TUcker 2511 

C. F. Yenney, District Manager 

Lines: 

SILVER-JAVA PACIFIC LINE 

JAVA PACIFIC LINE 

INDIES TERMINAL COMPANY 

Service To: 

Freight and Passenger — Philippine 
Islands, Netherlands Indies, Straits 
Settlements, British India, Persian Gulf, 
South and East African Ports 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



LOS ANGELES— SAN DIEGO 

UNION Oa CO. OF CALIFORNIA 

817 W. 7th TUcker 7211 

Reese H. Tayioi, Presiaent 
W. L. Stewart, Jr., Exec. Vice President 
Ronald D. Gibbs, Vice Pres. 
J. B. Stene, Mgr., Marine Oper. 
A. E. Morrison, Insurance Off. 
L. L. Lishman, Port Capt. 
R. H. Cyrus, Port Engineer 
Wenzel Peck, Port Steward 
E. H. Weaver, Purch. Agt. 
H. W. Sanders, Secretary-Treasurer 
Service To; 

Coastwise and Hawaiian Trading 

UNITED FRUIT COMPANY 

Pier 147 TEiminol 4-2631 

Wilmington. Caliiomia 

L. D. Burk'r.ar;, Res. I.lgr. 

UNITED STATES LINES CO. 

(Panama Pacific Line) 
71S W. 7lh St. THinity 8261 

T. G. Maddox, District Manager 
C. F. Downey, Terminal Supt. 
Service To: Coastwise 



-SAN FRANCISCO 



O. S. NAVIGATION CO. 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 

WALLEN & CO. 

See, TRANSMARINE NAVIGATION 
CORP,. Agents 

WATERMAN STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, SUDDEN & CHRISTENSON, INC., 
Agents 

WEST COAST LINE OF COMPANIA MER- 

CANTE DE LA COSTA OBESTE SA 
714 W. Olympic PRospect 3937 

A. C. Penburthy, President 
Captain O. ]. Olsen, Port Captain 

WESSEL DUVAL & CO. 

See, POPE i TALBOT, INC., Agents 

WESTFAL-LAHSEN CO. LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

WEYERHAEUSER LINE 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 



WHITE STAR LINE 
606 S. HiU 



TUcker 5208 



WILLIAMS, DIMOND 4 CO. 

609 So. Grand TUcker 8181 

L. C. Munson, Vice President 

Guy C. Reynolds, Dist. Freight Agt. 

C. A. Jones, Pier Supt., So. Calif. 

(Berth 228-E, Terminal Island, Calif. 

Dock— Berth 228-E,) 
Agents For: 

AMERICAN MAIL LINE 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS CORP. 

A. H. BULL & CO., INC. 

BLACK DIAMOND STEAMSHIP CORP. 

BOLAND & CORNELIUS 

COMMERCIAL MOLASSES CORP. 

EASTERN STEAMSHIP LINES, INC. 

MARINE TRANSPORT LINES, INC. 

MORAN TOWING & TRANSPORTA- 
TION CO., INC. 



PACIFIC TRANSPORT LINES 

SEAS SHIPPING CO., INC, 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP LINE 

TANKERS COMPANY, INC. 

UNION STEAMSHIP CO. OF NEW 

ZEALAND, LTD. 
WILMORE STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 
Service To: 

Transpacific: Shanghai, Hong Kong, 
Manila to Los Angeles & San Francisco. 
AMERICAN MAIL from Seattle to 
Shanghai & Manila, Vancouver, Seattle, 
San Francisco, Los Angeles, Tahiti, 
New Zealand and Australia 

WILMINGTON TRANSPORTATION CO. 

Catalina Terminal, Box 847 TErminal 4-5241 
Wilmington. California 

D. P. Fleming, Chairman of the Board 

Philip K. Wrigley, President 

C. F. Fennema, Vice Pres. S Gen. Mgr. 

C. F. Fennema, Insurance 

D. P. Fleming, Secretary 

L. H. Connor, Operating Mgr., Wilmington 
W. L. Scott, Port Eng., Wilmington 
J. N. Crowell, Purch. Agent, Wilmington 
W. H. Leisk. Manager, Tugboat Dept., 
J. J. Parker, Freight Agt. 
Service To: 

Tugboat Service — Los Angeles, Long 

Beach Harbors 

Steamer Service — Wilmington to Ava- 

lon, Santa Catalina Island. California 

WINCHESTER, J. H. & CO., INC. 

See, GRACE LINE, Agents 




SAN DIEGO 

ALASKA S. S. CO 

See, W. P. ELLIOT, Agents 

AMERICAN-HAWAIIAN S. S. CO. 

CRESCENT WHARF & WAREHOUSE CO., 
Agents 

AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES 

See, W. P. ELLIOT, Agents 

ELLIOT, W. P. AGENT 

336 C Street FRankUn 6581 

Agents For: 

ALASKA S. S. CO. 
AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES 



GRACE LINES 
1030 W. Broadway 

OCEANIC S. S. CO. 
213 Broadway 




FRankUn 0453 



FRankUn 4722 



SAN FRANCISCO 

AGWILDJES. INC. 

See, INTEROCEAN STEAMSHIP CORP., 
Agents 

ALASKA PACKERS ASSOCIATION 

111 CaUfomia GArfield 7360 

A. K. Tichenor, President 

C. A. Iversen, Vice President 

A. C. Mott, Secretary-Treasurer 
R. A. Stack, Asst. Secretary 

R. E. Astrup, Marine Superintendent & Port 

Eng. 
M. E. Wall, Asst. Marine Superintendent 
H. B. Adams, Oper. Manager 
Oscar Sundby, Port Steward 

B. P. Thornton, Purchasing Agent 

ALASKA TRANSPORTATION CO. 

See, OLYMPIC STEAMSHIP CO., INC., 
Agents 

ALCOA STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 

420 Market Street EXbrook 4695 

Harry Huff, Traffic Rep. 

See, POPE S TALBOT, INC., Agents 

AMERICAN EXPORT LINES, INC. 

233 Post St. GArfield 7556 

Frank E. Short, District Representative 
Service To: 

Mediterranean, Near East, India, Black 
Sea, Red Sea from East Coast 

AMERICAN-HAWAHAN STEAMSHIP CO. 
215 Market Street SUtter 5841 

Edw. P. Farley, Chairman of the Board 

I, E. Gushing, President 

Louis A. Lapham, Asst. to the President 

T. G. Plant, Vice President 

W. Dearborn Clark, V. P. & Traffic Mgr. 

C. M. Fedderman, Treasurer 

A. E. Stow, Pacific Oper. Manager 

G. V. Cooley, Pacific Coast Traffic Mgr. 

L. Formosa, Asst. Traffic Mgr. 

E. M. Slevin, Pacific Purchasing Agent 
Capt. N. J. Kane, Marine Supt. 

F. P. Ritchie, Superintending Engineer 
J. M. Pruner, Purchasing Agent 

E. E. Voellings, Port Steward 

Wilmer C. Webb, Pacific Insurance & Claim 
Agent 

Sailings every ten days from Boston, Phil- 
adelphia, New York: to Los Angeles, 
San Francisco, Oakland, Alameda, 
Portland, Seattle and Tacoma, and from 
Tacoma, Seattle, Portland, Stockton, 
Oakland, Alameda; San Francisco and 
Los Angeles to New York, Philadelphia 
and Boston 
Service from Baltimore, Norfolk, Charles- 
ton and Savannah to San Diego, Los 
Angeles, San Frcmcisco, Oakland, Ala- 
meda, Portland, Seattle and Tacoma, 
and from Tacoma, Seattle, Portland, 
Stockton, Oakland, Alameda, San Fran- 
cisco and Los Angeles to Jacksonville, 
Savannah, Charleston, Wilmington 
(N. C), Norfolk and Baltimore; east- 
bound service to Puerto Rico. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 113 



SAN FRANCISCO- 
AMERICAN MAIL LINE 
369 Pine Street EXbrook 1468 

B. E. Watson, Manager (Miss Barbara) 
Frank W. Smith, Port Engineer 
O. D. Higgins, Port Engineer 

AMERICAN MANCHURIAN LINE 

See. NORTON, LILLY & CO., Agents 

AMERICAN-PACiFIC STEAMSHIP CO.. INC. 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORPORA- 
TION, Agents 

AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES 

311 California Street DOuglas 6000 

Henry F. Grady, President 

E. Russell Lutz, Executive Vice President 

A. B. Poole, Vice Pres. & Treasurer 

M. J. Buckley, Vice Pres (Freight Traffic) 

Hugh Mackenzie, Vice Pres. (Passenger 

Traffic) 
Paul H. Bordwell, Vice President, Orient 

(Shanghai) 
E. D. Flaherty. Secretary 
T. J. Cokely, Operating Manager 
A. A. Alexander, General Manager Eastern 
Territory (NYC) 

E. F. Hoffman, Director, Public Relations 
W. H. Sharon, Director, Industrial Relations 
W. K. Varcoe, Freight Traffic Manager 

W. J. Johnstone, Passenger Traffic Manager 

W. G. Pearch, Marine Superintendent 

Carl Nordling, Port Superintendent 

J. Jacobsen, Port Engineer 

Harry Young, Port Captain 

T. Mullen. Catering Superintendent 

F. L. Morgan, General Purchasing Agent 
Reginald S. Laughlin, General Counsel 

Service To: 

(Transpacific and Round-Vl^orld Passen- 
ger and Freight Service) New York, 
Boston, Havana, Cristobal, Balboa, Los 
Angeles. San Francisco, Honolulu, Yo- 
kohama, Kobe, Shanghai, Hong Kong, 
Manila, Singapore, Penang, Colombo, 
Bombay, Suez. Port Said, Alexandria, 
Naples, Genoa, Marseilles 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS CORP. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND S CO., Agents 

AMERICAN SOUTH AFRICAN LINE 

See, NORTON, LILLY & CO., Agents 

AMERICAN TRADING CO. 

311 California Street YUkon G-0344 

John N. Raymond, President 

J. J. Geary, Vice President 

Ian Armstrong, Secretary-Treasurer 

Service to be resumed later. 

ARROW LINE 

See. SUDDEN & CHRISTENSON, Agents 

AUSTRALIAN DISPATCH LINE 

See. J. I. MOORE & CO., Agents 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO.. LTD. AGENTS 
351 California Street SUtter 6423 

L. P. Bailey, Mgr. S. S. Dept. 
David Lindquist 
Lines: 

DONALDSON LINE 
Service To: 
Pacific Coast Ports to London, Liver- 
pool, Glasgow. 

Page 114 



BANK LINE TRANSPORT & TRADING CO. 
260 California Street DOuglas 0442 

Captain Walter Gay, President 

W. H. Chick, Secretary 

P. F. Brown, Manager 
Service To: 

Los Angeles and San Francisco to 
Manila, Hong Kong and Shanghai. 

BARBER ASPHALT CO. 

See, DECONHIL SHIPPING COMPANY, 
Agents 

BARBER S. S. LINES, INC. 

See, SUDDEN & CHRISTENSON OVER- 
SEAS CORP.. Agents 

BAY CITIES TRANSPORTATION CO. 
Pier 5 SUtter 3933 

I Webster St., Oakland GLencorl 3277 

W. G. Westman, General Manager 
R. W. Dyer, Operating Manager 
C. R. Escher, Traffic Manager 
Service To: 

San Francisco - Oakland - Alameda - 
Emeryville - Berkeley - Richmond - 
and River Points. 

BLACK DIAMOND STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO.. Agents 
BLUE FUNNEL LINE 

See, FUNCH, EYDE & CO., INC., Agents 
BLUE STAR LINE, INC. 
465 California Street EXbrook 1580 

J. Van Meurs, Calif. District Mgr. 
Agents For: 
BLUE STAR LINE, LTD. 
London, England 
Service To: 

Liverpool, Glasgow, London, Newcas- 
tle, Hull. 

BOARD OF STATE HARBOR COMMIS- 
SIONERS. PORT OF SAN FRANCISCO 
Ferry Building GArfield 8800 

Thomas Coakley, President 

William G. Welt, Commissioner 

R. Loyall McLaren, Commissioner 

M. H. Gates, Secretary 

General R. H. Wiley, USA, Manager 

Carl M. Smith, Asst. Secretary 

Frank G. White, Chief Engineer 

W. A. Geary, Chief Wharfinger 

R. K. Hunter, Port Traffic Manager 

Thos. E. Twohig, Rental Manager 

Joseph V. Nardini, Supt. State Belt Railroad 

BROCKLEBANK, T & J., LTD. 

See, CUNARD WHITE STAR LIMITED, 
Agents 

A. H. BULL & CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 
BURNS STEAMSHIP COMPANY 
615 Hearst Bldg. YUkon 6-1001 

CALMAR LINES 

Pier 48, Shed B SUtter 6920 

CANADIAN AUSTRALASIAN LINE 
675 Market Street DOuglas 0134 

S. E. Corbin, General Agt. Passenger Dept. 
A. E. Walker, District Freight Agent 
681 Market Street GArfield 5185 

San Francisco, California 

CANADIAN NATIONAL STEAMSHIPS 

681 Market Street (Freight Dept.) SUtter 5091 

Service To: 

Vancouver, B. C, Powell River. Ocean 
Falls, Prince Rupert. B. C; Ketchikan, 
Alaska 



—SAN FRANCISCO 

CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAMSHIPS. LTD. 
152 Geary Street SUtter 1585 

Agents For; 

CANADIAN AUSTRALASIAN LINE 

CIA, MARITIMA DEL NERVION, BILBAO 

See, KERR STEAMSHIP COMPANY, INC., 
Agents 

CHAMBERLIN, W. R., & CO. 

465 California Street YUkon 6-0543 

W. R. Chamberlin, President 
W. R. Chamberlin, Jr., Vice President 
Jos. A. Lunny, Operating Manager 
I. J. Lamping, Secretary 
W. R. Chamberlin, General Manager 
George T. Rowse, Insurance 
L. H. Beckendorf, Purchasing Agent 
T. L. Tomlinson, Marine Superintendent 
F. M. Graham, Port Captain 
J. G. Kelly, Port Engineer 
Arnold Hughes, Port Steward 
John R. King, Comptroller 
Service To: 
World wide 

COASTWISE LINE 

See, UNITED STATES LINES CO.. Agents 

COASTWISE (PACIFIC FAR EAST) LINE 
222 Sansome Street DOuglas 8680 

Partners: 

K. D. Dawson 

W. D. Sexton 
B. H. Parkinson, General Manager 
R. S. Kimberk, Executive Asst. 
W. T. Sexton, Jr., Executive Asst. 

D. J. Seid, Insurance Official 

E. A. Gardner, Purchasing Agent 
A. G. Safholm, Marine Supt. 

D. Flint, Port Captain 
V. Foel. Port Engineer 

F. O. Ingham, Port Steward 
J. A. Borthrop, Freight Agent 

CONSOLIDATED S. S. CO. 

64 Pine Street DOuglas 0880 

J. C. Strittmatter, General Manager 
David Gregory, Mgr. of Operations & Traffic 
Pier 16 DOuglas 7207 

Terminal Operators and Contracting 
Stevedoring 

CROWLEY LAUNCH 4 TUGBOAT CO. 
Pier 14 EXbrook 1743 

CUNARD WHITE STAR LIMITED 

210 Post Street EXbrook 1307 

H. G. DeGolia, San Francisco Manager 
Agents For: 
T. & J. BROCKLEBANK, LTD 
PORT LINE LIMITED 
PENINSULAR & ORIENTAL LINE 
DONALDSON ATLANTIC LINE 

DECONHIL SHIPPING COMPANY 

311 California Street EXbrook 2365 

J. J. Coney, President 
C. A. Ames, Vice President 
Stanley Hiller, Vice President 
E. B. DeGolia, Vice President 
L. R. Kerdell, Secretary-Treasurer 
Fred H. Cordes, Marine Superintendent 
Lloyd Richardson, Superintending Engineer 
M. C. Wright, Port Engineer 
Agents For: 

BARBER ASPHALT CO. 

STANDARD FRUIT & S. S. CO. 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



SAN FRANCISCO— 

DE LA RAMA STEAMSHIP CO., INC., THE 

230 California SUeet EXbrook 8560 

Hugh Middleton, Pacific Coast Mgr. 
Carl C. Bland, Executive Assistant 
James E. Black, Asst. Oper. Mgr. 
James A. Riemers, Port Engineer 
P. F. Baker, Port Steward 
W. D. Hampshire, Purch. Agent 
Agents For: 

DE LA RAMA LINE 

THE- SWEDISH E. A. CO. 
Service To: 

Philippines, China 



AGENTS 
GArfield 8047 



DODWELL & CO., LTD. 
465 California Street 

Norman Hardie, Manager 
Lines: 

BARBER LINE 



DONALDSON ATLANTIC LINE 

See, CUNARD-WHITE STAR, LTD., Agents 

DaNAI,DSON LINE, LTD. 
(Donofason Bros. & Black, Ltd. — Glasgow 
Scotland) 

L. P. Bailey, Manager 

David Lindstedt, Operating Manager 

J. L. Brainerd, Traffic Manager 

See, BALFOUR GUTHRIE S CO., LTD., 
Agents 

EAST ASIATIC CO., INC. 

433 California Street EXbrook 7324 

Rasmus Hansen, President 
Mogens Bildsoe, Vice Pres. 
K. G. Rasmussen, Sec.-Treas. 
Guomund Laugesen, Operating Mgr. 
J. H. Ollerdessen, Traffic Mgr. 

EASTERN STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

ELLERMAN & BUCKNALL S. S. CO.. LTD. 

See, NORTON, LILLY & CO., Agents 



FXOOD LINES, INC. 
177 Post Street 



GArfield 9178 



FRENCH LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., Agents 

FRUIT EXPRESS LINE 
(Sigurd Herlofson & Co. — AIs, Oslo, 
Norway) 

See, DODWELL cS CO., LTD., Agents 

FUNCH, EYDE & CO., INC. AGENTS 

260 California Street DOuglas 5373 

H. N. Middleton, Pacific Coast Mgr. 
I. D. Kriel, Assistant Manager 
Agents For: 

BLUE FUNNEL LINE 
Service To 
Far East 

FURNESS (PACIFIC) LIMITED AGENTS 

231 California St. GArfield 8711 

James West, Pacific Coast Manager 
G. Salt, Financial Manager, Insurance 
G. R. Nowlin, Traffic Manager 
C. Pryor, Operating Manager 
Capt. C. E. Holland, Marine Supt. 
Lines: 

PRINCE LINE 

FURNESS LINE 



GENERAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION 
417 Montgomer/ Street EXbrook 6411 

A. O. "vV'oil, Director 6c Mgr. Marine Depl. 
L. J. Moore, Asst. Mgr. Marine Dept. 

B. F. Ball, Resident Mgr. Sales Dept, 

Clark G. Walker, Asst. Division Mgr. Sales 
Dept. 

C. E. Dole, Mgr. Marine Dept., San Francisco 
Mrs. S. M. Butler, Marine Dept., San 

Francisco 
Agents For: 

SOCONY- VACUUM OIL CO., INC. 

STANDARD VACUUM OIL CO. 
Service To: 

Coastwise, Worldwide 

GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., LTD. 
465 California SUeet AGENTS 

EXbrook 4100 
(Steamship Agents - Operators ■ Brokers 

and Charterers) 
Harry S. Scott, President 
Drew Chidester, Executive Vice President 
R. V. Winquist, Vice Pres. in charge of 

Traffic 
G. B. Schirraer, Vice Pres. in charge of 

Terminal Operations 
A. K, Hulme, Vice Pres. in charge of 
Operations and Charters 
Operations & Charters: 
, A. K. Hulme, Vice Pres. 
Peter Curtis, Asst. 
John Keast, Asst. 
John R. Bertolani, Operating Mgr. 
K. A. Hulme, Asst. 
P. C. Sears, Operating Dept. 
E. Weidel, Operating Dept. 
Lawrence M. Ammon, Purchasing 

Agent & Port Steward 
W. Plunket, Port Purser 
J. M. Michaelsen, Insurance Claims & 
Reports 
Traffic Dept.: 

R. V. Winquist, Vice Pres. 

C. A. Reali, General Traffic Mgr. 

A. E. Johnson, Asst. Mgr., South Seas & 

So. American Depts. 
V. Johansson, Asst. Mgr., Central 

American Dept. 
L. I. McKim, General Freight Agent 
John Cummings, Asst. 
Morse Frazier, Mgr. Australian 5. 

Oriental Dept. 
J. R. Page, Mgr. European Dept. 
R. W. King, Passenger Traffic Mgr. 
L. M. Cerruti, District Passenger Agent 
H. Walmsley, Mgr., Claims Dept. 
W. E. Bunker, Mgr. Terminal Operations 
(Pier No. 41) 
Agents For: 

AMERICAN-PACIFIC STEAMSHIP CO. 
FRENCH LINE 
INDEPENDENCE LINE 
PACIFIC-AUSTRALIA DIRECT LINE 
PACIFIC ISLANDS TRANSPORT LINE 
PACIFIC-MEDITERRANEAN LINE 
PACIFIC-ORIENT EXPRESS LINE 
WESTFAL-LARSEN CO. LINE 

GIRDWOOD SHIPPING COMPANY 

See, LLOYD SHIPPING COMPANY, 
Agents 

GRACE LINE (W. R. Grace & Co.) 

2 Pine Street SUtler 3800 

F. L. Doelker, Vice President 

D. N. Lillevand, Oper. Manager 
Harry Thompson, Traffic Manager 
R, E. Pyke, Asst. Traffic Mgr. 

F. L. Hardy, Asst. Traffic Manager 

G. T. Littlejohn, Steamship Acct. 



—SAN FRANCISCO 

Capt. P. H. Gallagher, Port Captain 
E. J. Graff, Port Engineer 
G. F. Williams, Asst. Oper. Manager 
A. C. Browmlie. Asst. Claim Agent 
C. A. Nelson, Auditor 
R. C. Rose, Purch. Agent 
E. T. Senter, Marine Supt. 
A. Cobbett, Port Steward 
A. C. Holsten, Stevedore Superintendent 
Agents For: 

JOHNSON LINE 

Pacific Coast-European 

Scandinavian Service 
Service To: 

Mexico, Central America, Panama. 

C. Z., Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, 

Chile 

GRACE, W. R.. & CO. 

2 Pine Street SUtler 3700 

H. S. Parsons, Vice President 
W. V. Lynch, Asst. Mgr. 
W. E. Rodgers, Asst. Mgr. 
G. H. Mahoney Asst. Mgr. 

HAMMOND SHIPPING CO.. LTD. 
417 Montgomery Street AGENTS 

DOuglas 3388 

L. G. Hammond, President 
R. G. Robinson, Vice Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 
S. L. Rea, Secretary 
G. B. McLeod, Vice Pres. 
P. B. Babcock, Port Steward 
Kenneth Huntington, Purchasing Agent , 
Wm. Meriwether, Port Capt. 
A. T. Jones, Port Engineer 
General Agents For: 

U. S. MARITIME COMMISSION 

HILLCONE S. S. CO., LTD. 

311 California Street EXbrook 2365 

Stanley Hiller, President 

Joseph J. Coney, Vice Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 

E. B. DeGolia, Vice President 

C. A. Ames, Vice Pres S Operating Mgr. 
L. R. Kerdell, Secretary & Treasurer 

HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE 

233 California Street DOuglas 7510 

E. F. R. de Lanoy, Pacific Coast Manager 
W. Klaasen, Asst. Pacific Coast Manager 

D. de Vries, Asst. Traffic Manager 

T. P. Guerin, Pacific Coast Pass. Agent 
H. Th. Page. Accountant 

E. Daniels, Dock Superintendent 
Agents For: 

ROYAL MAIL LINES, LTD. 
Service To: 

U. K. & Continent 

HOLWAY STEAMSHIP CO. 

465 California Street EXbrook 7534 

P. M. Holway, President 
Pacific Coast Agents For: 
MOSVOLD LINE 

INDEPENDENCE LINE 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., LTD., 
Agents 

INTERNATIONAL FREIGHTING CORP. 

See. POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 

INTEROCEAN STEAMSHIP CORP. 
311 California Street AGENTS 

DOuglas 7729 

Harry Brown, President 
Erik Krag, Exec. Vice Pres. 
R. W. Cabell, Vice Pres. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 115 



SAN FRANCISCO— 

INTEROCEAN STEAMSHIP CORP. 

Continued 
R. G. Thomas, Treas. S Comptroller 
E. Berlund, Secretary 
S. F. Alioto, Traffic Mgr. European 
H. B. Godwin, Traffic Mgr. Oriental 
E. Walker, Traffic Mgr. Intercoastal and 

South America 
J. F. Litz, Operating Mgr. 
S. A. Hess, Operating Dept. 
W. E. Morris, Operating Dept. 
C. J. Hunt, Asst. Controller 
C. M. Noble, Intercoastal Dept. 
J. F. Gisler, Marine Supt. 
R. I. Jacobs, Purch. Agent 
Chas. J. Keller, Port Steward 
Lines: 

INTEROCEAN LINE 

KNUTSEN LINE 

WEYERHAEUSER LINE 

PACIFIC COAST DIRECT LINE 

SALEN LINE 

AGWILINES, INC. 

AMERICAN LIBERTY STEAMSHIP 
CORP. 

U. S. MARITIME COMMISSION 
INTEROCEAN LINE 
(Westial-Larsen & Co. A/S— Bergen, 
Norway) 
See, INTEROCEAN STEAMSHIP CORP., 

Agents 

ISTHMIAN S. S. CO. 

215 Market Street YUkon 0562 

A. E. Blake, Mgr., Pacific Division 

R. G. Sullivan, Oper. Mgr., Pacific Div. 

J. J. Jacobs, Traffic Mgr., Pacific Div. 

Capt. E. Lucas, Asst. Marine Supt. 

H. M. Gaither, Asst. Supt. Eng. 

J. Priele, Port Steward 

W. H. Yost, Asst. Operations Mgr. 
Service To: 

Intercoastal, Philippines, China, Neth- 
erlands East Indies, French Indo-China, 
Straits Settlements (Malaya), Hawaiian 
Islands, India, Ceylon, Burma, Persian 
Gulf, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Red Sea. 

IVARIAN LINE 

See, C. F. SHARP, Agents 

JOHNSON LINE 

(Rederiaktiebologet Nordstjeman — 
Stockholm, Sweden) 

See, GRACE LINE, Agents 
KERR STEAMSHIP COMPANY, INC. 
324 Sansome Street YUkon 6-0943 

E. Wright, Vice President 

A. L. Wise, Traffic Manager 

R. H. Anderson, Marine Supt. 
Agents For: 

SILVER LINE, LTD., LONDON 
SILVER-JAVA PACIFIC LINE 
SILVER ROUND WORLD SERVICE 
LEIF HOEGH, OSLO 
CIA, MARITIMA DE NERVION, BILBAO 
NAVIERA AZNAR, S. A., BILBAO 
Service To: 

Philippine Islands, China, Netherlands 
East Indies, Straits Settlements, Burma, 
India, Ceylon, Iraq, Iran (Persian Gulf), 
South and East Africa Red Sea, Medi- 
terranexr. and Spanish Ports. 

KEYSTONE SHIPPING COMPANY 
See, THORLt ■ & PITT, Agents 

KINGSLEY CO. OF CALIF. 

(Kingsley Navigation Co.) 

260 California Street SUller 8156 

R, J. Deremer, Manager 

Page 116 



Service To: 
CALIFORNIA-BRITISH COLUMBIA 
KLAVENESS LINE 

See, SUDDEN & CHRISTENSON, Agents 

Christian Blom, Pacific Coast Representative 

To: PACIFIC COAST-ASIATIC SERVICE 

KNUTSEN LINE 

(Knut Knutsen. O.A.S. — Hougesund, Norway) 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP. 

LATINAMERICA LINE 

See, J, J. MOORE 5 CO., INC., Agents 

LAURITZEN LINE 

(I. Lauritzen — Copenhagen, Denmark) 

See. LLOYD SHIPPING CO., Agents 

LEIF HOEGH, OSLO 

See, KERR STEAMSHIP COMPANY, INC., 
Agents 

LLOYD SHIPPING COMPANY AGENTS 
206 Sansome Street GArfield 1973 

Eugene C. Lloyd, President 
Guy E, M. Steacy, Freight Agent 
Agents For: 

GIRDWOOD SHIPPING CO. 
LAURITZEN LINES 
LLOYD LINE 
Service To: 

Mexico, Central America, Panama 

LUCKENBACH GULF STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 
100 Bush Street SUtter 8711 

LUCKENBACH STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 
100 Bush Street SUtter 8711 

V. P. McMurdo, Acting Pacific Coast Mgr. 
W. G. Perow, Pacific Coast Marine Supt. 
Ira Head Asst. Pacific Coast Marine Supt. 
H. F. Clifford, Pacific Coast Auditor 
J. T. Bolts, Pacific Coast Purchasing Agent 
D. R. O'Neill, Pacific Coast Port Steward 
W. H. Conradi, Pier Superintendent 
J. H. Weller, Stevedoring Superintendent 
Service To: 

North Atlantic Service from Seattle, 
Portland, Stockton, Oakland - Alameda, 
San Francisco, Los Angeles Harbor to 
New York, Philadelphia and Boston. 
Gulf Service between Seattle, Portland, 
Stockton (Eastbound), San Francisco 
and Los Angeles Harbor — New Or- 
leans, Houston, Mobile and Tampa 
via Panama Canal 

MARINE TRANSPORT LINES, INC. 

510 Battery Street DOuglas 1366 

K. F. Watterworth, General Manager 
L. Vansistine, Purchasing Agent 
Capt. Otto Davis, Port Captain 
Fred D. Deckard, Port Engineer 
Thomas L. Seale, Port Steward 
Agents For: 

POLARIS STEAMSHIP COMPANY 
Service To: 

World-wide Service 
Tankers, Freighters 



MARTIN, C. U. 
465 California Street 



AGENT 
EXbrook 7140 



MOORE-McCORMACK LINES, INC. 

(Pacific Republics Line) 

140 California Street GArfield 7121 

K. C. Tripp, Pacific Coast Manager 

H. Martin, Port Engineer 

R. E. Moon, Port Captain 

A. J. Gartland, Purchasing Agent 

I. Hartry, Port Steward 

R. M. Despommler, Auditor 



—SAN FRANCISCO 

H. K. Grady, Western Freight Traffic Mgr. 
H. R, Cawsey, Passenger Agent 
Service To: 

East Coast South America 

MATSON NAVIGATION CO. 

215 Market Street DOuglas 5233 

Frazer A. Bailey, President 

Hugh Gallagher, Vice President 

G. K. Nichols, Vice Pres. in chg. of Construc- 
tion & Repair Dept. 

S. G. Walton, Vice President 

R. P. Hasenauer, Treasurer 

H, B. Perrin, Secretary 

J. P. Thompson, Manager, Construction & 
Repair 

M. Price, Manager, Insurance Dept. 

A. M. McKelligon, Purchasing Agent 

Paul Hodges, Manager, Public Relations 

A. J. Haring, Service Manager 

Commodore C. A. Berndtson, Marine Supt. 

Capt. M. C. Stone, Port Captain 

R. H. Sample, Port Engineer 

R. DeGorog, Catering Supt. 

M. F. Cropley, Freight Traffic Manager 

G. F. Hansen, Passenger Traffic Manager 

A. B. Tichenor, Industrial Relations Manager 

J. H, Jansen, Terminals Manager 

McCOHMICK STEAMSHIP CO. 

(Pacific Republics Line) 

See, POPE cS TALBOT, INC. 

MOORE, I. I., & CO. AGENTS 

451 Montgomery Street GArfield 7480 

H. B. Adams, Vice Pres. and Oper. Mgr. 
J. C. Morrison, Exec. Vice President 
A. O. Snaider, Freight Traffic Mgr. 
Agents For: 
LATIN-AMERICAN LINE 

(West Coast of South America) 
SOUTH AFRICAN DISPATCH LINE 

(South Africa) 
AUSTRALIAN DISPATCH LINE 
(Australia) 

MOSVOLD LINE 

See, HOLWAY S. S. CO., Agents 

NAVIERA AZNAR, S.A., BILBAO 

See, KERR STEAMSHIP COMPANY. INC., 
Agents 

NICOL, R. A.. & CO., INC. 

See, DE LA RAMA STEAMSHIP CO 
INC., THE, Agents 

NORTON, LaLY & CO. AGENTS 

230 California Street SUtter 3600 

Lines: 

AMERICAN MANCHURIAN LINE 
ELLERMAN & BUCKNALL S.S. CO LTD 
AMERICAN SOUTH AFRICAN LINE 
UNION SULPHR CO., LTD 
FOSS LAUNCH i TUG CO. 

NORWEGIAN AMERICA LINE AGCY., INC. 
323 Geary Street 

OCEAN AGENCIES, LTD. AGENTS 

465 California Street EXbrook 1321 

H. E. Pickering, President 
L. J. Pepperell, Vice President & Gen. Mgr. 
Agents For: 

W, H. WICKERSHAM & CO., INC. 
OCEANIC STEAMSHIP CO. 
215 Market Street DOuglas 5233 

See, MATSON NAVIGATION CO., Agents 
To: 

Hawaii, Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, 
Austraha. 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



SAN FRANCISCO— 

OLSEN. FRED. LINE AGENCY, LTD. 

241 California Street EXbrook 2261 

Harold MuUer, President 

Jens Feragen, Vice Pres.-General Mgr. 

M. S. Bannatyne, Secretary-Traffic Mgr. 

OLSON. OLIVER J., 4 CO.. INC. 

260 Caliiornia Street DOuglas 0915 

E. Whitney Olson, President 
George L. Olson, Exec. Vice President 
L. E. Phillips, Vice Pres. (Portland) 
Oliver J. Olson, Jr., Secretary 

John Pettebone, Office Manager 
A. C. Musante, Insurance Official 

F. A. Stromberg, Purchasing Agent 
Jack C. V\/inlers, Port Engineer 
Ray E. Baker, Asst. Port Engineer 
F. A. Stromberg, Port Steward 

Agents For: 

U. S. MARITIME COMMISSION 
Service To: 

Pacific Coastwise Lumber carriers only 

OLYMPIC STEAMSHIP CO.. INC. 

64 Pine Street DOuglas 0880 

J. C. Slrittmatter, Exec. Vice Pres. 

D. M. Gregory, Director for Traffic 

E. H. Johannsen, General Freight Agent 
John Berg, Dist. Operating Mgr. 

M. A. Johnston, Port Engineer 

D. R. McGath, Purchasing Agent 
Wm. Gleason, Port Purser 
Geo. Stephens, Port Steward 

Agents For; 

ALASKA TRANSPORTATION CO. 

COASTAL STEAMSHIP CO. 
Service To: 

Complete Pacific Coastwise Service 

PACIFIC AMERICAN SHIPOWNERS 

ASSOCIATION EXbrook 3913 

405 Montgomery Street 

J. B. Bryan, President 
W. L. C. Brown, Secretary 

PACIFIC AMERICAN STEAMSHIP ASSN. 
405 Montgomery Street EXbrook 3913 

E. Russell Lutz, President 
Hugh Gallagher, Vice Pres. 
W. Dearborn Clark, Vice Pres. 

Ralph J. Candler, Vice Pres. at Los Angeles 
Hillman Lueddemann, Vice Pres. at Portland 
A. R. Linlner, Vice Pres. at Seattle 
Henrietta T. Smith, Secretary-Treasurer 
Albert V/. Gatov, Executive Director 

PACIFIC-ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP CO. 

214 Front at California Street EXbrook 3414 

Agents For: 
QUAKER LINE 

PACIFIC-AUSTRALIA DIRECT LINE 
(Transatlantic Rederi A/B — Gothenburg 
Sweden) 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., 

Agents 
Service: 

Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide 

PACIFIC FAR EAST LINE, INC. 

256 Montgomery Street EXbrook 7605 

W. T. Sexton, President 

Thomas E. Cuffe, Vice Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 

E. V. Nevin, Secty-Treas. 

J. I. Presser, Purchasing Agent 

W. T. Lion, Port Captain 

V. J. Bahorich, Supt. Engineer 

V. R. Andrus, Port Steward 

J. R. Wagner, Traffic Mgr. 

A. F. Maze, Passenger Agent 

JANUARY • 1947 



PACIFIC ISLANDS TRANSPORT LINE 
(Aktieselskabet Thor Dahl. Sandeliord. 
Norway) 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., 

Agents 
Service: 

South Seas and New Caledonia 

PACIFIC COAST DIRECT LINE 
(Weyerhaeuser S. S. Co. — Newark, N.I.) 

See, INTEROCEAN STEAMSHIP CORP., 
Agents 

PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY 
311 Caliiornia Street EXbrook 8454 

R. H. Andersen, President 
R. Stanley Dollar, Vice President 
J. M. Fisher, Secretary-Treasurer 
E. E. Daniels, Marine Supt. 

PACIFIC MEDITERRANEAN LINE 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., LTD., 
Agents 

PACIFIC ORIENT EXPRESS LINE 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., LTD., 
Agents 

PACIFIC REPUBLICS LINE 

140 California Street GArfield 7121 

PACIFIC TANKERS. INC. 

433 California Street DOuglas 8616 

K. D. Dawson, President 

W. T. Sexton, Vice President 

Allen Cameron, General Manager 

Arthur A. Layne, Secretary-Treasurer 

H. E. Hsdrick, Asst. Sec.-Treas. 

Chester E. McKay, Superintending Engineer 

Capt. Frank J. Morrison, General Supt. 

Earl Hoffman, Purch. Agent 

I. Malcolm Baird, Personnel Manager 

C. M. Cox, Traffic Manager 

H. O. Faber, Port Captain 

Joseph ladrich. Port Steward 

PACIFIC TRANSPORT LINES, INC. 

244 California Street DOuglas 8174 

Richard A. McLaren, President 
Jesse B. McCargar, Vice President 
James L. Adams, Traffic Manager 
Hiram V. Walker, Traffic Manager 
James O. McManus, Operating Manager 
Ray A. Johanson, Insurance Official 
Paul B. Babcock, Purchasing Agent 
A. J. Ederer, Port Engineer 
Paul B. Babcock, Port Steward 
Paul H. Matson, Freight Agent 
Service To: 

Shanghai, Hong Kong, Philippines 

PARRY NAVIGATION C, INC. 

112 Pine Street SUtter 2852 

Chas. A. Perkes, Pacific Coast Manager 
Carleton F. Lester, Assistant Manager 
Capt. J. M. Mortenson, Port Captain 
William M. Gough, Port Engineer 
Thomas J. Taylor, Port Steward 
Paul F. Mott, Purchasing Agent 
Charles J. Moroney, Port Purser 
Anthony L. Weicher, Insurance & Claims 
Kenneth Griffin, Accountant 
Agents For: 

PARRY LINES, INC. 

AMERICAN EXPORT LINES, INC. 

DICHMANN, WRIGHT & PUGH, INC. 

PENINSULAR & ORIENTAL LINE 

See, CUNARD WHITE STAR LIMITED, 
Agents 



—SAN FRANCISCO 

PIONEER LINE 

Pier 5 suiter 3934 

W. G. Westman, Operating Manager 

C. R. Escher, Traffic Manager 
Service: 

San Francisco, Oakland, Alameda, 
Mare Island Navy Yard, So. Vallejo, 
Oleum, Selby, Crockett, and other Bay 
and River Points. 

POLARIS STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, MARINE TRANSPORT LINES, INC., 
Agents 

POPE & TALBOT, INC. 

320 California Street DOuglas 2S61 

Geo. A. Pope, Jr., President 

Chas. L. Wheeler, Exec. Vice Pres. 

F. C. Talbot, Vice President 

E. N. W. Hunter, Acting Gen. Mgr. 

Jos. L. Paiva, Controller 

R. F. Burley, Freight Traffic Mgr. 

T. F. Luedtke, Asst. Frgt. Traffic Mgr. 

H. T. Dupont, Asst. Secretary 

M. C. Darr, Auditor 

E. C. Elwood, Purch. Agent (Pier 40) 

W. S. Lewis, Claims & Insurance 

Harry Slrittmatter, Terminal Agent (Pier 40) 

John Clerico, Port Engineer (Pier 40) 

Capt. B, H. Tietjen, Port Captain (Pier 40) 

E. H. Harms, Oper. Manager 

E. M. Blank, Port Steward 
Agents For: 

ALCOA STEAMSHIP CO. 
INTERNATIONAL FREIGHTING CORP. 
PRUDENTIAL STEAMSHIP CO. 
SMITH & JOHNSON 
J. T. STEVENSON & CO., INC. 
STOCKARD STEAMSHIP CO. 
UNITED STATES NAVIGATION CO. 
WESSAL DUVAL CO. 
Presently operating intercoastal service 
for USMC, with sailings approximately 
every 18 days. Westbound scdllngs 
from Chester and Philadelphia, Bal- 
timore, Norfolk. Eastbound service to 
Baltimore for general merchandise; al- 
so Newark, N. J., and Brooklyn for lum- 
ber 
Presently operating monthly sailings from 
Pacific Coast to Puerto Rico for USMC 
Weekly sailings coastwise for USMC 

PORT LINE LIMITED 

See, CUNARD WHITE STAR LIMITED, 
Agents 

PRINCE LINE 

See, FURNESS (PAC.) LTD., Agents 

PRINCE-SILVER ROUND WORLD SERVICE 

See, KERR STEAMSHIP COMPANY, INC., 
Agents 

PRUDENTIAL STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 

QUAKER LINE 

See, PACIFIC-ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP 
CO., STATES STEAMSHIP CO. 

RIVER LINES. THE 

Pier 3 SUtter 3880 

N. A. Fay, Vice Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 

J. H. Anderson, Traffic Mgr. 

R. M. Clare, Operating Manager 

RICHFIELD OIL CORPORAnON 

333 Montgomery Street DOuglas 2815 

Lee B. Johnstone, Mgr. Marine Sales 

ROYAL MAIL LINES 

See, HOLLAND-AMERICAN LINES, Agts. 

Page 117 



SAN FRANCISCO— 

SALEN LINE 

See, INTEROCEAN STEAMSHIP CORP., 
Agents 

SAN FRANCISCO BAR PILOTS 

P'ef 7 DOuglas 5436 

SEAS SHIPPING CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND <S CO., Agents 
SHARP, C. F., & CO., INC. AGENTS 

230 California Street YUlcon 61654 

Chester F. Sharp, Chairman 
A. V. Rocha, President 
A. S. Lonnberg, Manager 
Agents For: 
IVARIAN LINES 

WATERMAN STEAMSHIP CORP. 
Service To: 
Far East 

SHEPARD STEAMSHIP CO. 

369 Pine Street EXbrook 6974 

F. C. Ninnis, District Manager (Calif.) 
J. W. Dopp, Port Captain 
C. Bronford, Port Engineer 
C. Martin, Port Steward 

H. Bostwick, Purchasing Agent 

SHIPOWNERS ASSOCIATION OF THE 
PACIFIC COAST 

Ralph W. Meyers, President 

George Olsen, Secretary 

SILVER-JAVA PACmC LINE 

(Stanley & John Thompson, Ltd. — London & 

N.Y.; Stoomvaart Maot-choppy — Neder- 

land, Rotterdam) 

See, KERR STEAMSHIP CO., INC and 
TRANSPACIFIC TRANSPORTATION 
CO., Agents 

SILVER LINE, LTD. 

See, KERR STEAMSHIP CO., INC. and 
FURNESS (Pacific), LTD., Agents 
SMITH & JOHNSON 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 
STANDARD OH. COMPANY OF CALIF. 
225 Bush Street SUfter 7700 

R. G. Follis, President 
J. H. MacGaregill, Vice President 
E. I. McClanahan, Vice President 
J. E. Black, Manager For. Tr. Depot 
J. L. Hanna, Vice Pres. in Chg. Mar. Affairs 
I. H. McEachem, Mgr. Marine Dept. 
W. C. Lane, Asst. Manager For. Tr. Depot 
E. J. Macfarlane, Assistant to Manager 

A. E. Kihn, Asst. Mgr. Marine Dept. 

B. A. Young, Superintending Engineer 
M. H. Jaehne, Naval Architect 
Copt. J. A. Rumsey, Mar. Supt., Richmond 
Capt. A. C. Nelson, Mar. Supt, Eatero Boy 
Capt T. W. Peters, Mar. Supt., San Pedro- 
El Segundo 

L. Simonson, Marine Supt., Point Wells, 
Washington 
Service: 
Pacific Coastwrise, Alaska, Hawaiian 
Islands and Offshore (Private Carriers) 
STATES STEAMSHIP CO. 
214 Front St. at CaUfomia St. EXbrook 3414 
Agents For: 
OUAKER LINE 

STEVENSON, J. T., & CO., INC 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC.' Agents 
STOCKAHD STEAMSHIP CO 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 
SOOTH AFRICAN DISPATCH LINE 

See, J. J. MOORE S CO., Agents 



SOUTH ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO. Agents 
SWEDISH AMERICAN LINE 
760 Market Street GArfield 2811 

Herbert Seebohm, District Manager 

Agents Fok 

GOTA CANAL STEAMSHIP CO. 

Service To; 

New York — Gothenburg 
Canal Passage — Gothenburg — Stock- 
holm 

SUDDEN & CHRISTENSON, INC. AGENTS 
310 Sansome Street GArfield 2846 

Capt. R. O. Demarest, Oper. Manager 
Louis Depemann, Port Engineer 
C. Olson, Port Captain 
Lines: 

ARROW LINE 

KLAVENESS LINE 

ARROW STEVEDORE CO. 

SUDDEN & CHRISTENSON OVERSEAS 

CORP. 
310 Sansome St. GArfield 2846 

Agents For: 
BARBER S. S. LINES 



TEXAS COMPANY, THE 

Hearst Building GArfield 0728 

THORNLEY & PITT 

520 Battery Street GArfield 3536 

C. J. Madsen 
N. C. Unfug 
Geo. H. Pitt 
Agents For: 

KEYSTONE SHIPPING CO. 

ATLANTIC REFINING CO. 
TIDE WATER ASSOCIATED OH. CO. 
79 New Montgomery Street EXbrook 4800 
William F. Humphrey, Chairman & Pres. 
H. B. Haney, Manager of Transportation 
H. J. Wilson, Manager, Marine Department 
O. Lundin, Asst. Mgr., Marine Department 
H. C. Ruf, Chief Engineer 
D. L. Rlgden, Port Engineer 
S. H. Harrison, Asst. Port Engineer 
WE. Kammerer, Office Mgr. and Vessel 

Dispatcher 
H. Shapiro, Asst. Vessel Dispatcher 
F. R. Starrs, Port Steward 

TRANSATLANTIC STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., 
Agents 

TRANSPACIFIC TRANSPORTATION CO. 
149 California Street AGENTS 

„ ,. , YUkon 0786 

Cornelius Winkler, President 

E. L. Bargones, Vice Pres. & Gen Mgr 

Harold Taft, Traffic Manager 

Lines: 

SILVER-JAVA PACIFIC LINE 
UNION on. CO. OF CALIFORNIA 
425 First Street sUtter 1400 

UNION STEAM SHIP CO. OF NEW ZEA 

LAND, LTD. 
230 CaUfomia Street YUkon 1866 

S. B. Pilcher, Manager 

Service To: 

New Zealand, Australia & South Seas 
UNITED FRUIT CO. AGENT 

mi Fourth Street GArfield 4040 

0. D. Daswell, Pacific Coast Manager 
H. P. Champlain, Marine Superintendent 

1. T. O'Neill, Purch. Agent 
Frank Cook, Freight Agent 



—PORTLAND 
UNITED STATES LINES CO. 
222 Sansome Street DOuglas 8680 

K. D. Dawson, Vice President 
W. T. Sexton, Pacific Coast Manager 
J. A. Barthrob, Pac. Coast Freight Traffic 
Mgr. 
Agent For: 

COASTWISE LINE 
AMERICAN PIONEER LINE 
PANAMA PACIFIC LINE 
Service; 
Intercoastal and European, Australia 
Far East 

UNITED STATES NAVIGATION CO 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 
AMERICAN PIONEER LINE 
PANAMA PACIFIC LINE 

WATERMAN STEAMSHIP CORP 

See, C. F. SHARP & CO., INC.. Agents 
WESSAL DUVAL CO. 

See, POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 
WEST COAST LINE 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 
WESTFAL-LAHSEN CO. LINE 
See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., 

Agents 
Service: 
Between Pacific Coast and East Coast 
of South America. 
WEYERHAEUSER LINE 
(Pacific Coast Direct Line, Inc.; Weyer- 
haeuser S. S. Co.— Newark, N. J.) 
See, INTEROCEAN STEAMSHIP CORP 
Agents 
W. H. WICKEHSHAM & CO. INC 

See, OCEAN AGENCIES, LTD., Agents 
WIUIAMS, DIMOND & CO. 
260 California Street sutler 0525 

t. J. McCormick, President 
F. J. Kugelberg, Vice President 
H. W. Poett, Secretary 
Agents For: 
SEAS SHIPPING CO 
A. H. BULL & CO. 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP CO 
EASTERN STEAMSHIP CO INC ' 
BLACK DIAMOND STEAMSHIP CO 
WILMORE STEAMSHIP CO 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS CORP 
WEST COAST LINE 
WILMORE STEAMSHIP CO. 
See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 



ORECOW 




PORTLAND 



Page 118 



AFRICA-ASIA LINE 

See, GRIFFITH TRANSPORT CO., Agents 
AGWILINES, me. 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 
ALASKA PACKERS ASSOCIATION 

See, J. J. MOORE & CO., Agents 
ALASKA STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, LIDELL & CLARKE, Agents 



PACIFIC MARINEREVIEW 



PORTLAND- 
ALASKA TRANSPORTATION CO. 

See, AMERICAN MAIL LINE, LTD., 
Agents 

ALCOA STEAMSHIP CO. 

S=p POPE & TALBOT, INC., Agents 
ALEXANDER & BALDWIN. LTD. AGENTS 
327 S. W. Pine ATwater 4386 

R. L. Kingsbury, Manager 
Lines: 

MATSON NAVIGATION CO. 
OCEANIC S. S. CO. 

(New Zealand & Australian Service) 
INTER-ISLAND STEAM NAVIGATION 
CO. 
AMERICAN-HAWAIIAN S. S. CO. 
Railway Exchange Building ATwater 8536 

F. N. Mills, District Manager 

H. L. Hamilton, Shipping Master 
E. L. Graham, Asst. to Dist. Mgr. 
W. D. Anderson, Asst. to Dist. Mgr. 

AMERICAN LIBERTY S. S. CORP. 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

AMERICAN-PACIFIC STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP.. 
Agents 
AMERICAN MAE. LINE AGENTS 

S20 Pacific Building BRoadway 5447 

W. L. Williams, Manager 

W. E. Ferrari, Purchasing Agent 

D. G. Page, Dist. Operating 

C. R. Toole, Port Engineer 
H. C. Ashton, Freight Agent 

Agents For: 

LYKES BROS. S. S. CO. 

HAMMOND SHIPPING CO. 

ALASKA TRANSPORTATION CO. 

NORTHLAND TRANSPORTATION CO. 
Service To: 

Philipine Islands, China and Japan 

AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES, LTD. 
1788 Front Avenue 

ARROW LINE 

Henry Building ATwater 3316 

AUSTRALIAN DISPATCH LINE 

See. I. J. MOORE <S CO., Agents 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO. LTD. 
733 S. W. Oak AGENTS 

ATwater 9441 

D. W. L. MacGregor, Vice President 

G. C. Fortune, Vice Pres. 

R. F. Shepherd, Mgr. Import Dept. 
D. S. Cameron, Mgr. S. S. Dept. 
James A. Dick, Mgr. Marine Insurance Dept. 
Lines: 

DONALDSON LINE 

BARBER STEAMSHIP LINES, INC. 

See, COASTWISE (PAC. FAR EAST) LINE. 
Agents 
BLACK DIAMOND STEAMSHIP COR- 
PORATION 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

BULL, A. H., & CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 
BURCHARD & FISKEN, INC. AGENTS 

Board of Trade Building ATwater 9501 

V/. D. Hazen, Portland Mcmager 
Lines: 

FURNESS LINE 

{Fumess (Pacific) Limited) 
EAST ASIATIC CO., INC. 
JAVA PACIFIC LINE 
UNION S. S. CO. OF N. Z., LTD. 

JANUARY • 1947 



Service To: 

China, Europe, United Kingdom, Philip- 
pine Islands, Straits Settlements, Neth- 
erlands East Indies, India, Persian Gulf, 
South Africa, East Africa, New Zealand, 
Australia. 

CANADLRN AUSTRALASIAN LINE 

626 S. W, Broadway MAin 0637 

CANADIAN PACIFIC S. S. CO. 

626 S. W. Broadway BRoadway 0637 

E. I. Dahlberg, City Passenger Agent 
C. W. Laird, District Freight Agent 
626 S. W. Broadway 

CHAMBERLIN, W. H., & CO. 

Booid of Trade Building BRoadway 0406 

COASTWISE (PACIFIC FAR EAST) LINE 
1788 N. W. Front Avenue BRoadway 7301 

Agents For: 
BARBER STEAMSHIP LINES INC. 

DECONHH. SHIPPING CO. 
Board oi Trade Building 

DONALDSON LINE 

See, BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., LTD., 
Agents 

EAST ASIATIC CO., INC. 

See, BURCHARD & FISKEN, INC., Agents 

EASTERN STEAMSHIP LINES, INC. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

FRENCH LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

FRUIT EXPRESS LINE 

See, PAGE BROTHERS, INC., Agents . 

FURNESS (PACIFIC) LIMITED 

See, BURCHARD & FISKEN, INC., Agents 

GENERAL PETROLEUM CORP. 

P.O. Box 6118 UNiversity 1605 

Portland 9. Oregon 

M. H. Schmokel, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 
Lew Barnes, Purchasing Agent 

D. A. Younger, Superintendent 
J. P. Dillon, Yard Foreman 
GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., LTD. 
Lewis Building AGENTS 

ATwater 7214 
V. -A. DriscoU, District Manager 

E. E. Anderson, District Passenger Agent 
E. G. Carlson, Traffic Dept. Manager 

W. B. Smith, Traffic Dept. 

Spencer Gorham, Documentation and Claims 
Agents For: 

PACIFIC ORIENT EXPRESS LINE 
KERR-SILVER LINES 
PACIFIC-AUSTRALIA DIRECT LINE 
PACIFIC ISLANDS TRANSPORT LINE 
AMERICAN-PACIFIC S. S. CO., INC. 
WESTFAL-LARSEN LINE 
INDEPENDENCE LINE 
PACIFIC-MEDITERRANEAN LINE 
.FRENCH LINE 
Service To: 
Shanghai, Tsingtao, Taku Bar and Other 
North China Ports; Philippines, Straits 
Settlements, Dutch East Indies, India, 
Persian Gulf, South African Ports; Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand Ports; West 
and East Coasts of South America; 
Central America, Panama, Colombia 
and South America; Pacific Coast to 
Mediterranean Ports; Pacific Ctoast to 
French and North European Pors. 



—PORTLAND 

GRACE LINE 

See, LIDELL & CLARK, Agents 

GRIFFITH TRANSPORT COMPANY 
709 Dekum Building AGENTS 

ATwater 9486 

E. ]. Griifiih, President 
W. A. Allen, Secretary 
R. E. Tetherow, Treasurer 
-Agents For: 

AFRICA-ASIA LINE 
STAN LINE 
Service To: 

South Africa, India and Oriental Ports. 

HAMMOND SHIPPING CO. 

See, AMERICAN MAIL LINE, LTD., 

Agents 

HILLCONE STEAMSHIP CO. 
Board ol Trade Building 

HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE 

See, NORPAC SHIPPING CO., INC., 
Agents 

INDEPENDENCE LINE 

See. GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

INTER-ISLAND STEAM NAVIGATION CO. 

See, ALEXANDER & BALDWIN, LTD., 
Agents 

INTEROCEAN LINK 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

INTEROCEAN STEAMSHIP CORP. 
Board ol Trade Building AGENTS 

BEacon 4174 

A. C. Nielsen, Dist. Mgr. 
R. G. Jubitz, Traffic Mgr. 
G. H. Riggs, Operations 
Agents For: 

INTEROCEAN LINE 

KNUTSEN LINE 

SALEN LINE 

PACIFIC COAST DIRECT LINE 

WEYERHAEUSER S. S. CO. 

AGWILINES INC. 

AMERICAN LIBERTY S. S. CORP. 
Service To: 

Havre, Rotterdam, Manila, Shanghai, 

Hong Kong, Baltimore, Philadelphia, 

Norfolk. 

ISTHMIAN S. S. CO. 

1117 Board of Trade Bldg. BEacon 3126 

S. E. Shields, Dist. Mgr. 
G. P. Abingdon, Pier Agent 
Service To: 
World-wide. 

JAVA PACIFIC LINE 

See, BURCHARD & FISKEN, INC., Agents 

lOHNSON LINE 

See: LIDELL & CLARK, Agents 

KERR-SILVER LINES 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

KEYSTONE SHIPPING COMPANY 

Board of Trade Building 

KLAVENESS LINE 

Henry Building ATwater 3316 

KNUTSEN LINE (S. A. SERVICE) 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

LATIN-AMERICAN LINE 

See, I. I. MOORE & CO., Agents 

Page 119 



PORTLAND— 

LIDELL & CLAHK AGENTS 

Board oi Trade Building ATwaler 8508 

Geo. G. Clarke, President 
Roy Albers, Traffic Manager 
Lines: 

JOHNSON LINE 

ALASKA STEAMSHIP CO. 

GRACE LINE 

LUCKENBACH STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 
1201 Public Service Building ATwaler 8371 
Also: Luckenbach Gulf Steamship Co., Inc. 

R. E. Piper, District Manager 
A. M. Hendrickson, Dist. Claim Agent 
H. C. Chadbourne, Cashier 
R. R. Steele, Marine Supt. 
Service To: 

North Atlantic — New York, Boston, 

Philadelphia, Providence 

Gulf — New Orleans, Mobile, Houston, 

Tampa 

LYKES BROS. S. S. CO. 

See, AMERICAN MAIL LINE, LTD., Agents 

MARINE TRANSPORT LINES, INC. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

MATSON NAVIGATION CO. 

See, ALEXANDER S BALDWIN, LTD., 
Agents 

MOORE, J. J., & CO. AGENTS 

918 Board of Trade Bldg. ATwater 8201 

Capt. H. C. Neilson, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 

H. H. Wood, Traffic Manager 
Agents For: 

LATIN-AMERICAN LINE 
SOUTH AMERICAN DISPATCH LINE 
AUSTRALIAN DISPATCH LINE 
ALASKA PACKERS ASSOCIATION 
Service To: 

West Coast of South America, South 
Africa, Australia. 

MOORE McCORMACK LINES, INC. 
Behnke-WaUcer Building ATwater 7241 

E. F. Sweeney, Manager 

R. Ornduff, Jr., Operating Manager 

A. J. Gartland, Purchasing Agent 

MOHAN TOWING 4 TRANSPORTATION 
CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

NORPAC SHIPPING CO., INC. 
Lewis Building AGENTS 

BEacon 6207 

James McDonald, President 
A. H. Gattie, Vice Pes. & Gen. Mgr. 
H. B. Beckett, Secretary 
E. W. Basye, Asst. Secretary 
C. E. Hodges, Superintendent 
Agents For; 
ROYAL MAIL LINES, LTD 
HOLLAND AMERICA LINE 
Service To: 

United Kingdom and Continent 

NORTHLAND TRANSPORTATION CO. 

See, AMERICAN MAIL LINE, LTD., Agents 
NORTON LILLY & CO. 
Board of Trade Bldg. BRoadway 0683 

OCEANIC S. S. Co. 

(New Zealand and Australia Service) 

See, ALEXANDER f. BALDWIN, LTD., 
Agents 

Page 120 



OLSON, OLIVER J., & CO. 
1020 N. W. Front 

PACIFIC-ATLANTIC S. S. CO. 

See, PACIFIC-ATLANTIC S. S. CO 
VANCOUVER, WASH. 

PACIFIC-AUSTRALIA DIRECT LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

PACIFIC COAST DIRECT LINE 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

PACIFIC-MEDITERRANEAN LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

PACIFIC ORIENT EXPRESS LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

PAGE BROTHERS, INC. AGENTS 

224-226 Board of Trade Bldg. BEacon 4811 

Harald Carl, President 
Norman Lauritz. Vice President 
Agents For: 

FRUIT EXPRESS LINE 
Service To 

United Kingdom, Continent and Scan- 
dinavia. 

POPE AND TALBOT, INC. 

618 N. W. Front ATwaler 9161 

H. Lueddemann, Vice Pres. & No' west Mgr. 
Cyrus T. Walker, Asst. to Vice Preo. 
C. E. Collins, Dist. Manager 
W. E. Whitcomb, Gen'l Frt. Agent 
B. E. Hearn, Dist. Purch. Agent 
Agents For: 

ALCOA STEAMSHIP CO. 
UNITED FRUIT COMPANY 
Services: 

Pacific Coastwise, Intercoastal, Puerto 
Rico 

PARRY NAVIGATION CO. 

See, TRANSOCEAN SHIPPING CO., 
Agents 

RICHFIELD OIL CORPORATION 
Linnton 

ROBIN LINE (Seas Shipping Co.) 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

ROUNTREE, W. J., CO., INC. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 
ROYAL MAIL LINES, LTD. 

See, NORPAC SHIPPING CO., INC., 
Agents 

SALEN LINE 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 
SEAS SHIPPING CO. (Robin Line) 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 
SHEPARD STEAMSHIP CO. 
Builders Exchange Bldg. ATwater 9378 
J. T. Cornell, Pac. Coast Mgr. 
Earl Sanders, N. W. Operating Manager 
SOUTH AFRICAN DISPATCH LINE 

See, J. J. MOORE & CO., Agents 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP LINE 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 
STAN LINE 

See, GRIFFITH TRANSPORT CO., 
Agents 

STATES STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, Under Vancouver, Wash. 
STEEB, I. T., & CO., INC. AGENTS 

Board of Trade Building 



—SEATTLE 
SUDDEN & CHRISTENSON, INC. 
Henry Building ATwater 3316 

TEXAS COMPANY, THE 
3640 N. W. St. Helens 

TIDE WATER ASSOCIATED OIL CO. 
Pittock Block 

C. R. Clark, Dist. Sales Mgr. 
Terminal — Linnton 

F. Kelly, Plant Supt. 

TRANSATLANTIC S. S. CO., LTD. 

Lewis Building ATwaler 7214 

TRANSOCEAN SHIPPING CO. 

Lewis Bldg. BRoadway 1322 

Agents For: 

PARRY NAVIGATION CO., INC. 

UNION OIL CO. OF CALIFORNIA 
Yeon Building 

UNION STEAMSHIP CO. OF NEW ZEA- 
LAND, LTD. 

See, BURCHARD & FISKEN, INC., Agents 

UNITED FRUIT COMPANY 

See, POPE & TALBOT, Agents 

WESTFAL-LARSEN LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

WEYERHAEUSER LINE 

See, INTEROCEAN 3. S. CORP., Agents 

WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO. 

Railway Exchange Building ATwaler 8536 

F. N. Mills, District Manager 
W. D. Anderson, Asst. to District Mgr. 
E. L. Graham, Asst. to District Mgr. 
H. L. Hamilton, Shipping Master 
E. F. Weiss, Stevedore Superintendent 
Agents For: 

BLACK DIAMOND STEAMSHIP CORP. 

A. H. BULL & CO. 

EASTERN STEAMSHIP LINES, INC. 

MARINE TRANSPORT LINES, INC. 

MORAN TOWING & TRANSPORTA- 
TION CO. 

ROUNTREE, W. J., CO., INC. 

SEAS SHIPPING CO. (Robin Line) 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP LINE 

WILMORE STEAMSHIP CO. 

WILMORE STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 



IVASHI^CTOK 




SEATTLE 



AGWILINES, INC. 

See, INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

ALASKA PACKERS ASSOCIATION 

See, J. I. MOORE & CO.. Agents 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



SE AH IE- 
ALASKA STEAMSmP CO. 
Piers 50 and 51 MAin 4530 

G. W. Skinner, President 

Lawrence Bogle, 1st Vice President 

L. W. Baker, V. P. and Gen. Mgr. 

J. W. Killingsworth, Secretary 

W. P. McCarthy, Auditor (Insurance Official) 

C. O. Nelson, Purchasing Agent 
J. Fred Zumdieck, Marine Supt. 
R. A. Johnson, Port Captain 

M. W. Felton, Port Engineer 

W. C. Hubbard, Port Steward 

H. N. Peterson, Pass. Traffic Mgr. 

I. D. Nelson, Freight Traffic Mgr. 

W. E. Brown, General Frt. & Pass. Agent 
Service To: 

All Alaska Ports: Ketchikan, Juneau, 
Cordova, Valdez, Seward, Seldovia, Ko- 
diak, Nome. 

ALASKA TRANSPORTATION CO. 

Pier 58 MAin 7477 

J. A. Talbot, President 

Norton Clapp. 1st V. P. & Secty. 

S. J. Swanson, 2nd V. P. & Gen. Mgr. 

E. W. Hundley, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 

George Guerin, Purchasing Agent 

D. Ethier, Port Captain 

J. H. Hearing, Port Engineer 
Agents For: 

U. S. MARITIME COMMISSION 
Service To: 

Ketchikan, Juneau, Haines, Pelican, 
Skagway, Sitka, and Other Ports. 

ALCOA STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, POPE & TALBOT LINES, Agents 

ALEXANDER & BALDWIN, LTD. AGENTS 
814 Second Avenue MAin 3677 

Melville McKinstry, Seattle Manager 

E. T. Collins, Port Captain 

H. R. Farwell, Freight Agent 
C. J. Stettin, Passenger Agent 
Agents For: 

MATSON NAVIGATION CO. 
Service To: 
Hawaii. 

AMERICAN EXPORT LINES, INC. 

See, AMERICAN MAIL LINE, LTl. 
Agents 

AMERICAN-HAWAIIAN STEAMSHIP CO. 
1305 Vance Building AGENTS 

ELiot 8120 

H. M. Burke, District Manager 

Dick Streets, Port Engineer 

O. L. Brownell, Asst. Dist. Mgr. 
Agents For: 

U. S. M. C. AND OWN VESSELS 
Service To: 

Intercoastal. North Atlantic: New York, 
Philadelphia, Boston. South Atlantic: 
Puerto Rico, Jacksonville, Savannah, 
Charleston, Wilmington, N. C, Norfolk, 
Baltimore. 

AMERICAN MAIL LINE, LTD. AGENTS 
740 Stuart Building SEneca 4400 

A. R. Lintner, President 

R. J. Reynolds, Earl D. Doran, Ross Mclntyre, 

Vice Presidents 
S. L. Barnes, Secretary 
R. B. Bush, Treasurer 
G. J. Ackerman, Operating Manager 
S. E. Fleming, Purchasing Agent 
A. F. Raynaud, Port Captain 
F. H. Howard, Port Engineer 
William Klontz, Port Steward 



H. T. Krull, Traffic Manager 
William Ross, Passenger Agent 
Agents For: 

LYKES BROS. S. S. CO., INC. 

HAMMOND SHIPPING CO., LTD. 

AMERICAN EXPORT LINES, INC. 

ALASKA TRANSPORTATION CO. 

NORTHLAND TRANSPORTATION CO. 

DECHMANN WRIGHT & PUGH 
Service To: 

China, Hong Kong and Philippines. 

AMERICAN-PACIFIC S. S. CO. 

See, GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP., 
Agents 

AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES, LTD. 

See, COASTWISE LINE, Agents 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS LINE 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

AMERICAN-WEST AFRICAN LINE 

See, COASTWISE LINE, Agents 

ANGLO CANADIAN SHIPPING CO.. LTD. 

See, INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING CO., 
INC., Agents 

ARROW LINE 

See, SUDDEN & CHRISTENSON, INC., 

Agents 

AUSTRALIAN DISPATCH LINE 

See, I. J. MOORE & CO., Agents 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., LTD. AGENTS 
Dexter Horton Building ELiot 1464 

Lines: 

DONALDSON LINE 
KNUTSEN LINE (S. A. Service) 

BERGER TRANSPORTATION CO. 

66 Marion Street MAin 6340 

Heinie Berger, President & Gen. Mgr. 

Fred Bianco, Vice President 

J, Lael Simmons, Secretary 

H. A. Schurman, Seattle Agent 
Service To: 

Seattle to Cook Inlet Ports and Anchor- 
age, Alaska. 

BLACK DIAMOND S. S. CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

BLIDBERG-ROTHCHaD CO., INC. 

See, INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING CO., 
INC., Agents 

BLUE FUNNEL LINE 

S=e, DODV/ELL & CO., Agents 

BLUE STAR LINE AGENTS 

1801 Northern Life Tower SEneca 1050 

E. A. Gilbert, General Manager 
S. C. Cramb, Marine Supt. 
C. E. Greene, Gen. Freight Agent 
C. W. Eshom, Traffic Manager 

Agents For: 

STAN LINE OF LONDON 
Service To: 

Orient, United Kingdom and Continent. 

BORDER LINE TRANSPORTATION CO.. 
THE 

See, DODWELL, LTD., Agents 

BULL, A. H. & CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., .'Vgents 



—SEATTLE 

BORCHARD & FISKEN, INC. AGENTS 

2103 Exchange Bldg. MAin 7419 

H. W. Burchard, President 
L. J. Kenevan, General Manager 
S. W. Husseman, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 
E. H. Gordon, Passenger Agent 
Agents For: 

CUNARD WHITE STAR LTD. 

DONALDSON ATLANTIC LINE 

EAST ASIATIC CO. INC. 

FURNESS, WITHY & CO., LTD. 

JAVA PACIFIC LINE 

PRINCE LINE, LTD. 
Service To: 

United Kingdom and Continental Ports, 

China, Philippines, Straits Settlements. 

Dutch East Indies, India. Persian Gulf, 

South and East Africa. 



BURNS STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, OLYMPIC S. S. C 



Agents 



CANADIAN AUSTRALASIAN LINE 

See, CANADIAN PAC. 3. .3. CO., Agents 

CANADIAN NATIONAL S. S. CO., LTD. 
1329 Fourth Avenue MAin 4906 

O. K. Daly, General Agent, Frt. Dept. 

Malcolm J, Woods, Gen. Agt., Pass. Dept. 
Service To: 

Westview, B. C. (Powell River, B. C), 
Ocean Falls, B. C, Prince Rupert, B. C, 
Ketchikan, Alaska. 

CANADIAN PACIFIC S. S. CO. 

1320-4th Avenue MAin 627S 

A. J. Mahon, Gen. Agt., Passenger Dept. 
E. M. Phelps, District Freight Agent 

562 Stewart Building 

Agents For: 

CANADIAN AUSTRALASIAN LINE 



CARPENTER LINE 

See, INTEROCEAN 



Agents 



COASTWISE LINE AND 

COASTWISE (PACIFIC FAR EAST) LINE 

Pier 24 AGENTS 

ELiot 1924 

C. L. Dodd, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 

Miss M. L. Clement, Purchasing Agent 

J. A. Ederer, Port Engineer 

R. M. Costigan, Freight A.gent 

Miss L. P. Christensen, Pass. A.gent 
Agents For: 
UNITED STATES LINES CO. 
AMERICAN WEST AFRICAN LINE 
PACIFIC TANKERS INC. 
AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES 
PACIFIC FAR EAST LINE, INC. 
Service To: 

Coastwise (Freight), Far East (Freight), 
Intercoastal, including Havana (Freight), 
North Atlantic (Freight & Passenger). 

COASTWISE STEAMSHIP & BARGE CO. 
INC. 

See, JAMES GRIFFITH,;, i .'^ONS, INC., 
Agents 

COASTWISE STEAMSHIP 4 BARGE CO., 
LTD. 

See, JAMES GRIFFITHS & SONS, INC., 
Agents 

CUNARD WHITE STAR LTD. 

See, BURCHARD & FISKEN, INC., Agents 

DECHMANN WRIGHT & PUGH 

See, AMERICAN MAIL LiME LTD., Agents 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 121 



SEATTLE— 

DECONHH. SHIPPING COMPANY 

See. I. T. STEEB & CO., INC., Agents 

DODWELL & CO. LTD. AGENTS 

427 Colman Building ELiol 0145 

R. A. Tinling, General Manager 
G. H. Baldwin, Ass't Manager 
Agents For: 

DODWELL-HERLOFSON LINE 
THE BLUE FUNNEL LINE 
THE BORDER LINE TRANSPORTATION 
CO. 
Service To: 
Orient. 

DODWELL-HERLOFSON LINE 

See, DODWELL & CO. LTD., Agents 

DONALDSON ATLANTIC LINE 

See, BURCHARD & FISKEN, INC., Agents 

DONALDSON LINE 

See, BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., Agents 

EAST ASIATIC CO. INC. 

See, BURCHARD & FISKEN, INC., Agents 

EASTERN S. S. LINES 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

FRUIT EXPRESS LINE 

See, INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC COAST 
CORP., Agents 

FRENCH LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

FURNESS, WITHY & CO., LTD. 

See, BURCHARD & FISKEN, INC., Agents 

GENERAL PETROLEUM CORP. OF CALIF. 

(a Socony Vacuum Company) 
Dexler-Horlon Building 

Service: Coastwise, Worldwide 

GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORPORATION, 

LTD. AGENTS 

553 Stuart Building MAin 4701 

D. M. Dysart, Vice Pres. and Northwest Mgr. 
R. K. Brown, Jr., Local Manager 

E. M. Gall, Operating Manager 
D. H. McChesney and 

James O- PauU, Traffic Department 

Agents for: 

AMERICAN-PACIFIC S. S. CO. 

TRANSATLANTIC S. S. CO. LTD. 

WESTFAL-LARSEN COMPANY LINE 

INDEPENDENCE LINE 

PACIFIC ORIENT EXPRESS LINE 

KERR S. S. CO. INC. 

FRENCH LINE 

PACIFIC MEDITERRANEAN LINE 

PACIFIC ISLAND TRANSPORT LINE 

Service To: 

Australia, East Coast S. America, Cen- 
tral America, North China, Orient, Phil- 
ippine Islands, Dutch E. Indies, India, 
Straits Settlements, Persian Gulf, South 
Africa, Europe, Italy, Greece, South 
Seas. 

GIHDWOOD SHIPPING CO. AGENTS 

Northern Lile Towrer ELiot 1972 

Line: 

LAURITZEN LINE 

Service To: 
Casablanca, Marseille, Tunis, Alex- 
andria, Haifa. 



GRACE, W. R. & CO. AGENTS 

408 White Building SEneca 4300 

W. D. Vanderbilt, General Manager 
O. Benson, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 
T. O. Todd, Purchasing Agent 
George Roberts, Port Captain 
W. C. Angus, Port Engineer 
P. DeMaio, Port Steward 

D. W. Lawrence, Freight Agent 
Helen Mjelva, Passenger Agent 

Agents For: 

GRACE LINE, INC. 

JOHNSON LINE 
Service to South America and Sweden. 

GRIFFITHS, JAMES & SONS, INC. 

914 Second Avenue MAin 3340 

James F. Griffiths, Exec. Vice Pres. 
F. J. McDowell, Vice Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 
J. D. McMasters, Secretary 
J. L. Sweetin, Marine Superintendent 

E. L. Moltley, Asst. Secty. 

J. E. Copeland, Mgr., Claims and Insurance 
H. R. Davis, Executive Assistant 
L. Wuthenow, Purchasing Agent 
J. W. Tellgren, Poll Steward 
Agents For: 
COASTWISE STEAMSHIP & BARGE 

CO., INC. 
GRIFFITHS STEAMSHIP CO. 
COASTWISE STEAMSHIP & BARGE 
CO., LTD. 
Service To: 

Pacific Coastwise and Offshore Ports 

GRIFFITHS STEAMSHIP COMPANY 

See JAMES GRIFFITHS & SONS, INC., 
Agents 

HAMMOND SHIPPING CO., LTD. 

See, AMERICAN MAIL LINE, LTD., Agents 

HILLCONE STEAMSHIP CO. 

See J. T. STEEB & CO., INC., Agents 

HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE 

See, ROYAL MAIL LINES, LTD., Agents 

INDEPENDENCE LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

INTERNATIONAL FREIGHTING CORP. 

See, POPE & TALBOT LINES, Agents 

INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC COAST CORP. 

Skinner Building AGENTS 

SEneca 2992 

Lines: 

FRUIT EXPRESS LINE 

INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING CO. INC. 
714 Arctic Building AGENTS 

SEneca 1676 

A. W. Kinney, President & Gen. Mgr. 
D. R. Girdwood, Vice President 

F. B. Hancock, Secretary & Purch Agent 
F. I. Nystrom, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 

R. J. Lamont, Freight Agent 
Agents For: 
FRED OLSEN LINE 
ANGLO CANADIAN SHIPPING CO. 
PACIFIC ATLANTIC S. S. CO. 
NORTH PACIFIC SHIPPING CO. 
J. H. WINCHESTER & CO. 
BLIDBERG-ROTHCHILD CO. 



— SEAniE 

INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP. AGENTS 

Dexter Horton Building ELiot 7014 

C. Damon, Manager 
Lines: 

U.S.A. WAR SHIPPING ADMINISTRA- 
TION 
INTEROCEAN LINE 
KNUTSEN LINE 
WEYERHAEUSER LINE 
PACIFIC COAST DIRECT LINE 
CARPENTER LINE 
AGWILINES, INC. 

ISTHMIAN S. S. CO. 
White BIdg. 

W. .J. Schreter, Mgr. 

M. M. Corbit, Traf. Mgr. 
Service To: 

Intercoastal, Philippines, China, Neth- 
erlands East Indies, French Indo-China, 
Straits Settlements (Malaya), Hawaiian 
Islands, India, Celon, Burma, Persian 
Gulf, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Red Sea 

JAVA PACIFIC LINE 

See BURCHARD & FISKEN, Agents 

JOHNSON LINE 

See W. R. GRACE & CO., Agents 

KERR S. S. CO. INC. 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

KEYSTONE SHIPPING COMPANY 

See J. T. STEEB & COMPANY, INC., 
Agents 

KLAVENESS LINE 

See SUDDEN & CHRISTENSON, INC., Ag- 
ents 

KNUTSEN LINE (S. A. Service) 

See BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., Agents 
and INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

LATIN-AMERICAN LINE 

See, J. J. MOORE & CO., Agents 

LAURITZEN LINE 

See GIRDWOOD SHIPPING CO., Agents 

LUCKENBACH GULF S. S. CO., INC. 
2902 Smith Tower ELiot 1208 

LUCKENBACH S. S. CO., INC. 

H. E. Rhoda, Dist. Mgr. 

R. C. Elander, Ass't Dist. Mgr. 

E. S. Ramey, Mgr. Eng. Dept. 

A. J. Morrill, Dist. Marine Supt. 

W. Guthrie, Wharfinger 

E. Basel, Cashier 

Service To: (Luckenbach Gulf) 

Houston, New Orleans, Mobile, Tampa 
Service To: (Luckenbach S. S.) 

Boston, Camden, Philadelphia, Brook- 
lyn 

LYKES BROS. S. S. CO., INC. 

See, AMERICAN MAIL LINE, LTD., Agents 

MARINE TRANSPORT LINES 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., .Agents 

MATSON NAVIGATION CO. 

See, ALEXANDER & BALDWIN, LTD., 

Agents 



Page 122 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



SEATTLE- 
MOORE. I. I. & CO., INC. AGENTS 
914 Second Ave. ELiot 0930 

Aaents For: 
\ATIN-AMERICAN LINE 
■50UTH AFRICAN DISPATCH LINE 
AUSTRALIAN DISPATCH LINE 
ALASKA PACKERS ASSOCIATION 

Service To: 

"•Vest Coast of South American, South 
Africa, Australia. 

MOORE-McCORMACK LINES. INC. 
Dexter Horton Building ELiot 2732 

C. J. Gravesen, Manager 

D. C. Buckingham, Oper. Mgr. 
W. P. Lyman, Traffic Manager 
C. F. Ramey, Purchasing Agent 
F. W. Bury, Freight Agent 

M. L. Murie, Passenger Agent 
Agents For: 

PACIFIC REPUBLICS LINE 
ALL SOVIET FLAG VESSELS 
Service To: 

East Coast of South America and Carib- 
bean Seaports. 

MOHAN TOWING & TRANSPORTATION 
CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

NORTHLAND TRANSPORTATION CO. 
Pier 56 MAin 4600 

NORTH PACIFIC SHIPPING CO., LTD. 

See INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING CO., 
INC., Agents 

NORTON LILLY & CO. 
Smith Tower 



ELiot 6840 



FRED OLSEN LINE 

See INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING CO., 
INC., Agents 

OLYMPIC STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 

Pier 57 MAin 4520 

E. C. Bentzen, President 

M. M. Stewart, Executive Assistant 

G. R. Seefeldt, Operating Manager 

G. S. Cleverdon, Comptroller & Asst. Treas. 

Capt. C. E, Gannon, Marine Supt. 

Merle A. Johnston, Port Engineer 

A. R. Palmer, Port Steward 

I. Henningsen, Mgr., Qaims & Insurance 

F. L Ewers, Asst. Freight Traf. Manager 
Agents For: 

BURNS S. S. CO. 
SHEPARD S. S. CO. 

PACIFIC-ATLANTIC S. S. CO. 

See INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING CO., 
INC. Agents 

PACmC COAST DIRECT LINE 

See INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP., Agents 

PACIFIC FAR EAST LINE, INC. 

3ee, COASTWISE LINE, Agents 

PACIFIC ISLAND TRANSPORT LINE 

See GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agents 

PACIFIC MEDITERRANEAN LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., Agents 

PACIFIC ORIENT EXPRESS LINE 

See GENERAL S. S. CORP., Agents 

JANUARY • 1947 



PACIFIC REPUBLICS LINE 

See, MOORE-McCORMACK LINES, Agents 

PACIFIC TANKERS INC. 

See, COASTWISE LINE, Agents 

PARRY NAVIGATION CO. 

653 Dexter Horton Bldg. Eliot 7332 

Kenneth W. GUmore, Dist. Mgr. 
Leo J. Cummings, Asst. Dist. Mgr. 

POPE & TALBOT LINES AGENTS 

Pier 48 ELiot 4630 

E. J. Harrington, General Manager 
Capt. ]. C. Lass, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 
E. G. Harrison, Purchasing Agent 
J. C. Harper, Freight Agent 
Agents For: 

ALCOA STEAMSHIP CO. 

INTERNATIONAL FREIGHTING CORP. 

SMITH & JOHNSON 

WESSEL DUVAL CO. 

PRUDENTIAL S. S. CORP. 

SPRAGUE S. S. CO. 

STOCKARD S. S. CO. - 
Service To: 

California Ports, Atlantic Coast Ports, 

Puerto Rico. 

PRINCE LINE 

See BURCHARD & FISKEN, Agents 

PRUDENTIAL S. S. CORP. 

See, POPE & TALBOT LINES, Agents 

PU6ET SOUND FREIGHT LINES 
Canadian National Dock • ELiot 1600 

Clarence H. Coriander, President 

George Foss, Vice President 

Edith R. Lovejoy, Secretary-Treasurer 

RICHFIELD on. CORPORATION MAin 3010 
Division Office, 217 Pine Street Eliol 3071 
Marine Terminal, Harbor Island, West 

Waterway 
Seattle; Washington 

ROYAL MAIL LINES, LTD. 

1731 Exchange Building ELiot 4944 

C, W. Varney, Pacific Coast Manager 
K. K. Barker, Traffic Manager 
S. H. Jarvis, Purchasing Agent 
J. Donnell, Freight Agent 
Service To: 

North Pacific Coast Ports to United 
Kingdom and Holland 
Agents Fon 

HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE 

SANTA ANA STEAMSHIP CO. 

Colman Building MAin 0583 

SEAS SHIPPING CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

SMITH & JOHNSON 

See, POPE & TALBOT LINES, Agents 

SOUTH AFRICAN DISPATCH LINE 

See, J. J. MOORE & CO., Agents 

SOUTH ATLANTIC S. S. CO. 

See, WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents 

SPRAGUE S. S. CO. 

See. POPE & TALBOT LINES, Agents 

STAN LINE OF LONDON 

See, BLUE STAR LINE, Agents 



STANDARD OIL CO. 
Richmond Beach. Wash. 

L. Simonson, Marine Supt. 

STEEB, I. T., & CO.. INC. AGENTS 

410 Insurance Building ELIOT 1891 

AgeiTts For: 

DECONHIL SHIPPING CO. 
HILLCONE STEAMSHIP CO. 
KEYSTONE SHIPPING COMPANY 
W. H. WICKERSHAM 5. CO. 

STOCKARD S. S. CO. 

See, POPE & TALBOT LINES, Agents 

SUDDEN & CHBISTENSON, INC. 
Arctic Building AGENTS 

MAin 1194 
S. H. Guenther, Dist. Mgr. 
H. B. Blair, Operating Mgr. 
R. W. Love, Office Mgr. 
Lines: 

ARROW LINE 
KLAVENESS LINE 

SWEDISH AMERICAN LINE 

While Building MAin 5640 

TEXAS COMPANY, THE 
Republic Building 

TIDEWATER ASSOCIATED OIL CO. 
1733 So. Alaskan Way 

J. D. Cardoza, Dist. Sales Mgr. 
A. E. Sykes, Plant Supt. 

TRANSATLANTIC S. S. CO.. LTD. 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., LTD., Agen:? 

UNION on. CO. OF CALIFORNIA 
2901 Western 
UNITED FRUIT COMPANY 
1053 Empire Building 

J. C. Hickey, Manager 

UNITED STATES LINES CO. 

See, COAST^//ISE LINE, Agents 

U.S.SJt. VESSELS 

See, MOORE-McCORMACK LINES, Agents 

WESSEL DUVAL CO. 

See, POPE & TALBOT LINES, Agents 

WESTFAL-LARSEN CO. LINE 

See, GENERAL S. S. CORP., Agents 

WEYERHAEUSER LINE 

Agents: 
INTEROCEAN S. S. CORP. 
Dexter Horton Bldg. EUot 7014 

WICKERSHAM & CO.. W. H. 

Agents: 
J. T. STEEB & CO, INC. 
410 Insurance Bldg. 



ELiot 1891 



WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO. 

Vance Building ELiot 8120 

H. M. Burke, District Manager 
Dick Streets, Port Engineer 
O. L. Brownell, Asst. Dist. Mgr. 
Agents For: 
SEAS SHIPPING CO. 

Page 123 



SEATTLE— VANCOUVER. WASH. 

WILLIAMS. DIMOND & CO. 

Agents For: 

MARINE TRANSPORT LINES 

A. H. BULL & CO. 

MORAN TOWING & TRANSPORTA- 
TION CO. 

SOUTH ATLANTIC S. S. CO. 

EASTERN S. S. LINES 

WILMORE S. S. CO. 

BLACK DIAMOND S. S. CO. 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS LINE 
t^ervice To: 

World Ports 

WILMORE S. S. CO. 

See. WILLIAMS. DIMOND & CO., Agents 

WINCHESTER. J. H. & CO. 

See, INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING CO., 
IMC, Agents 

VANCOUVER. WASH. 

CALIFORNIA-EASTERN LINE, INC. 

1010 Washington ATwaler 1361 

PACIFIC-ATLANTIC S. S. CO. 

1010 Washington St. ATwaler 1361 

S. P. Fleming. Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 

W. D. Brennan, Vice Pres. & Traf. Mgr. 

Kenneth Robertson. Secretary 

A. J. Chalmers, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 

C. H. Crockett, Insurance Official 

R. K. McClelland, Purchasing Agent 

H. C. Dyer, Port Captain 

L. A. Vallet, Port Engineer 

F. L. Pearson, Port Steward 

STATES STEAMSHIP COMPANY 

1010 Washington Street ATwater 1361 

Thomas W. Dant. President 

S. P. Fleming, Vice Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 

Kenneth Robertson, Secretary 

A. I. Chalmers, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 

C. H. Crockett, Insurance Official 

R. K, McClelland, Purchasing Agent 

H. C. Dyer. Port Captain 

L. A. Vallet, Port Engineer 

F. L. Pearson. Port Steward 

W. D. Brennan, Traffic Mgr. 




VANCOUVER, B. C. 

ALASKA STEAMSHIP CO. 

See: CANADIAN BLUE STAR LINE, LTD., 
Agents 

AMERICAN-HAWAIIAN S. S. CO. 

See: CANADA ShMPPlNG CO., LTD., Ag- 
ents 

AMERICAN MAa LINK 

See: CANADIAN BLU.L ; ''.XR LINE, LTD., 
Agents 



AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES 

See: CANADIAN BLUE STAR LINE, LTD., 
Agents 

ANCHOR LINE 

See: CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAMSHIPS, 
LTD., Agents 

ANGLO CANADIAN SHIPPING CO., LTD. 

Marine Building AGENTS 

MArine 4221 

A. B. Graham 
L. S. Richardson 

Service: 

General chartering and berth service to 
world ports as inducement offers. 

AUSTRALIA-BRITISH COLUMBIA LINE 

Managers: 

CANADIAN TRANSPORT CO., LTD. 

B. C. STEAMSHIPS, LTD. 

See: BRITISH COLUMBIA STEAMSHIP 
LTD. 
BALFOUR. GUTHRIE & CO. (Cemada). LTD. 
744 W. Hastings AGENTS 

MArine 0211 
Harold S. Cove, President 
Gordon S. Jones, Mgr., Steamship Dept. 

D. C. Hutton, General Freight Agent 
R. Lorimer, Mgr., Billing Dept. 

L. P. Winckler, Passenger Agent 
Agents For: 

DONALDSON LINE 

KLAVENESS LINE 

MOORE-McCORMACK LINES 

PACIFIC REPUBLIC LINE 
Service To: 

United Kingdom, Orient and Philippine 

Islands, Caribbean and East Coast of 

South America. 

BERVIN S. S. CO. 

325 Howe PAcific 2921 

C. D. Vincent, Manager 

BLUE FUNNEL LINE 

See: DODWELL & CO., LTD.. Agents 

BLUE STAR LINE. INC. 

See: PACIFIC- ATLANTIC S.S. CO., Agents 
See: DODWELL S CO., LTD.. Agents 

BOBDER LINE TRANSPORTATION CO. 

See: DODWELL & CO., LTD., Agents 

BRITISH COLUMBIA STEAMSHIPS LTD. 
1007 Roger Building AGENTS 

MArine 2578 

E, B. Clark, President 
G. Davis, Secretary 

Capt. H. I. C. Terry, Gen'l Manager 
Alexander Wood, Purch. Agt. & Frt. Agent 
Capt. William Strutt, Port Captain 
Agents For: 

NORTHERN STEAMSHIPS LTD. 
Service To: 

British Columbia Coast and South 
Eastern Alaskan Ports. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA-UNITED KINGDOM 
LINE 

Managers: 

CANADIAN TRANSPORT CO., LTD. 

BRITISH INDIA STEAM NAV. CO.. LTD. 

See, CANADIAN AUSTRALASIAN LINE, 
LTD., Agents 



VANCOUVER, B. C. 

BURNS STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, KINGSLEY NAVIGATION CO LTD., 

Agents 

CANADA SHIPPING CO., LTD. 

1119 Marine Building PAciiic 0131 

E. F. Riddle. President 

K. M. Montgomery, Ass!. General Manager 
J. S. Crawford, District Oper. Mgr. 
W. H. Steele. Insurance Official 
A. S. Gait, Marine Supt. 
Agents For: 

INTEROCEAN LINE 

KNUTSEN LINE 

SALEN LINE 

I. S. WEBSTER & SONS 

WESTERN CANADA STEAMSHIPS 

CANADIAN AUSTRALASIAN LINE, LTD. 
999 W. HasUngs PAciHc 3271 

D. C. Coleman, President 
J. N. Greenland, Vice President 
T. W. Brawn, Secretary 
P. B. Cooke, Gen. Mgr. 
Agents For: 

UNION S. S. CO. OF N. Z. LTD. 
BRITISH INDIA STEAM NAV. CO. LTD. 
EASTERN & AUSTR.ALIAN S. S. CO., 
LTD. 
Service To: 

New Zealand. Australia, South Sea 
Islands. 

CANADIAN BLUE STAR LINE (1940) LTD. 
355 Burrard PAci&c 2157 

Geo. F. Wales, British Columbia Dist. Mgr. 
Agents For: 

BLUE STAR LINE, LTD. (LONDON) 
AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES 
AMERICAN MAIL LINE 
ALASKA STEAMSHIP CO. 
Service To: 
Round the World and For East, Orient, 
Alaska, United Kingdom, Continent, 
South America. 

CANADIAN NATIONAL STEAMSHIPS 
Foot oi Main MArine 9112 

R. C. Vaughan, Preside.-: 
W. R. Devenish, Vice Preside.-.: 
W. H. Hobbs, Secretary 
W. C. Owens. General Manager 
W. T. Moodie. General Supt. 
H. L. Taylor. Purchasing Agent 
G. A. MacMillan. Superintendent 
W. E. Baillie, Ass't Engineer 
H. Tennant, Port Steward 
W. Hately, Gen. Freight Agent 
K. E. McLeod, Gen. Passenger Agent 
Service To: 

Between Vancouver Prince Rupert and 

Ketchikan, Alaska. 

CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAMSHIPS. LTD. 
Pier BC PAciBc 2212 

J. J. Forster, General Passenger Agent 
Agents For: 
ANCHOR LINE 

CANADIAN TRANSPORT CO.. LTD. 

837 W. Hastings PAciEc 351 1 

H. A. Stevenson, Managing Director 
- A. L. Palmer, Assistant Manager 
J. C. Cunningham, Marine Superintendent 
Managers For: 

VANCOUVER-WEST INDIES LINE 
To Trinidad, Barbados and other W. I. 
ports. 



Page 124 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



VANCOUVER, B. C— 

CANADIAN TRANSPORT CO.. LTD. 

Managers For: 

VANCOUVER-ST. LAWRENCE LINE 
To: Between British Columbia and East- 
ern Canadian ports. 
AUSTRALIA - BRITISH COLUMBIA 
To: Between British Columbia and Aus- 
tralia. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA - UNITED KING- 
DOM 
To: From Pacific Coast ports to United 
Kingdom. 

CAPPER. ALEXANDER & CO. 

See, FURNESS (PAC.) LTD., Agents 

CARPENTER LINE 

See: W. R. CARPENTER OVERSEAS 
SHIPPING, LTD. 

CARPENTER W. R. OVERSEAS SHIPPING, 

LTD. 
Fool oi Dunlevy HAstings 4177 

Agent: 

W. R. CARPENTER (CANADA) LTD. 
E. R. Palireyman, Manager 
Service To: 

Australia, New Zealand and Pacific 
Islands. 

COASTWISE S. S. & BARGE CO.. LTD. 
510 W. Hastings MArine 0731 

P. A. Curry, Manager 

COMPAGNIE DU BOLEO 

See, KINGSLEY NAVIGATION CO. LTD., 

Agents 

CUNARD WHITE STAR LINE, LTD. 

626 W. Pender MArine 2842 

C. A. VV'hitelock, Manager 
Mrs. C. B. Colwell, Asst. Mgr. 
Agents For: 

CUNARD WHITE STAR, LIMITED 
DONALDSON ATLANTIC LINE 
Service To: 

From Montreal, New York, Boston, Hali- 
fax, St. Mm, to United Kingdom ports. 

DE LA RAMA STEAMSHIP CO., INC. 

SEE: PACIFIC-ATLANTIC S. S. CO., 
Agents 

DINGWALL COTTS & CO., LTD. AGENTS 
486 Howe Street PAcilic 3235 

F. J. Pickett, Manager 
Agents For: 

SWAYNE & HOYT, LTD. 
OCEANIC & ORIENTAL NAVIG. CO. 
SILVER JAVA PACIFIC LINE 
SUN SHIPPING CO. 
WALTER RUNCIMAN 6, CO., LTD. 
REARDON-SMITH LINE 

DODWELL & CO., LTD. 

Marine Building PAcilic 9242 

Guy F. Dodwell, Asst. Gen. Mgr. (Seattle) 
J. Henry Davidson, Asst. Mgr. 
Agents For: 

BLUE FUNNEL LINE 

BORDER LINE TRANSPORTATION CO. 

DONALDSON ATLANTIC LINE 

See: CUNARD WHITE STAR LINE, LTD., 
Agents 

DONALDSON LINE 

See: BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., 

(CANADA) LTD., Agents 

JANUARY • I 947 



EAST ASIATIC CO. 

See, JOHNSON, WALTON STEAMSHIPS, 
Agents 

EASTERN & AUSTRALIAN S. S. CO. LTD. 

See, CANADIAN AUSTRALASIAN LINE, 
LTD., Agents 

ELLEHMAN & BUCKNAIL STEAMSHIPS 

See, B. W. GREER & SON, Agents 

EMPIRE SHIPPING CO., LTD. AGENTS 

966 W Hastings PAcilic 7121 

F. H. Clendenning, President 

F. C. Garde, Vice President 

E. T. Clendenning, Secretary and Gen. Mgr. 

Capt. M. McLean, Marine Supt. and Port 
Captain 

Miss D. Ally, Passenger Agent 
Agents For: 

TRANSATLANTC STEAMSHIP LINE 
PACIFIC ORIENT EXPRESS LINE 
WESTFAL-LARSEN LINE 
LUCKENBACH STEAMSHIP CO. 
INDEPENDENCE LINE 
GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP. 
FRENCH LINE 

PACIFIC MEDITERRANEAN LINE 
Service To: 

Australia. Shanghai, North Chinese 
Ports, South America, Atlantic and Pa- 
cific Coast Ports U, S. A., Central 
America, Panama, Buena Ventura, 
France and Continent, Mediterranean 
Ports. 

FRENCH LINE 

See, EMPIRE SHIPPING CO., Agents 

FRUIT EXPRESS LINE 

See: B. W. GREER & SON, LTD., Agents 

FURNESS (PACIFIC) LTD. AGENTS 

Marine Building PAcilic 6I4I 

P. V. O. Evans, Manager 
Capt. C. E. Holland, Marine Supt. 
Mrs. E. C. Timleck, Passenger Agent 
Agents For: 

FURNESS, WITHY & ASSOC, 
COMPANIES 

HAIN STEAMSHIP CO, LTD. 
CAPPER, ALEXANDER & CO. 
HALDIN 5, PHILIPPS LTD. 
Service To: 

Canadian and U. S. Pacific Coast 
Ports to United Kingdom 

GENERAL STEAMSHIP CORP. 

See, EMPIRE SHIPPING CO., Agents 

GRACE LINE 

See: C. GARDNER JOHNSON, LTD., 
Agents 

B. W. GREER & SON LTD. AGENTS 

602 West Hastings Street MArine 1341 

B. W. Greer, President 
J. A. Barker, Vice President 
W. B. Davidson, Secretary 
Agents For: 

ISTHMIAN STEAMSHIP CO. 

FRUIT EXPRESS LINE 

ELLERMAN & BUCKNALL STEAMSHIPS 

VANCOUVER-ORIENTAL LINE LTD. 
Service To: 

United Kingdom, Continent, Japan, 

China and Manila 



— VAUNCOUVER, B. C. 

GRIFFITHS. lAMES & SONS 

See: PACIFIC-ATLANTIC S. S. CO., 
Agents 

HAIN STEAMSHIP CO. LTD. 

See, FURNESS (PAC.) LTD., Agents 

HALDIN & PHILIPPS LTD. 

See, FURNESS (PAC.) LTD., Agents 

HOLLAND AMERICA LINE 

See: ROYAL MAIL LINES, LTD., Agents 

INDEPENDENCE LINE 

See, EMPIRE SHIPPING CO., Agents 

INTEROCEAN LINE 

Marine Building PAciiic 0131 

ISTHMIAN S. S. LINE 

See: B. W. GREER cS SON. LTD., Agents 

JOHNSON, WALTON STEAMSHIPS LTD. 
Marine Building AGENTS 

PAcilic 4331 

Capt. B. L. Johnson, President 
C. C. Busch, Managing Director 
H. W. Clyne, Secretary 

Agents For: 

EAST ASIATIC CO. LTD. 

Service to: World Wide. 

JOHNSON, C. GARDNER. LTD. AGENTS 
991 Hastings St., West PAcific 7271 

Hon. H. H. Stevens, M.P., Pres.-Director 
R. E. Borchgrevink, Vice Pres.-Dlrector 
James K. Cavers, Secr.-Treas .-Director 
Harry McT. Elliott, Oper. Mgr.-Direclor 
Hercules Worsoe, Mgr. Insurance Dept. 
Agents For: 
GRACE LINE 
JOHNSON LINE 
UNION OIL CO. OF CALIF. 
General Insurance: 

Specializing in Aviation, Marine, Casu- 
alty, Automobile and Fire. 

JOHNSON LINE 

See: C. GARDNER JOHNSON, LTD., 
Agents 

KINGSLEY NAVIGATION CO. LTD. 
602 Pacific Building AGENTS 

MArine 0321 

J. C. Cassidy. President 

F. W. Harvie, Vice Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 

F. McNicholl, Secretary & Frt. & Opr. Mgr. 

R. W. Wilkie, Purchasing Agent 

J. Blain, Marine Superintendent 
Agents For: 

POPE & TALBOT LINES 
OLYMPIC STEAMSHIP CO. 
COMPAGNIE DU BOLEO 
BURNS STEAMSHIP CO. 
Service To: 

U. S. Inlercoastal, Transpacific, Can- 
ada, Mexico, U. S. Coastwise. 

KLAVENESS LINE 

See: BALFOUR. GUTHRIE & CO. 
(CANADA) LTD., Agents 

Page 125 



VAUNCOUVER. B. C— 

KNUTSEN LINE 

3SS Burrard PAcific 0131 

Pacific Coast-European Service 
Agents: 
BALFOWR, GUTHRIE & CO. (CANADA), 
LTD. 

LAURITZEN LINE 

See: NORTH PACIFIC SHIPPING CO.. 
LTD., Agents 

LUCKENBACH S. S. CO. 

See, EMPIRE SHIPPING CO., Aqents 

MATSON NAVIGATION CO. 

355 Burrard PAcific 0131 

MOORE-McCOP.MACK LINES, INC. 

See: BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., 
(CANADA), Agents 

NORTH PACIFIC SfflPPING CO., LTD. 

966 W. Hastings MArine 8231 

]. Maclnnes, Manager 
E. Coltart, Secretary-Treasurer 
Agents Fon 

LAURITZEN LINE 

PARRY NAVIGATION CO. 
Service To: 

South African Ports, Portuguese East 
Africa 

NORTHERN STEAMSHIPS, LTD. 

See: British Columbia Steamships, Ltd. 

OCEANIC & ORIENTAL NAVIGATION CO. 

See: DINGWALL COTTS & CO., LTD., 
Agents: 

OLYMPIC STEAMSHIP CO. 

See, KINGSLEY NAVIGATION CO. LTD., 
Agents 

PACIFIC ISLAND TRANSPORT LINE 

966 W. Hastings PAciBc 7121 

PACIFIC MEDITERRANEAN LINE 

See, EMPIRE SHIPPING CO., Agents 

PACIFIC ORIENT EXPRESS LINE 

See, EMPIRE SHIPPING CO., Agents 



PACIFIC REPUBLIC LINE 

See, BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO. (CAN- 
ADA), Agents 

PARRY NAVIGATION CO. 

See, NORTH PACIFIC SHIPPING CO., 
LTD., Agents 

POPE & TALBOT LINES 

See, KINGSLEY NAVIGATION CO. LTD., 
Agents 

QUAKER LINE 

See: PACIFIC-ATLANTIC S. S. CO., 
Agents 

REARDON SMITH LINE 

See: DINGWALL COTTS 6, CO., LTD., 
Agents: 

ROYAL MAIL LINES, LTD., THE 

Marine Building PAcific 3484 

E. Cunningham, Manager 
J. L. Hovirell, Asst. Mgr. 
Agents For: 

ROYAL MAIL LINES, LTD. 
HOLLAND AMERICA LINES 
Service To: 

United Kingdom & Continental ports. 

RUNCIMAN, WALTER. & CO., LTD. 

See; DINGWALL COTTS & CO., LTD., 
Agents; 

SEABOARD SHIPPING COMPANY LTD. 
823 Marine Building PAcific 6311 

J. A. Humbird, President 

C. H. Grinnell, Vice President 

W. L. Hurford, Secretary & Gen. Mgr. 

H. E. SoUoway, Oper. (Dist.) Mgr. 

R. L. Spratley, Insurance Official 

C. H. Bennett, Marine Supt. 

R. G. Witts, Port Captain 

G. D. Cameron, Port Stev/ard 
Service To: 

United Kingdom, South Africa, Aus- 
tralia, Mediterranean, China, West In- 
dies. 



SaVEH-IAVA PACIFIC LINE 

See: DINGWALL COTTS & CO., LTD., 
Agents: 

SUN SHIPPING CO. 

See: DINGWALL COTTS & CO., LTD., 
Agents: 

SWAYNE & HOYT, LTD. 

See: DINGWALL COTTS & CO., LTD., 
Agents: 

TRANSATLANTIC S. S. LINE 

See, EMPIRE SHIPPING CO., Agents 

UNION OIL CO. OF CALIFORNIA 

See: C. GARDNER JOHNSON, LTD., 
Agents: 

UNION STEAM SHIP CO. OF BRITISH 

COLUMBIA, LTD., THE 

Foot of Carrall PAcific 3411 

Gordon Farrell, President 

UNION STEAM SHIP CO. OF NEW ZEA- 
LAND, LTD. 

See: CANADIAN AUSTRALASIAN LINE, 
Agents 

VANCOUVER-ORIENTAL LINE LTD. 

See, B. W. GREER & SON, Agents 

VANCOUVER - ST. LAWRENCE LINE 

Managers: 

CANADIAN TRANSPORT CO., LTD. 

VANCOUVER - WEST INDIES LINE 

Managers: 
CANADIAN TRANSPORT CO., LTD. 

WEBSTER LINE 

See: CANADA SHIPPING CO., LTD., 
Agents 

WESTFAL-LARSEN LINE 

See, EMPIRE SHIPPING CO., Agents 



mRHlOE IO$Uiil\IC[ DIRECTOIiY 



AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL MARINE 
AGENCY 
San Francisco 
340 Pine Street DOuglas 5414 

W. T. Sullivan President 

L. B. Mortimer, Vice President 

H. W. Gould, Secretary & Treasurer 

Representing; 

National Union Fire Insurance Co. 

New Hampshire Fire Insurance Co. 

Pacific National Fire Insurance Co. 

Canton Insurance Office, Limited 
Branch Offices: 

Seattle 1 

564 Stuart Building 

Los Angeles 13 

541 South Spring Street 



ATLANTIC MUTUAL INSURANCE 

COMPANY 
CENTENNIAL INSURANCE COMPANY 
Pacific Division 
San Francisco 4 

361 California Street SUtler 8930 

Miles F. York, Vice President 
Herriot Small, Vice President 
H. Gordon Beesley, Marine Underwriter 
James J. Walsh. Claims Superintendent 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles 14 

James E. Crilly, Jr., Manager 

510 West Sixth Street 

Michigan 9665 

THE AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE COMPANY 
OF HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 
and 



THE STANDARD FIRE INSURANCE 
COMPANY 

Pacific Marine Department 
San Francisco, California 
220 Montgomery Street GArfield 2626 
K. L. Daniels, Manager 
H. R. Cleaveland, Assistant Manager 
S. P. Gist, Underwriter 
C. V. McAuliffe, Special Agent 
Branch Offices 

Southern California Marine Office 

Los Angeles, California 

810 South Spring Street 

E. L. Benson, Manager 

J. W. Odin, Underwriter 

H. F. Gibson, Special Agent 

Chas. A. Anderson, State Agent 

Northwest State Agent 

Seattle, Washington 



Page 126 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



THE AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE CO. 

Dexter Horton Building 

D. V/. Coultas, Jr., State Agent 
BALFOUR. GUTHRIE & CO., LIMITED 
San Francisco 4, California 
Baliour Building 

341 California Street EXbrook 3310 

riyde A. Nelson, Manager 
C. Girdleslone, Claims 
D. Morris, Accounting 
;:: resenting; 

.American & Foreign Insurance Co. 

The British & Foreign Marine Insurance 
Co., Ltd. 

jnion Insurance Society of Canton, Ltd. 

Home Fire & Marine Insurance Com- 
pany 

The Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Co. 
(Marine Dept.) 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles 14, California 

G. E. Hampshire, Manager 

530 West Sixth Street 

Portland, Oregon 

'.A. Dick, Manager 

Park and Oak Streets 

Seattle 4, Washington 

B. B. Pelly. Vice President and Manager 

Dex'er Hortcn Bldg. 
W. B. BRANDT & CO., INC. 
Son Francisco, California 
254 Bush Street EXbrook 4787 

W. B. Brandt, President 
B. C. Turnbell, Vice President in chg. 

Ocean Marine Dept. 
Representing (for Ocean Marine Insur- 
ance): 

Providence Washington Insurance Co. 

Atlas Assurance Co., Ltd. 

Anchor Insurance Co. 

Old Colony Insurance Co. 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles, California 

L. L. Brandt, Vice President 

548 South Spring Street 

CALIFORNIA AGENCIES 

WORLD FIRE & MARINE INSURANCE 

COMPANY 
STANDARD INSURANCE COMPANY OF 
NEW YORK 

San Francisco. California 
114 Sansome Street DOuglas 6800 

W. L. Dawes, Vice President 
L, Parks, Underwriter 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles. California 
208 West 8th Street 

Frank F. Nelson. Ir., Supt. Marine De- 
partment 
\ ]zidan, Under-.'/riter 

CENTENNIAL INSURANCE COMPANY 
See: ATLANTIC MUTUAL INSURANCE 
COMPANY 

COMMERCIAL UNION ASSURANCE CO., 
LTD. 

Pacific Marine Branch 
San Francisco, Califomicf 
315 Montgomery Street DOuglas 0170 

R. T. '.Vatkins, Marine Secretary 

CRAVENS, DARGAN & COMPANY 
Son Francisco. California 
60 Sansome Street DOuglas 8414 

■/alcolm Cravens, General Manager 
Harry Struthers, Marine Manager 
Frank McKeon. Marine Underwriter 
Representing: 

JANUARY • 1947 



London and Lancashire Ins. Co., Ltd. 
Camden Fire Insurance Association 
Royal Exchange Assurance 
Fulton Fire Insurance Company 
Lloyd's of London 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles, California 
Fred Lee, Marine Underwriter 
548 So. Spring Street 
Portland, Oregon 
Lumberman's Building 
Seattle, Washington 
Stuart Building 
Spokane, Washington 
Sherwood Building 

FIRE ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA 
San Francisco, California 
425 Montgomery Street GAriield 6514 

William M. Houston, Secretary-Manager 
Donald E. Moodie, Marine Manager 
Representing: 

Reliance Insurance Company 

Lumbermen's Insurance Company 

Philadelphia National Insurance Com- 
pany 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles, California 

548 South Spring Street 

Portland, Oregon 

Board of Trade Building 

Seattle, Washington 

Dexier Horton Building 

FIREMAN'S FUND INSURANCE COMPANY 
San Francisco 20, California 
401 California Street SUtter 7000 

James F. Crafts, President 

George Jordan, Vice President in chg. 

Marine 
Marine Underwriters: 

Gilbert N. Weeks, Asst. Marine Secre- 
tary 

Woodward Melone, Cargo 

Jack Lubbock, Inland Marine 

D. E. Libbey. P. & I. 
Webster Jones, Hull 

Representing: 

Home Fire & Marine Insurance Co. of 
California 

Western National Insurance Company 
Branch Offices: 

Seattle 1, Washington 

Richard T. Saunders, Manager 

Pacific Northwest Marine Branch 

460 Stuart Building 

Portland 4, Oregon 

E. A. Valentine, Manager 
900 Board of Trade Building 
Los Angeles 13. California 
Leonard T. Backus, Manager 
Southern California Marine Department 
548 South Spring Street 

FOUNDERS' FIRE 4 MARINE INSURANCE 

CO. 

(HOME OFFICE) 

Los Angeles 14, California 

523 West Sixth Street MAdison 1321 

Victor H. Rossetti, Chairman of the Board 

Preston Hotchkis, President 

Allen H. Talmage, Vice President 

Ralph P. Cousins, Vice President and Sec- 
retary 

Hamilton Thacher, Jr., Marine Secretary 

Roy B. Luce, Chief Examiner 

A. H. Hall, Comptroller 

Miss Jonne Vickers, Assistant to Mr. 
Thaf.her 



FOUNDERS' FIRE 6 MARINE INSURANCE 
CO. 

Branc'.i Offices: 
San Diego 
Fresno 
Sacramento 
SAN FRANCISCO 200 Bush Street 

GRaystone 2391 
HARTFORD FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY 

and 
HARTFORD ACCIDENT AND INDEMNITY 

COMPANY 

San Francisco, California 

Hartford Building 

720 California Street SUtter 7680 

Pacific Deportment:: 

Addison C. Posey, Manager 
A. H. Schaeffer, Assistant Manager 
R. V. Fulton, Assistant Manager 
H. E. Diem, Assistant Manager 
G. L. West, Superintendent, Marine 
Dept. 

Metropolitan Department: 
San Francisco 4, California 
441 California Street SUtter 7680 

Charles F. Bailey, Superintendent 
Metropolitan Marine Department 

Branch Offices: 

Oakland 12, California 

L. L. George, Special Agent 

1021 Central Bank Building 

14th & Broadway GLencourt 5076 

Los Angeles 13, California 

Roy O. Elmore, Supt. Marine Dept. 

548 South Spring Street MAdison 1471 

Portland 4, Oregon 

John M. Benedict, Special Agent 

1120 Spalding Building 

319 S. W. Washington Street 

ATv/ater 8653 
Seattle 4, Washington 
Forest Guptill. Special Agent 
711 Dexter Horton Building ELliott 4025 

HINCHMANROLPH & LANDIS 

In Association with 
CHAPMAN & CO. 

Insurance Underwriters 

(Marine-Fire-Automobile-Casually) 

San Francisco, California 

345 Sansome Street DOuglas 8080 

Partners: 

James Rolph III 

Philip F. Landis 

F. J. Pelletier 
George M. Parrish 

G. A. O'SuUivan 

Joe Ghirardelli, Associate General Agent 
A. W. Lidgate, Asst. Marine Underwriter 
Representing: 

American Eagle Fire Insurance Com- 
pany 

American Equitable Assurance Com- 
pany 

The Continental Insurance Company of 
New York 

The Commonwealth Insurance Com- 
pany of New York 
Branch Offices: 

Seattle, Washington 

G. A. O'SuUivan, Manager 

1411 -4th Avenue Building 

Los Angeles. California 

James W. Scanlon, Manager 

548 South Spring Street 

Portland, Oregon 

Fred Brennan, Manager 

American Bank Building 

Page 127 



HOME INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW 
YORK 

San Frcmcisco. California 
341 Montgomery Street EXbrook 5600 

Clayton E. Roberts, Marine Manager 

A. Martinez. Jr., Marine Manager 
Representing: 

Franklin Fire Insurance Company of 
Philadelphia 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles 14, California 

639 South Spring Street 

Seattle 4, Washington 

J. C. Selz, Jr., Marine Manager 

814 Dexter Horlon Building 

Portland 4. Oregon 

Thomas W. Shepard, Marine Supervisor 

520 Lumbermen's Building 

Denver 2. Colorado 

406 Tramway Building 

A. B. KNOWLES 4 CO., INC. 
Marine Insurance Under-writers 
San Francisco 4, California 
114 Sansome Street SUtter 5268 

A. B. Knowles. President 

C. H. Preston. Vice President 

Frank I. Ford. Treasurer 

Joseph C. Miller, Secretary 

Donald B. Porter, Assistant Secretary 

Peyton Y. Alverson, Supt. of Agencies 

Representing: 

Utah Home Fire Insurance Company 

Millers National Insurance Company 
Branches: 

Los Angeles, California 

F. N. Farrell, Manager 

412 West Sixth Street 

Seattle, Washington 

264 Cclman Building 

MARINE OFFICE OF AMERICA 
Pacific Department 
San Francisco 4. California 
340 Pine Street GArfield 7939 

F. B. Galbreath, Manager 

E. E. Cummings, Assistant Manager 

Representing: 

American Insurance Company 
Glens Falls Insurance Company 
Firemen's Insurance Company 
Hanover Fire Insurance Company 
Continental Insurance Company 
American Eagle Fire Insurance Com- 
pany 
Fidelity-Phenix Fire Insurance Com- 
pany 
Niagara Fire Insurance Company 

Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles, California 
Neil Dunning. Manager 
F. L. Walter. Manager 
Stockton, California 
George Dienst, Manager 
Seattle, Washington 
P. A. Carew, Manager 

MATHEWS & LIVINGSTON 
Marine Underwriters 
San Francisco. California 
200 Bush Street SUtter 2970 

Sidney A. Livingston 

F. A. Jansen, Ocean Marine 

R. H. Law;, Inland Marine 

A. Seabury, Claims 

A. J. Marshall, Accounting 

Representing; 

Aetna Insurance Co. 

Oueen Insurance Co. 

Page 128 



Maritime Insurance Co., Ltd. 
Fidelity-Phenix Fire Insurance Co. 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles, California 
R. Thornton, Manager 
111 West 7th Street 
Seattle, Washington 
W, J. Shackelford, Manager 
Colman Building 

WM. H. McGEE CO. 

San Francisco, California 

300 California Street EXbrook 7304 

Chas. Brockmiller, Vice President 

Chas. LaBare, Assistant Secretary 

Representing: 

Sun Insurance Office, Ltd. of London 
Northern Assurance Co., Ltd. 
Sun Underv/riters Ins. Co. of New York 
Patriotic Insurance Co. of America 
Reliable Fire Insurance Co. of Dayton 
Royal Exchange Assurance 
Indemnity Marine Assurance Co., Ltd. 
Security Insurance Co. of New Haven 
East and West Insurance Co. 
Phoenix Insurance Co. of Hartford 
Equitable Fire & Marine Insurance Co. 
Camden Fire Insurance Association 

Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles, California 
Claude B. Moss, Manager 
548 South Spring Street 

H. M. NEWHALL & COMPANY 
San Francisco, California 
260 California Street SUtter 3161 

Edgar H. Lion, Vice President 

H. M. Coffey, Assistant Secretary 

Representing: 

The Ocean Marine Insurance Co., Ltd. 
of London 

The London Assurance 

Alliance Assurance Co., Ltd. of London 

Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance 
Company 

American Alliance Insurance Company 

NORTH AMERICA COMPANIES 
Pacific Coast Department 
San Francisco 4, California 
222 Sansome Street EXbrook 5900 

F. F. Owen, General Manager 

T. K. Hannum, Manager Marine Dept. 

W. V. Hall, Manager, Ocean Marine 

L. E. Brame, Inland Marine 

V. A, Newman, Jr., Loss Superintendent 

Representing: 

Insurance Company of North America 

Alliance Insurance Company 

Philadelphia Fire & Marine Insurance 
Company 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles 14, California 

A, L. Sullivan, Manager 

Wm. C. Stephen, Loss Department 

621 South Spring Street 

Seattle 4, Washington 

P. E. Jacoby, Manager 

Seattle Service Office 

(Services Washington, Oregon, Mon- 
tana, Idaho Panhandle) 

508 Colman Building 

PACIFIC MARINE INSURANCE AGENCY. 
INC. 

San Francisco 4, California 
E. C. Evans Agencies, Managers 
520 California Street SUtter 4114 

E. C. Evans, Jr. 
H. L. Evans 



PACIFIC MARINE INSURANCE AGENCY. 
INC. 

W. J. Jansen 
Representing: 

Westchester Fire Insurance Company 
United States Fire Insurance Company 
Agricultural Insurance Company 
The North River Insurance Company 
Western Assurance Company 
Seaboard Fire & Marine Insurance 

Company 
The Century Insurance Company, 

Limited 
The Pacific Coast Fire Insurance Com- 
pany 
Empire State Insurance Company 
The British America Assurance Com- 
pany 
Representing Underwriters at Lloyd's, 
London 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles, California 
• R. S. Swanson, Manager 
530 West Sixth Street 

PARROTT & COMPANY 
San Francisco, California 
231 Sansome Street DOuglas 2400 

Carl A. Jones, Manager 
Representing: 

North British & Mercantile Insurance 
Co,. Ltd. 

Northwestern National Insurance Com- 
pany 
Agents: 

San Diego, California 

Stewart C. Kendall 

343 Spreckels Building 

Portland, Oregon 

Walter J. Pearson 

442 Pittock Block Building 

Seattle, Washington 

Swett & Crawford 

1065 Stuart Building 

Vancouver, B. C. 

Bell-Irving Insurance Agencies, Ltd. 

989 West Hastings Street 

RATHBONE, KING & SEELEY 
General Agents 
San Francisco 4, California 
114 Sansome Street GArfield 3900 

Partners: 

E. T. King 
Charles Seeley 

D. A. Ayling, Ocean Marine Underwrit- 
ing 

E. G. Taggart, Claims 
Representing: 

Chubb & Son 

Federal Insurance Company 
The Sea Insurance Company, Ltd. 
The Marine Insurance Company, Ltd. 
The Century Insurance Company, Ltd. 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles, California 
L. C. Carleton, Manager 

F. M. Hurd, Underwriter 

650 South Spring Street VAndike 5107 

Portland, Oregon 

M. B. Waterbury, Manager 

310 S. W. Fourth Street BEacon 7297 

RHODE ISLAND INSURANCE COMPANY 
San Francisco 4. California 
155 Sansome Street EXbrook 6193 

George N. Arnold, Manager Marine Dept. 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



LOUIS ROSENTHAL AGENCY 
Marine rnsurance 
Son Francisco 4, Caliiornia 
231 Sansome Street EXrook 1076 

Charles E. Pinkham, Manager 
Gerald Schoenfeld, Assistant Manager 
Representing: 

Switzerland General Insurance Com- 
pany, Ltd. 
Thames & Mersey Marine Insurance 

Company, Ltd. 
The Liverpool & London & Globe Insur- 
ance Co., Ltd. (Marine Dept.) 
Hartford Fire Insurance Company 
(Marine Dept.) 

ROYAL INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD. 
San Francisco, Caliiornia 
201 Sansome Street DOuglos 5855 

G. H. Bunyan, Manager Marine Dept. 
Representing: 

Newark Fire Insurance Co. 

ST. PAUL FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE 
COMPANY 
Pacific Department 
San Francisco 4, California 
Mills Building SUlter 4022 

E. B. Barry, Marine Secretary 
H. E. Castle, Marine Dept. Manager 

THE STANDARD FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY 

See: THE AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE 
COMPANY OF HARTFORD, CONN. 

STANDARD INSURANCE COMPANY OF 
NEW YORK 
See: CALIFORNIA AGENCIES 



STANDARD MARINE INSURANCE CO., 
LTD. 

Swett & Crawford 
Pacific Coast General Agents 
San Francisco, California 
100 Sansome Street SUtter 4400 

R. J. Lutich, Manager Pacific Coast 

Marine Dept. 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles, California 

621 So. Hope Street 

Portland, Oregon 

1515 Yeon Building 

Seattle, Washington 

1065 Stuart Building 

TALBOT. BIRD & COMPANY 
San Francisco, California 
114 Scmsome Street DOuglas 5107 

Harry W. Browne, Vice President 
Louis M. HoTve, Underwriter 
Jack T. Hayes, Claims Department 
Representing: 

Eagle Star Insurance Co., Ltd. (United 
States Managers) 

Universal Insurance Co. (General Man- 
agers) 

Globe & Rutgers Fire Insurance Co. 
(Marine General Agents) 
Branch Offices; 

Los Angeles, California 

R. A. Kanzee, Manager 

1 1 1 West Seventh Street 

Seattle, Washington 

Morsman Condit, Manager 

Douglas Building 

M. THOMPSON & CO. INC. 
Ocean Marine General Agents 
Son Francisco, CaUiomia 
311 California Street SUtter 3641 

Mitchell Thompson, President 
Ralph M. Thompson, Vice President 



Walter P. Thompson, Vice President 

John Hozack, Marine Department 

James F. Fayen, Asst. Manager Marine 

Department 
Representing: 

Boston Insurance Company 

Old Coloony Insurance Company 

The Connecticut Fire Insurance Com- 
pany 

Great American Insurance Company 
Branch Offices: 

Los Angeles 13, California 

Ouentin M. Thompson. Resident Man- 
ager 

541 South Spring Street 

UNION INSURANCE SOCIETY OF 
CANTON, LTD. 
San Francisco, California 
Pacific Coast Control Branch 
340 Pine Street EXbrook 3154 

T. B. Dean, Manager 
Branch Offices: 

Seattle, Washington 

F. W. Perry, Manager 

Colman Building MAin 5723 

Vancouver, B. C. 

W. R. Brydon, Manager 

Yorkshire Building MArine 3331 

UNION MARINE & GENERAL INSURANCE 
CO., LTD. 

Son Francisco, California 
114 Sansome Street DOuglas 6313 

Geo. H. Ismon, Underwriter 
Representing: 

Phoenix Assurance Company, Ltd. of 
London 

Norwich Union Fire Ins. Society, Ltd. 

Columbia Insurance Co. 

WORLD FIRE & MARINE INSURANCE 
COMPANY 
See: CALIFORNIA AGENCIES 



MARINE INSURANCE COMPANIES 

Aetna Insurance Co. 
Agricultural Insurance Company 

Alliance Assurance Co., Ltd., of London 
Alliance Insurance Company 
American Alliance Insurance Company 
American Eagle Fire Insurance Company 

American Equitable Assurance Company 
American Insurance Company 
Americcm & Foreign Insurance Co. 
Anchor Insurance Co. 
Atlas Assurance Co., Ltd. 
Boston Insurance Company 
British-America Assurance Company, The 
British & Foreign Marine Insurance Co., Ltd., The 
Camden Fire Insurance Association 

Canton Insurance Office, Limited 
Century Insurance Company, Ltd., The 

Chubb & Son 

Columbia Insurance Co. 

Connecticut Fire Insurance Company, The 

Commonwealth Insurance Company of New York 

Continental Insurance Company 

Continental Insurance Company of New York, The 

Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Company 

Eagle Star Insurance Co., Ltd. 

East and West Insurance Co. 

Equitable Fire & Marine Insurance Co. 

Empire State Insurance Company 

Federal Insurance Company 

JANUARY • I 947 



AGENTS 

Mathews & Livingston 

Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 

Edward Brown & Sons 

H. M. Newhall & Company 

North America Companies 

H. M. Newhall & Company 

Hinchman-Rolph & Landis in Association with Chapman & Co. 

Marine Office of America 

Hinchman-Rolph & Landis in Association with Chapman & Co. 

Marine Office of America 

Balfour, Guthrie & Co., Limited 

W. B. Brandt & Co., Inc. 

W. B. Brandt & Co., Inc. 

M. Thompson & Co., Inc. 

Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 

Balfour, Guthrie & Co., Limited 

Cravens, Dargan & Company 

Wm. H. McGee Co. 

American International Marine Agency 

Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 

Rathbone, King & Seeley 

Rathbone, King & Seeley 

Union Marine & General Insurance Co., Ltd. 

M. Thompson & Co., Inc. 

Hinchman-Rolph & Landis in Association with Chapman & Co. 

Marine Office of America 

Hinchman-Rolph & Landis in Association with Chapman & Co. 

H. M. Newhall & Company 

Talbot, Bird & Company (U. S. Managers) 

Wm. H. McGee Co. 

Wm. H. McGee Co. 

Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 

Rathbone, King S Seeley 

Page 128-A 



MARINE INSURANCE COMPANIES 

Fidelity-Phenix Fire Insurance Company 

Firemen's Insurance Company 

Franklin Fire Insurance Company of Philadelphia 

Fulton Fire Insurance Company 

General Insurance Co. of America 

Glens Falls Insurance Company 

Globe & Rutgers Fire Insurance Co. 

Great American Insurance Company 

Hanover Fire Insurance Company 

Hartford Fire Insurance Company (Marine Dept.) 

Home Fire & Marine Insurance Company 

Home Fire & Marine Insurance Co. of California 

Indemnity Marine Assurance Co., Ltd. 

Insurance Company of North America 

Liverpool & London & Globe Insurance Co., Ltd. (Marine Dept.) 

Lloyd's of London 



London Assurance, The 

London and Lancashire Ins. Co., Ltd. 

Lumbermen's Insurance Company 

Marine Insurance Company, Ltd., The 

Maritime Insurance Co., Ltd. 

Millers National Insurance Company 

National Union Fire Insurance Co. 

Nev/ark Fire Insurance Co. 

New Hampshire Fire Insurance Co. 

Niagara Fire Insurance Company 

North British & Mercantile Insurance Co., Ltd. 

North River Insurance Company, The 

Northern Assurance Co., Ltd. 

Northwestern National Insurance Company 

Norwich Union Fire Ins. Society, Ltd. 

Ocean Marine Insurance Co., Ltd. of London, The 

Old Colony Insurance Co. 

Pacific Coast Fire Insurance Company, The 
Pacific National Fire Insurance Co. 
Patriotic Insurance Co. of America 
Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Co. (Marine Dept.) 
Philadelphia Fire & Marine Insurance Company 
Philadelphia National Insurance Company 
Phoenix Assurance Company, Ltd. of London 
Phoenix Insurance Co. of Hartford 
Providence Washington Insurance Co. 
Queen Insurance Co. 
Reliable Fire Insurance Co. of Dayton 
Reliance Insurance Company 
Royal Exchange Assurance 

Sea Insurance Company, Ltd., The 

Seaboard Fire & Marine Insurance Company 

Security Insurance Co. of New Haven 

Sun Insurance Office, Ltd. of London 

Sun Underwriters Ins. Co. of New York 

Switzerland General Insurance Company, Ltd. 

Thames & Mersey Marine Insurance Company, Ltd. 

Union Insurance Society of Canton, Ltd. 

United States Fire Insurance Company 

Universal Insurance Co. 

Utah Home Fire Insurance Company 

Westchester Fire Insurance Company 

Western Assurance Company 

Western National Insurance Company 



AGENTS (ConUnued) 

Marine Office of America 

Mathews S Livingston 

Marine Office of America 

Home Insurance Company of New York 

Cravens, Dargan & Company 

Talbot, Bird & Company (Marine Managers) 

Marine Office of America 

Talbot, Bird & Company (Marine General Agents) 

M. Thompson & Co., Inc. 

Marine Office of America 

Louis Rosenthal Agency 

Balfour, Guthrie & Co., Limited 

Fireman's Fund Insurance Company 

Wm. H. McGee Co. 

North America Companies 

Louis Rosenthal Agency 

Cravens, Dargan & Company 

Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 

(Representing Underwriters) 
H. M. Newhall & Company 
Cravens, Dargan & Company 
Fire Association of Philadelphia 
Rathbone, King & Seeley 
Mathews and Livingston 
A. B. Knowles & Co., Inc. 
American International Marine Agency 
Royal Insurance Company, Ltd. 
American International Marine Agency 
Marine Office of America 
Parrott & Company 

Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 
Wm. H. McGee Co. 
Parrott & Company 

Union Marine & General Insurance Co., Ltd. 
H. M. Newhall 6 Company 
W. B. Brandt & Co., Inc. 
M. Thompson & Co., Inc. 
Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 
American International Marine Agency 
Wm. H. McGee Co. 
Balfour, Guthrie & Co., Limited 
North America Companies 
Fire Association of Philadelphia 
Union Marine & General Insurance Co., Ltd. 
Wm. H. McGee Co. 
W. B. Brandt & Co., Inc. 
Mathev/s & Livingston 
Wm. H. McGee Co. 
Fire Association of Philadelphia 
Cravens, Dargan & Company 
Wm. H. McGee Co. 
Rathbone, King & Seeley 
Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 
Wm. H. McGee Co. 
Wm. H. McGee Co. 
Wm. H. McGee Co. 
Louis Rosenthal Agency 
Louis Rosenthal Agency 
Balfour, Guthrie & Co., Limited 
Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 
Talbot, Bird & Company (General Managers) 
A. B. Knowles & Co., Inc. 
Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 
Pacific Marine Insurance Agency, Inc. 
Fireman's Fund Insurance Company 




Page 128-B 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



h\\ [ntrance 
[xaminations to 
King's Point 

Entrance examinations for ap- 
pointment in the next class of cadet- 
midshipmen of the U. S. Merchant 
Marine Cadet Corps and its Acad- 
emy at Kings Point, New York, will 
be held on April 4, 1947, it was 
armounced by Commander E. G. 
McDonald, USMS, District Super- 
visor, 1000 Geary Street, San Fran- 
cisco, California. 

Excellent opportunity to obtain, 
at no cost, a combined technical 
training and college education lead- 
ing to a career as ship's officer at 
sea and, after sea experience, posi- 
tions in the shipping industry and 
its allied activities are offered to 
qualified candidates. Cadet-midship- 
men receive at least S65 monthly 
pay and quarters and subsistence 
besides a free college course. 

High school seniors 16' /i to 21 
years of age scheduled to graduate 
in May or June, 1947, may apply. 
To enable them to complete high 
school and receive diplomas, suc- 
cessful candidates will not be as- 
signed until July, 1947. 

Academy graduates qualify for 
commissions as Ensign, U. S. Mari- 
time Service, and Ensign, U. S. 
Naval Reserve as well as licenses as 
ship's officers in the deck or engine 
department. 

Commander McDonald urges in- 
terested candidates to apply early as 
many applicants failed to qualify 
for the last entrance examination 
because applications arrived too late 
to be properly reviewed. Write or 
wire; Supervisor, U. S. Merchant 
Marine Cadet Corps, Training Or- 
ganization, 'Washington 25, D. C. 



plans for the first class of qualified 
seamen to begin annual training 
duty at the station on January 2, 
1947. The course is to provide all 
unlicensed merchant marine person- 
nel with the basic trade knowledge 
to become better qualified seamen, 
to promote safe and economical 
practices and to assist trainees to 
qualify for advancement. 

The course of training for un- 
licensed seamen is four weeks dur- 
ing which trainees will receive pay 
and subsistence. Ten types of train- 

mmi [NGiiER mm 



ern developments. Pay and sub- 
sistence will be available for train- 
ees in all types of refresher courses. 
Applicants should apply at the 
U. S. Maritime Service Enrolling 
Office, 1000 Geary Street, San Fran- 
cisco, California. 




Seamen s Training Courses 

Captain Malcolm E. Crossman, 
USMS, Superintendent of the U. S. 
Maritime Service Training Station, 
Alameda, California, has completed 



"Piccadilly Apts.. Combustion Engineer's 
Office. Mr. Murphy's secretary speakin'." 

Cartoon courtesy oi 

American Hoist & Derrick Co. 

ing wiU be offered in this new pro- 
gram for which there will be week- 
ly quotas. Unlicensed merchant sea- 
men already enrolled in the U. S. 
Maritime Service or eligible for en- 
rollment may apply for the training 
provided they have served for eight 
months at sea aboard vessels of the 
U. S. Merchant Marine during the 
twelve months prior to enrollment. 
Twelve types of training will also 
be offered to officers of the U. S. 
Merchant Marine in the refresher 
courses effective January 2, 1947, 
to be held at the U. S. Maritime 
Service Training Station, Sheeps- 
head Bay, New York. This will be 
to provide licensed officers with a 
course of instruction designed to 
keep them abreast of the latest mod- 



Merchant Marine 
Training at Seattle 

■With the addition of an engineer- 
ing course to the navigation and 
radio program, a complete mer- 
chant marine officer training course 
will be offered Puget Sound seamen 
by the 'Washington Technical insti- 
tute at the YMCA, 909 4th Avenue, 
Seattle. 

The engineer's school will be con- 
ducted by Perry E. Foy, who was 
an instructor at the former U. S. 
Maritime Upgrading School in Se- 
attle. He will teach candidates try- 
ing for either original or raise in 
grade tickets. 

Experienced officers of the Navy 
or Coast Guard are eligible for mer- 
chant marine training. Unlicensed 
personnel in the Navy, Coast Guard 
or Merchant Marine service, with 
18 months experience on deck or 
engine room, may take advantage 
of this new service. 

The navigation school for masters 
and deck officers is headed by Cap- 
tain Harold Kildall and Captain Jo- 
seph M. Kildall, who, for the past 
21 years, have graduated thousands 
of licensed personnel. 

Graduates of this school have 
made an excellent showing in the 
Merchant Marine, Navy and Coast 
Guard during the war. Seven of 
them received Distinguished Serv- 
ice medals in the line of duty. 

The radio school which offers 
training in servicing and operating, 
handles Merchant Marine candi- 
dates and commercial operators. 
Heading this section is A. Lehnhoff. 

More information on these schools 
may be had by writing or calling 
'Wayne Gardner at the Central YM 
CA, 909 4th Avenue, Seattle, Wash- 
ington. 



JAN U ARY • 1947 



Page 128-C 



h-Enlisted IDen Hlay Be 
Commissioned for Haval 
Reserve Service 

The Navy is offering commissions 
to qualified ex-enlisted men who 
wish to return to active duty in the 
Volunteer Naval Reserve. The pro- 
gram, which will remain open in- 
definitely, is established to qualify 
men who through lack of service or 
opportunity, were not eligible for 
advancement to commissioned rank 
during the war. Those who are qual- 
ified for a commission and who wish 
to take an active part in the peace- 
time reserve, may now apply. 

To qualify, the applicant must 
have served honorably in the Navy, 
Naval Reserve, Coast Guard or 
Coast Guard Reserve in World War 
II. Age limits are 19 to 30 years. 
Qualifications and information may 
be obtained from the Office of Naval 
Officer Procurement, Ferry Build- 
ing, San Francisco. 



Shoreside Personalities 

WILFRED A. (Bill) SECHRIST, 
who has been in sales promotion 
work with some of the country's 
leading industries, has been ap- 
pointed Director of Marketing for 
Ellinwood Industries, Los Angeles. 




Wilfred A. Sechrist of Ellinwood 
Industries. Inc. 



He will handle marketing activities 
for their farm equipment, marine 
and aircraft, and office equipment 
divisions, in addition to continu- 
ing as sales manager of their elec- 
tronics division. 

* « * 

FAGEOL PRODUCTS COM- 
PANY OF KENT, OHIO, engine 
manufacturers, have recently en- 
tered the marine field, marketing 
two Fageol marine engines, desig- 
nated FM200 and FM225, to be 
introduced at the January Motor 
Boating Show in New York. 

L. G. Fageol, who is president of 
Twin Coach Company and is na- 
tionally recognized as an authority 
on engine design, is also widely 
known for his trophy-winning boat- 
ing activities. It is expected that 
the Fageol marine engines will 
arouse much interest among boat 
manufacturers and owners. 



HEADS RESEARCH OF 
AMERICAN PIER FACILITIES: 
To make exhaustive studies of 
American pier and harbor facilities 
and to submit recommendations for 
their improvements, William Miley. 
president of the Independent Pier 
Company, is head of the recently- 
created Economics and Statistical 
Division of the U. S. Maritime Com- 



CAPTAIN FRIED HAS RE- 
TIRED FROM THE SEA: After 
18 years service in the Navy, Mer- 
chant Marine and other govern- 
ment services. Captain George Fried. 
one of the nation's outstanding ship- 
masters, has retired. He is known 
to have coined the famous phrase 
while master of the SS American 
Legion going to the rescue of an 
Italian ship in a North Atlantic gale, 
"We will not abandon you" and 
which phrase was the subject for a 
marine painting. 

In recent years. Captain Fried 
has been Marine Inspection Officer 
for the U. S. Coast Guard. He has 
been decorated 13 times by half a 
dozen nations for seamanship and 
exploits at sea. 




Wheeler Corp. 

PELL W. FOSTER, JR., vice 
president and director of the Foster 
Wheeler Corporation, has been ap- 
pomted vice president in charge of 
production. He has been associated 
with the company for 11 years, was 
elected a vice president in 1942 and 
a member of the board of directors 
in 1938. 

United Seamen's Service 
To Continue as Permanent 
Seamen's lllelfare Agency 

The continuation of the United 
Seamen's Service, wartime agency, 
as a permanent postwar welfare 
agency for American merchant sea- 
men has been approved by its exec- 
utive committee which consists of 
leading representatives of the ship- 
ping industry, maritime unions and 
the public, it is announced by Otho 
J. Hicks, executive director. 

The president is William S. New- 
ell, who is also president of the Bath 
Iron Works, Bath, Me., and of the 
Society of Naval Architects and Ma- 
rine Engineers. 

The U.S.S. was organized by 
Admiral Land in September, 1942, 
to provide emergency war services 
for merchant seamen on American 
flag ships, who had no Red Cross or 
USO to turn to at a time when Nazi 
submarines were taking a heavy toll 
of American shipping and lives. 



Page 128-D 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



REMIRS^ BETHLEHEM 




5 



Rebuilding of the after-section of the 92- 
ton crankshaft of the Motorship Poelau 
Laut is a typical example of why so many 
shipping operators prefer Bethlehem for 
ill tvpes of ship repairs. 

Powered by one of the largest Diesel 
motors afloat, the 535-foot Poelau Laut 
developed crankshaft trouble while ply- 
ing the Pacific. Knowing that Bethlehem 
was the only privately-operated organiza- 
tion on the West Coast with facilities to 
handle efficiently the big repair job that 
was necessary, her operators sent her to 
Bethlehem's San Pedro Yard. 

The enormous 53-foot shaft was re- 
moved from the combination freight and 
passenger vessel with minimum disturb- 
mce to existing bulkheads through the 
ingenious use of skids. Examination dis- 



■ard half of the shaft 1^ SHlPi 



closed that the forward half of the shaft 
would have to be replaced, but that the 
after half could be rebuilt. 

The rebuilding job included replace- 
ment of five of the huge journal pins. The 
fact that the shaft was designed to have 
each crankpin and its web in one solid 
forging and the journal pins shrunk in 
the crankwebs presented no complica- 
tions for Bethlehem's skilled craftsmen. 
When the job was completed, the after 
section was joined to a spare forward 
half and the entire crankshaft reassembled 
and replaced. 

Today, the Poelau Laut is back in serv- 
ice again, with her 8,000 hp Diesel per- 
forming to the complete satisfaction of 
her owners — a success story that is the 
usual result of Repairs By Bethlehem. 



SHIPBUILDING YARDS 

OUINCY YARD 

Quincy. Mass. 
STATEN ISLAND YARD 

Staten Island. N. Y. 
BETHLEHEM-SPARROWS POINT 
SHIPYARD, INC. 

Sparrows Point, Md. 
SAN FRANCISCO YARD 

San Francisco. Calif. 



SHIP ItePAIR YARDS 

BOSTON HARBOR 

Atlantic Yard 

Simpson Yard 
NEW YORK HARBOR 

Brooklvn 27th Strcrt Yard 

Brooklyn 56th Street Yard 

Hobokcn Yard 

Staten Island Yard 
BALTIMORE HARBOR 

Baltimore Yard 
SAN FRANCISCO HARBOR 

San Francisco Yard 

Alameda Yard 



SHIPBUILDING ... SHIP C N V E R S I NS . . . SH I P REPAIRS 
NAVAL ARCHITECTS and MARINE ENGINEERS 

BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY 

GENERAL OFFICES: 25 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 

JANUARY • 1947 




Page 129 



Ulestinghouse Hames 
Hew manager 

Joseph R. McGilvray, associated 
with Westinghouse for 22 years, has 
been named manager of the West- 
inghouse Electric Corporation's 
Manufacturing and Repair Depart- 
ment, Pacific Coast District. 

He will head activities of his de- 
partment throughout an area com- 
prising all or parts of nine western 
states, Alaska and Hawaii. In addi- 
tion to the district headquarters 



plant at Emeryville, four other 
plants are located in the area — at 
Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle and 
Salt Lake City. 

A native of Quincy, Mass., where 
he completed his formal education 
in 1906, Mr. McGilvray served in 
various capacities at the Fore River 
Plant of the Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany's Shipbuilding Division until 
1921, when he joined the New York 
naval architect firm of Gibbs and 
Cox as a marine electrical engineer, 
helping with the major job of re- 
conditioning "World War I ships 
for peacetime use. He resigned that 



YOUNG c. 




THiYOUNGco. 

MARINE SUPPLIES, EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES 

201 FIRST STREET • SUTTER 1671 
SAN FRANCISCO 5, CALIF. 




JOSEPH R. McGILVRAY 

connection in late 1924 to become 
a service engineer for Westinghouse 
at New York City. 

In mid-1927 he was transferred 
to Boston as a marine-repair spe- 
cialist for Westinghouse, and late 
the following year was made elec- 
trical superintendent for the entire 
New England District of the com- 
pany's Manufacturing and Repair 
Department. In October, 1934, he 
was made manager for the depart- 
ment's New England District, a post 
he held until his recent transfer. 

Mr. McGilvray is among the few 
holders of the coveted Westing- 
house Order of Merit, highest com- 
pany award to its men for out- 
standing service. He received this 
award in late November, 1943, for 
"his ability to build an efficient and 
co-operative organization; for his 
clear understanding and fairness in 
dealing with personnel problems; 
and for the confidence and good 
will he inspires in Westinghouse 
customers." 

The new Manufacturing and Re- 
pair Department manager is a mem- 
ber of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, the Engineers' 
Club of Boston, and other technical 
and professional societies. 



Ed was limping badly. "What's 
up?" asked Bill, "Hurt yourself.'" 

"No, got a nail in my foot, " re- 
plied Ed. 

"Why don't you take it out? " re- 
plied Bill. 

"What! On my lunch hour! " 



Page 130 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Marine Paintings Contest 

A contest for the best marine 
paintings in water color or oil is 
being conducted by the Seamen's 
Church Institute of New York, 25 
South Street, through its Artists and 
Writers Club for the Merchant 
Marine. 

Active merchant seamen of all 
ratings and nationalities are eligible 
and may enter as many works as 



they choose. Deadline for entries is 
March 1, 1947. There will be first, 
second, and third prizes carrying 
S25, $15 and SIO. All paintings 
submitted will be on exhibition 
from March 1 to April 1 in the 
Janet Roper Room, 25 South Street. 

Visitors and critics will be asked 
to cast their vote for the best paint- 
ings. 

Entries should be addressed to: 
Secretary, Artists and Writers Club, 
25 South Street, New York 4, N. Y. 



M. J. Gigy to 
Cargocaire at S. F. 

The Cargocaire Engineering Corp. 
has announced the appointment of 
M. J. Gigy as West Coast district 
manager with offices at 417 Market 
Street, San Francisco, California. 

In addition to Cargocaire, Mr. 
Gigy will also represent the various 
divisions of Cargocaire, Carswell 
Marine Associates and The Landley 
Company for the West Coast area. 
In making this announcement, J. S. 
Carswell, executive vice president of 
Cargocaire stated that "Mr. Gigy's 
appointment as our West Coast 
Manager is in line with our post- 
war policy of establishing a sales and 
service organization in each of the 
big shipping ports of the United 
States." 

Prior to his association with Car- 
gocaire, Mr. Gigy was Chief Engi- 
neer of the Lake Washington Ship- 
yards in Houghton, Washington. 
He has also been associated in the 
past with W. C. Nickum & Sons in 
Seattle and in the Western Division 
of the Worthington Pump and Ma- 
chinery Corp. For the past several 
years, particularly during the tre- 
mendous shipbuilding program for 
World War II, Mr. Gigy did con- 
siderable work in the development, 
design and construction of marine 
power plant equipment. He is a 
member of the Society of Naval Ar- 
chitects and Marine Engineers, the 
American Societ)' of Naval Engi- 
neers, and the Propeller Club of the 
United States. 




RMS QUEEN ELIZABETH 



Photo Courtesy Derek Me. 



During the war, when speed and know-how were paramount. 
Western Ship Service cleaned and camouflage-painted the 
entire hull and superstructure of the transport Queen Elizabeth 
— in record time! 

SHIP OPERATORS AND SHIPBUILDING COMPANIES 

ARE INVITED TO CONSULT WESTERN ON 

THEIR CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE 

PROBLEMS. 

WESTERN 
SHIP SERVICE CDMPAIVY 

Established 1922 

178 FREMONT STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 
SUITER 86.^2 

Marine Terminal 
Foot of Ferro St., Oakland 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 131 



Ularren to Commerce Dept. 

John J. Judge, San Francisco Re- 
gional Director for the United 
Stares Department of Commerce, 
nounced recently the appointment 
of Walter Warren as chief of the 
Department's regional business and 
economic information staff. 

Warren was business editor for 
the Associated Press in San Fran- 
cisco. He will help carry out the 
Department's information and coun- 



seling programs, designed to report 
to the public and businessman the 
business services and technical ma- 
terials the Commerce Department 
has on hand. The San Francisco of- 
fice serves Northern California and 
Nevada. 

Before joining the Associated 
Press 20 years ago, Warren worked 
on several Northern California news- 
papers in capacities ranging from 
cub reporter to city editor. He is a 
Stanford graduate, receiving a Mas- 



l^^ 



^^he Products and Ser trices 
afihese Well-Xnown 
Manufacturers 
jl^r^ available to 
^Western Industry 
throu£[ft JiarwoocL 



mm 



^^^^^-^Z' Asheville 

Mica 

Products 
ARMATURE COIL 

EQUIPMENT, INC. 




MarWooo 
i__ I i\^ I -r- EZ iziD L^ 

SEAHLE . PORTLAND • SAN FRANCISCO • LOS ANGELES 




WALTER WARREN 



ter of Arts degree there in Econom- 
ics. He served in the 364th Infan- 
n World War I. 



try 



Changes in S. \. Regional Office 
Of U. 8. maritime Commission 

Organizational changes in various 
departments of the San Francisco 
regional offices of the U. S. Mari- 
time Commission were announced 
by L. E. Fleming, Pacific Coast di- 
rector. 

Effective immediately. Royal W. 
Cutler is designated acting traffic 
manager, replacing E. E. Ferrari, 
who resigned to accept the position 
as Assistant Director of the Port of 
Stockton, 

Howard A. Pellon has been named 
assistant to Fleming. He_ was for- 
merly in charge of Recruitment and 
Manning, which oflice in future will 
be in charge of Ruth H. Kynock. 

Effective December 14, E. T. 
Joste will assume charge of the 
Ship Delivery and Charter Unit vice 
Lloyd M. Mauk, who resigned to 
become associated with the Pacific 
Far East Line. 

William Mann has been named 
Acting District Counsel, succeeding 
William Ball, resigned, and R. F. 
Travillian is now District Food 
Control Representative for the Com- 
mission, replacing Leroy Morrow, 
resigned, Fleming announced. 



Page 132 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Keep Posted 

New Equipment and 
Literature for Yard, 
Ship and Dock 



Electronic Tachometer 
By General Electric 

A new electronic tachometer de- 
signed for measuring rotating speeds 
from 300 to 50,000 rpm has been 
announced by the Special Products 
Division of the General Electric 



Company. Weighing only 19 lb., 
the new tachometer is useful for the 
production testing of equipment in- 
stantaneously without the necessity 
for any permanent attachments. It 
can be used to indicate the speeds 
of electric motors, machine tools, 
automotive and aircraft engines, 
pumps, fans, blowers and other 
types of rotating equipment. 




Hutomatic Cylinder Release 
illechanism by Kidde 

Development of an automatic cyl- 
inder release mechanism for use 
with the vertical flood valve on ma- 
rine carbon dioxide systems is an- 
nounced by Walter Kidde & Com- 
pany, Inc., of Belleville, N. J. 

The new release, incorporating a 
diaphragm type spring-loaded valve, 
permits either automatic operation 
of the system when actuated by a 
rate-of-temperature-rise detector or 
manual operation from either a re- 
mote or local pull handle. 

The Kidde marine system oper- 
ates even in the event of failure of 
the boat's power or electrical sys- 
tems, since it is an independent in- 
stallation working wholly from self- 
expelling, cylinder - stored carbon 
dioxide. It is simple to maintain, 
easy to inspect and its discharge 
leaves no messy after-use residue. 

JANUARY • 1947 



|0 assure you of prompt delivery, we 
maintain a large stock of standard fit- 
tings made to A.S.A. and A.P.I, require- 
ments Call your dealer for stock list. 

STEEL CASTINGS 

. . for more than 40 years we have 
been specialists in Carbon and Alloy 
Steel Castings. Our production and 
metallurgical experts will gladly give 
you prompt and accurate information 
without obligation. Inquires are invited 
on any production problem. 



2^ 



Nikeladium 
is not jusl sleel, 
but a standard 
of quolily. Accept 
nothing less. 



vos^^Gtu?. 




FITTINGS SOLD TV'ROUGH DEALERS ONLY 



Page 133 



MARINE DEPARTMENT 
AETNA INSURANCE CO. 
QUEEN INSURANCE CO. 
MARITIME INSURANCE CO., LTD. 
FIDELITY PHENIX FIRE INS. CO. 
AUTOMOBILE INS. CO. 



MATHEWS & LIVINGSTON 

MARINE UNDERWRITERS 

200 BUSH STREET SAN FRANCISCO 

Offices af: Colman BIdg., Seattle '111 West 7th St.. Los Angeles 



Hot Off The Press 

DUDGEON BOILER TUBE 
EXPANDERS, is the title of an in- 
formative circular covering the full 
line of Richard Dudgeon Inc. of 
New York City, water tube expand- 
ers and accessories. 



Left Pages Better Than 
Right, Summary Proves 

New York— One of advertising's 
oldest arguments got what looked 
like a clincher this week. For 
years media men have been pains- 
takingly telling space buyers that 
a left-hand page was just as well 
read as a right-hand page, and 
now they have statistics to support 
them. 

The recently-released report of 
the 100-study summary of the 
Continuing Study of Newspaper 
Reading by the Bureau of Adver- 
tising, American Newspaper Pub- 
lishers Association, shows that 
left-hand pages lead right-hand 
pages by a narrow margin. 

The bureau's figures show that 
on 3,002 pages, men and women 
saw 1,504 left pages, 1,498 right 
pages; on 1,451 pages with general 
news and advertising, men and 
women saw 728 right pages, 723 
left pages. The men's median is 
5 percentage points higher for left 
over right; the women's percentage 
is 3 i>oints higher for left than 
right. 



NEW LESLIE BULLETIN ON 
PRESSURE REDUCING VALVES; 
Bulletin 461, 20 pages completely 
illustrated in color, giving engineer- 
ing, operating and maintenance data 
on pressure reducing valves, differ- 
ential valves and overilow valves for 
steam, air or gas services, has just 
been issued by the Leslie Co., of 
Lyndhurst, New Jersey, manufactur- 
ers of regulators, controllers, strain- 
ers and whistles. 



HIGH - PRESSURE CONDEN- 
SATE RETURN SYSTEM: The 
Cochrane C - B (for Condensate- 
Booster) high - pressure condensate 
return pump has been redesigned 
for greater operating freedom. A 
new larger pump driven by a 25 hp 
motor has been added to handle ca- 
pacities previously impossible with 
smaller horsepower units. Other 
features have been made and are ex- 
plained in detail in publication No. 
.t250 published by the Cochrane 
Corporation of Philadelphia, Pa. 

* * * 

THE FRANCE PACKING 
COMPANY OF PHILADELPHIA 

has just issued an illustrated folder, 
describing various types of metal 
packings. This folder, entitled In- 
dustrial Packing, tell of metal pack- 
ing most frequently used. The de- 
sirability of packings made to fit 
standard stuffing boxes is obvious 
when their advantages are under- 
stood as described in this folder. 

* # * 

NEW RADIOMARINE RA- 
DIOTELEPHONE FOLDER; Ra- 
diomarine Corporation of America 
of New York has just issued a new 
two-color folder which describes in 
detail their 75-watt ship-to-shore 
radiotelephone model ET-8012-D. 
Certain to be of interest to commer- 
cial vessel and large yacht owners, 
the folder includes the technical and 
mechanical specifications of the 
equipment, dimensions and weights, 
power supply requirements, features 
of construction and performance. 

* * * 

PERSSON SAFETY DIE JACK; 
The Persson Mfg. Company of 
Bloomfield, New Jersey, has an- 
nounced their safety die jack, a new 
simple tool for separating and as- 
sembling die sets. It is a compact 
tool that fits easily into a tool box 
or bench drawer. 



ALNOR THERMOCOUPLES, 

protection tubes, wire and accesso- 
ries is Bulletin No. 4181 put out by 
the Illinois Testing Laboratories, 
Inc., of Chicago, Illinois. The bulle- 
tin treats the subject of "Alnor" 
Thermocouples. 



FITLER 

LUBRICORE 

There is but one genuine 

"LUBRICORE" 
Self-Lubricaf!ng Rope made and 
placed on the market by FITLER, 
patented by FITLER and easily 
identified as a FITLER product 
by the Self - Lubricating 
''Green Yarn Center" 

Insist on "LUBRICORE"— Be- 
ware of imitations — Don't 
accept substitutes. Ask for 
"LUBRICORE", the Self-Lubrl- 
catlng Green Yarn Center Pure 
Manila Rope made by FITLER. 

The Edwin H. Fitter Co. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

MANUFACTURERS OF QUALITY 
ROPE SINCE 1804 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 
IN MACHINE GAS CUTTING 
processes are discussed in the new 
informative pamphlet by Air Re- 
duction Sales Co., New York, called 
Special Oxyacetylene Machine Cut- 
ting Applications by R. F. Helm- 
kamp. The author is an outstanding 
specialist in machine gas cutting 
processes and describes the economi- 
cal and time-saving uses of the much 
discussed Electronic Tracing device 
recently introduced to the industry 
by Air Reduction. 





SMITH-RICE COMPANY Established 1904 




DERRICK BARGES & SALVORS 


Special AHenf 


ion to Heavy Lifts Day or Night: Immediate Salvage Service to Distressed Vessels and Emergencies 




ALL TYPES PUMPS DIVERS COMPLETE SALVAGE GEAR 




PIER 16 DAY OR NIGHT PHONE: EXBROOK 0416 



Page 134 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Marine 


Speeialisf 


s in PUMP and CONDENSER PACKINGS | 






OFFERING 




U. 


S. AJAX - 


UGASCO 


■ Boiler and Fla 


nge Gaskets 1 


Ce 


eron Pmup 


lings - Ce 


eron Pump Valves - Sure-Tite | 


Co 


ndenser Pac 


king - Be 


tolife Lead Sea 


Compound 




E 


xperts on 


Gasket Repairs. 






C H A 


S. E. 


LOWE 


c o. 




185 Steuprt 


street • 


San Francisco 5, 


Californta 




Telephone 


s: DOuqIas 


8477 ond DOuglo 


s 8479 



nOlJGH & EGBERT CO. 

Ill West Seventh Street. San Pedro, Colifernta 
SEocon 03SI 

Consulfing Engineers and Marine Surveyors 

Surveys, Valuations and Specifications for All Classes 

of Marine Repairs. 



NEW CATALOG ON AUTO- 
MATIC FLOW RESPONSIVE 
EQUIPMENT and methods is con- 
rained in Bulletin #1200, entitled 
Treat - O - Control, just issued by 
%Proportioneers, Inc.^, well- 
known manufacturers of automatic 
proportioning equipment. This is 
a handy reference book con- 
taining a wealth of material 
dealing with automatic flow 
responsive equipment and 
methods in continuous pro- 
operation. The company's 
method is clearly explained 
and the operation is demon- 
strated by diagrams. For the 
first time, this catalog per- 
mits the purchaser to select and size 
equipment for most treating, sam- 
pling, blending and diluting ap- 
plications. 

A GENERAL GASKET CATA- 
LOG FOR INDUSTRIAL AND 
MARINE APPLICATIONS is 
anounced by the United States Gas- 
ket Company of Camden, New Jer- 
sey. It gives a complete illustrated 
description of the entire line of 
"U. S." gaskets, both standard and 
special in various types of construc- 
tion and of different materials and 
metals. These "U. S." gaskets cover 
all temperature and pressure re- 
quirement which are encountered in 
the industrial field. In addition, 
handy gasket engineering reference 
tables show comprehensive data on 
sizes, shapes and temperature con- 
version together with other per- 
tinent gasket information. 

RADIOMARINE RADIOTELE- 
PHONE FOLDER — A new two- 
color folder which describes in de- 



tail their 25-watt ship-to-shore ra- 
diotelephone Model ET-8027 has 
just been published by the Radio- 
marine Corporation of America. 
Certain to be of interest to pleasure 
craft and work - boat owners, the 
folder is designed to answer many 
questions about the equipment in- 



MORRIS GURALNICK 



Transport Building, Foot 



>f Missi 
Phone: 



>n Street, San Fronci* 
LAndseape 5-1328 



MARINE SURVEYOR - NAVAL ARCHITECT 
MARINE ENGINEER 



eluding technical and mechanical 
specifications, dimensions and 
weights, power supply, antenna and 
ground requirements, quality fea- 
tures of construction and perform- 
ance, typical installations and the 
history behind the product. 

REYNOLDS PUBLISHES MAN- 
UAL ON MACHINING ALUMI- 
NUM ALLOYS: To answer re- 
quests for recommendations on ma- 
chining the aluminum alloys, engi- 
neers of Reynolds Metals Company 
have prepared a 124-page manual on 
machining aluminum alloys. An out- 
standing feature is the section con- 
taining eight charts which make 
available compact easily usable rec- 
ommendations for eight of the most 
important machining operations. 
Each chart occupies a 2 -page spread 
and gives detailed data on recom- 
mended tooling, speeds and feeds 
for that particular type of machin- 
ing operation. 

The book, approximately 6x9 
inches, is spiral bound for easy 



opening. It is available from Reyn- 
olds Metals Company, Department 
47, 2500 So. Third St., Louisville, 
Ky. Price $1.00. 

G-E ARC -WELDING ELEC- 
TRODES is the title of General 
Electric's catalog on arc welding. A 
wealth of information is 
contained in over 100 pages 
of this attractively illustrat- 
ed catalog. Victor Equip- 
ment Company of San Fran- 
cisco is one of the distribut- 
ors for G-E's catalog. The 
electrode manual represents 
the joint efforts of the G-E 
Company and its welding 
distributors. It has been compiled 
from data obtained by this company 
in one of the finest electrode devel- 
opmental laboratories in the world; 
data which have been tested by 
G-E's welding distributors in col- 
laboration with users. 



DIRECT CURRENT REMOTE 
INDICATION & CONTROL SYS- 
TEMS: Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. of 
Milwaukee, Wis., have just issued a 
12-page engineering bulletin. No. 
14B6641, explaining remote indi- 
cating and control systems, what 
they are and what they accomplish. 
According to the bulletin, the firm's 
d.c. remote indication systems have 
been used with complete success in 
a great variety of applications in the 
oil, metal, power, marine and other 
industries. Although basically a di- 
rect current device, the system is 
extremely flexible in application be- 
cause it can be easily operated on 
alternating current by the addition 
of a small rectifier unit. 



PAUL W. HILLER 

315 N. Avalon Blvd. • Phone Terminal 4-4538 • Wiiminqton, Calif . 

KIDDE FIRE EQUIPMENT CO, REFILLS 

PITOMETER LOG ELLINWOOD CONTROLS 

PILOT MARINE CORP. EQUIPMENT 

WASHINGTON & INGLE RANGES 



Herb L. Soiithworth Co. 

Representing 

KINGSBURY MACHINE WORKS THRUST AND JOURNAL 
BEARINGS • 9-P TELEMOTOR PACKING 



.225 Steuart St., San Francisco 



Phone DOuglas 2443 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 135 




imi^msmmmmm. 




^mms f(^/j 



mmm^m mi^ m^mmmm 



^mmm 






ond 



Reefer Space Insulation 
Cold Water Pipe Insulation 
Sound Deodening Insulotio 
Electrical Insulation 

Replaceable 



ireproof Decorat 
for portieres on 




Lewis Carroll's famed pair, 
"The Walrus and the Car- 
penter," may not have mentioned FIBERGLAS. But you may 
be sure that today, wherever ships are built ... or repaired 
... or reconditioned . . . FIBERGLAS is mentioned and 
mentioned with mounting favor. For today FIBERGLAS 
sails the Seven Seas in 



Duct Insulation 
Bulkhead Insulation 
Electrical Panel Boards 
Lagging Cloth and Tap 
• Filters 



At join- Regu/ar Dealers . . . or call •%? 



WESTERN FIBERGLAS SUPPLY, LTD, 

OlSmiBUTOHS ' CNGINCIRS • CONTRACTORS 



SAN FRANCISCO 
739 Bryant Street 
'I; sutler 5967 



OAKLAND 
S26 3rd Street 
TWinoaks 34SS 



Page 136 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Radio Directii 
del AR-07a2-A. 



Radio Direction Finder 
For Commercial Craft 

A new compact radio direction 
finder engineered to the same high 
standards as ocean-going merchant 
ship models and operating from its 
own source of power has been de- 
signed by Radiomarine Corporation 
of America of New York, for use 
aboard yachts and small craft where 
limited space requirements make in- 
stallation of larger types of direction 
finders impractical. Known as Model 
AR-8702-A, the unit is strictly a 
high grade and accurate navigating 
instrument and does not incorporate 
a radio broadcast receiver. 

Housed in a corrosion-resistant, 
baked laquer-finished cabinet meas- 
uring 14 inches wide, 7 inches high 
and 12 inches deep, is a highly sen- 
sitive and selective six-tube super- 
heterodyne receiver. The main full- 
vision dial, connected to a three 
gang condenser, is calibrated in 
kilocycles. The tuning range is 270 
to 520 kilocycles which includes the 
Coast Guard beacon band. The set 
is supplied with a telephone head- 
set, a battery box complete with one 
6 volt storage battery and two 45 
volt dry cell batteries as well as a 
battery charger, and an 18-gauge 
watertight copper loop for outside 
installation. A drum type Azimuth 
scale with indicating pointer is 
mounted directly above the receiver 
housing. On the receiver panel are 
movnted an on-off switch, pilot 
light, continuous wave signal switch, 



volume control, balancer control 
with provision for sense determina- 
tion and phone jack. 

The inside loop installation is de- 
signed for use aboard wooden ves- 
sels or where a minimum of metallic 
structures are in the vicinity of the 
direction finder loop. When the di- 
rection finder is to be installed in a 
steel enclosed wheelhouse an out- 
side loop is always used. The out- 
side diameter of the loop is \? 
inches, the inside diameter 9 inches. 
The loop drive tube has sufficient 
length to accommodate a ceiling 
height of 84 inches and a deck thick- 
ness of .T inches. The maximum 
height of the loop above the outside 
of the upper deck is 18 inches. 

Ferrex, (lew Turco Product 

A new, low-cost, non-inflammable 
hot tank cleaner that effectively re- 
moves carbon and paint — as well as 
grime, grease, gums, heat hardened 
resins and heavy dirt — from steel 
and other ferrous metals without the 
necessity of scraping and other man- 
ual methods, has recently been in- 
troduced by Turco Products, Inc., 
Los Angeles. 

Marketed under the name of Fer- 
rex, it is claimed that the superior 
carbon and paint stripping qualities 
of this new product result from a 
combination of two cleaning agents, 
Ferrex B, an alkaline solid, and Fer- 
rex C, a direct action liquid solvent. 
Specifically designed for use on 
steel, cast iron, bronze, copper and 
red brass — on all but the reactive 
metals — Ferrex utilizes a water solu- 
tion and a simple hot tank, prefer- 
ably with air agitation, to penetrate 
and "wet out" carbon smut and lead 
deposits, emulsify petroleum residue 

KEEP POSTED 

The details of new euqipment or the 
new literature announced in this 
department will be furnished 
without obligation on youi 
part. For quick service 
please use this 
coupon. 




and saponify animal and vegetable 
oils. 

The manufacturer points out that 
Ferrex not only requires no expen- 
sive equipment, an ordinary steel 
hot tank being sufficient with an 
air agitation installation optional; 
but that further economies are ef- 
fected because of its high "buffer 
index" that permits the solution to 
be used over and over again with 
little depletion of strength. 

Ferrex is recommended as a fast, 
safe, economical and effective chem- 
ical agent for hot tank cleaning op- 
erations, not only in automotive 
motor reconditioning, but in clean- 
ing petroleurp, railroad, diesel and 
farm equipment and tools as well. 
Further information may be ob- 
tained by w^ing the manufacturer. 



Cut me out 
and send me in 



PACIFIC 
MARINE REVIEW 



500 Sansome Street - San Francisco 
Send me descriptive data of the following new 
equipment or literature as reviewed in 

issue Page No. 



(Identify by name of manufacturer and catalog) 



MME 
''BUSINESS.. 
ADDRESS 




Serving on4he Seven Seas 
LuNiitNtitiMtil VALVES 

The Lunkenheimer line is complefe — valves of bronze, iron and 
steel, for all pressures and temperatures. Available from estab- 
lished distributors in the nation's shipping centers. 
THE LUNKENHEIMER COMPANY CINCINNATI 14. OHIO 




mniTTr?: 



71TTTT 



BRONZE, IRON, STEEl AND CORROSION RESISTANT AllOY VAIVES, US TO 2500 LB S P 
BOILER MOUNTINGS, LUBRICATING DEVICES, AIRCRAFT FITTINGS 




MS-2 temperature 
regulator. 

Leslie Co. Hnnounces Class 
of Temperature Regulators 

A new type of self-contained, di- 
rect operated temperature regulator 
for gas control to process heating, 
designated as Class MG-2, has been 
announced by LESLIE CO., Lynd- 
hursr, N. J., manufacturers of regu- 
. lators, controllers, strainers and 
whistles. 

Supplied with screwed ends in 
Ys, Vi and %" sizes, these bronze 
body temperature regulators operate 
over standard temperature ranges 
from 20° to 600° F, at inlet pres- 
sures up to 25 psi maximum. They 
are designed specifically for coffee 
and water urns, deep fat fryers, dish- 
washers, hot water heaters, oil treat- 
ers, industrial baking ovens, cookers, 
drying ovens, steam tables and sim- 
ilar equipment where accurate gas- 
fired control is desired, and where 
product quality is dependent on 
temperature control and economy of 
operation is important. 

All trim is bronze, with renew- 
able valve disc and steam assembly. 
Various bulb and bulb casing mate- 
rials are available and the rugged 
liquid expansion t)'pe thermostatic 
element has a piston guided bellows. 
A free moving valve stem has yield- 
ing springs which prevent over- 
stressing of bellows at "over range" 
temperatures. An unexposed pres- 
sure sealed stuffing box prevents un- 
authorized tampering with the regu- 
lator, and costly over-rides in tem- 
perature are eliminated by adjust- 
ment of the pilot flame to the lowest 
point the burner permits. 



Page 138 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




PA CKED 
with POWER 



Handling heavy tows and balky barges calls for 
plenty of power . . . power to spare! 

That's why General Construction Company of 
Seattle selected a Washington Direct Reversing 
300 hp. Diesel Engine to do the job — the third 
Washington Diesel put into operation by the 
General Construction Company. 

Fleet owners who once install Washington Diesel 
Engines invariably follow up with several more — 
they know from experience that wherever depend- 
able slow speed power is needed, that's the place 
for Washington Diesels. 




THE FIRST WASHINGTON DIESEL BUILT 
IS STILL IN COMMERCIAL OPERATION. 




WASHI NGTON 
IRON WO RKS 




Since 1922. H. S. GeHy & Co.. Inc.. has supplied fine 
marine joiner hardware for shipping all over the world. We 
are proud to report also that marine hardware for most of 
the ship construction during the war years for the U-. S. 
Navy. U. S. Maritime Commission and the U. S. War De- 
partment bears the name of Getty. Our products are made 
to no less exacting specifications, no lower standards of 
quality. In the years of peace. 



What we show here are but a fe 
of the complete Getty line of fine 
We have been called upon many ti 
cate special items to meet unusual conditions 
the opportunity to do so again in the future. 



representative samples 

narine joiner hardware. 

es in the past to fabri- 

elcome 



SItllled craftsmen, with the sure knowledge born of experi- 
ence, uphold the Getty traditions of exactness, reliability 
and integrity unmatched in marine hardware. Such Is the 
heritage of the products which we are proud to present 
here. Only the best is good enough to bear the name of 

Getty; only the best is good enough to withstand the rigors 

of marine service. 






5 


J 


- 


u 


- 


' V, 


- 


ii^- - 


.V* J 




3 




Seattle 4, Washington 



GETTY BUTT HINGES. A full line of Loose-pin and Tight-pin 
hinges with ball tip or flat button tip. Available in a wide 
variety of sizes and sections; extruded from solid bronze. 
Extrusion assures a greater density of structure and freedom 
from pits or porosity often found in sand castings. All are 
template drilled and come in standard finishes. 

H. S. GETTY & CO., Inc. 

3350 N. lOTH STREET, PHILADELPHIA 40, PA. 



Representatives: 

R. R. Cunningham ... 73 Columbio St., Seattie 4, Wash. 

G. S. Lacy ... 16 California St.. Son Fronciscc II, Cal. 

52« S. Son Pedro St., Los Angeles 13. California 



JANUARY • I 947 



Page 139 




NEW COMMERCIAL LINK 
WITH THE ORIENT 



A regular dry-cargo 
and refrigerator 
service maintained 
with fast, modern 
vessels to Japan, 
China, Philippines, 
French Indo-China. 



egnlarly on request 



256 MONTGOMERY STREET 
Cable Address: PACFAREAST 



SAN FRANCISCO 4, CALIFORNIA 

Telephone; EXbrook 7605 




Designers of iilarine Hardware 
For Boat Owners 

Design Engineering Company 
(Desenco), of Pasadena, manufac- 
ture marine hardware and fittings 
for the boat owner and racing sailor 
who wants only the best equipment 
obtainable on his craft. Designed 
and engineered for quality and de- 
pendability, their fittings are thor- 
oughly modern and completely prac- 
tical. 

Parts for the DESENCO light 
weight single sheave, becket, and 
fiddle blocks are stamped or turned 
from rolled stock and are available 
in brass, chrome plated brass or 
stainless steel. All blocks have a 

Design Engineering Company fittings. 




high resistance to corrosion and may 
be changed from a front to side 
shackle by simply changing the 
clevis pin. Large, free running phe- 
nolic impregnated canvas laminated 
plastic sheaves are capable of han- 
dling V4" or ^" line. 

The turnbuckles for j^", i/g" or 
rfo" wire have no projecting parts 
or locking wire to foul running rig- 
ging and should be mounted above 
deck, thus insuring a watertight 
chainplate installation and excellent 
accessibility. Machined with ex- 
treme accuracy, the non-fouling 
turnbuckle reduces the points of 
wear and the brass construction re- 
duces all corrosion to a minimum. 
Available in polished brass or heavy 
chrome finish. 

Small, but important fittings such 
as shackles, pad eyes, fairlead slides 
and others are formed from rolled 
stock, assuring uniform material and 
pleasing appearance not usually 
found in the common run of cast 
fitting. 



fllinwood's Dew "li" Control 

A self-contained hydraulic remote 
control designed to handle loads up 
to 1200 inch pounds torque has 
been released for sale to the marine 
industry by the Marine Equipment 



NEW CONTROL FOR HIGH SPEED 
ENGINES. A new, self-contained re- 
mote control, designed to liandle loads 
up to 1200 inch pounds torque is now 
being produced by Ellinwood Indus- 
tries. Los Angeles. It gives boat owners 
a simple, dependable, easy way to 
operate their vessels. 



Division, Ellinwood Industries, Los 
Angeles. 

The new control, known as the 
Model "A," will handle the remote 
clutch shifting lever on marine 
clutches on most high speed gaso- 
line engines up to 200 horsepower 
and medium speed gasoline and die- 
sel engines up to about 100 hp, ac- 
cording to Orrin Broberg, division 
manager. 

Located on the flying bridge or 
in the wheelhouse, the overall Mod- 
el "A" design precludes the neces- 
sity for an enclosing hood or special 
pedestal, thereby reducing the in- 
itial investment in equipment and 
resulting in a saving of space. 

The operating unit always pre- 
cisely follows the remote unit. The 
simple, dependable designed Com- 
pensator unit automatically takes 
care of expansion and contraction 
of the hydraulic fluid without affect- 
ing the synchronism between the 
master and the slave. 



Flintkote's Dew Hnti-Siip 
Plastic Coating 

The Flintkote Company of New 
York has developed a new syn- 
thetic plastic non-slip floor coating, 
FLINTDEK. This coating, available 
in three colors, red, green and slate, 
can be used efl^ectively on all types 
of floor surfaces which might other- 
wise present danger when wet, or 
greasy. It is especially useful on 
steel decks and floors, around ma- 
chinery, on steps and ladder treads, 
and many other places where sure 
footing is essential. 



Page 140 



PACIFIC KIARINE REVIEW 



■m EXPERIENCE 
^ TO BACK UP 

GREENBERG 

TITE-TEST 



BRONZE 



VALVES 



For "ASSURED 
RESULTS"! 



Now available 
through YOUR JOBBERS 
. . . from Vancouver to 
San Diego. ..the name 
GREENBERG is your 
Assurance of Quality! 




CAT. No. 1776 
100 lb. NAVY SPEC.45V5 



FOR STANDARD AND 
EXTRA HEAVY PRESSURES 

Check Valves l'/2"tol0" 
Gate Valves IVi'MolO" 
Globe, Angle and 

Cross Valves l'/2"to 8" 
Hose Valves 1 'A" to 6" 




•HP 



CAT No 766 
ISOIb.REGRINDING 





Into this can 
go the finest 
of ingredients 
plus years of 
experience in 
the making of 
marine paints 
to withstand 
every weather 
condition . . . 

ATLAS PAINT & VARNISH CO. 

LOS ANGELES 

1922 E. Gage Ave. • Phone Kimball 6214 

SAN FRANCISCO 

201 First Street e Phone EXbrook 3092 

WILMINGTON 

225 W. Avalon Blvd. • Phone TErminal 43251 

GALVESTON, TEX. 

Galveston Ship Supply Company 

HOUSTON, TEX. 

Galveston Ship Supply Company 

MOBILE, ALA. 

Seaboard Supply Company 

NEW ORLEANS, LA. 
Gult Engineering Co., Inc. 

SEATTLE 

Maritime Pacific Supply 

1917 First Ave. • Phone Eliot 14«1 




JANUARY • 1947 



Page 14! 



WILMINGTON 
TRANSPORTATION COMPANY 

steamer Service io Cafalina Island 

GENERAL TOWAGE AND LIGHTERAGE SERVICE 
LOS ANGELES - LONG BEACH HARBORS 



TUGBOAT OFFICE: Berth 82, San Pedro, California 

TELEPHONE NUMBERS: Terminal 2-4292; Terminal 2-4293; Long Beach 636-563 

WHISTLE CALL FOR TUGS: 1 long — 3 short 

GENERAL OFFICE: Catalina Terminal, P. O. Box 847, Wilmington, Calif. 

Phones: Terminal 4-5241; Nevada 615-45; Long Beach 7-3802 




Packing Company 
Ray Roshong 



Lonn nifg. Co/s Giant 
(Hater Saver 

Capable of delivering 198 gallons 
of water per minute at 40 lbs. pres- 
sure, the new Giant Water Saver 
nozzle is especially designed for fill- 
ing tanks in steamships, tugs, tank 
cars or locomotives. The Giant 
Water Saver is made in two mod- 



els — regular for full open flow; 
tapered for concentrated stream. 

These Giant Water Savers, while 
capable of delivering large quanti- 
ties of water or other liquids with 
ease and safety, employ the patented 
Lonn Piston Principle which means 
positive leakproof closing without 
waste. Lonn Piston Valves employ 
no packing, screws, push-buttons, 
springs or levers. There are only 




uar 



terd at the ^Jwarbof I 



^ 



WIRE ROPES 

THE GARLOCK 
PACKING CO. 
"On Deck and Below" 

LtiLIt UU. j ••x^on" Whistles 
ATL^S MARINE PAINTS 
MARINE ELECTROLYSIS ELIMINATOR 
CORP. 



NEW YORK BELTING and PACKING 
CO. — Air, Fire, Water and Steam 
Hose 
TODD COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT CO. 
TUBBS CORDAGE COMPANY 
ALLENITE Soot Eradlcator 
ALLENCOTE Refractory Coating 
KOMUL Anti-Corrosive Coating 
DESCALING CHEMICALS and 

SOLVENTS 
PAXTON MITCHELL Metallic Packing 
ENSIGN Products 



J. M. CosTEtto Um\ Co. 

MARINE SPECIALTIES 

221 No. Avalon Blvd.. Wilmington, Calif. Phone Terminal 47291 




Lonn Manufacturing Co.' 
water savers. 



three working parts, which require 
no adjustment. 

Giant Water Savers are operated 
by light pressure on the flexible noz- 
zle, which regulates the flow from 
a mere trickle to full, open stream. 
If a hose is dropped, the flow in- 
stantly, automatically and complete- 
ly stops. 

Both the regular and tapered 
models are fitted with brass connec- 
tions for l'/2" I- P- threads. They 
are made by the Lonn Manufactur- 
ing Co., Indianapolis, Indiana. 



Cas Porosity in Steel 
New Process Solves 



H 


^ 


1" 


r 


^ vV ^ 


7 


_ < * •-- 




"^li^ 


. . ".- i 




i" hi 


^ JPHh' 


■HF^ii 



The specimen on k t* .h.:i.^ me re- 
sultant pockets of porosity that may 
develop when dissolved hydrogen is 
not permitted to escape from steel 
while being cast. Such pockets can 
easily ruin an entire heat of steel. 
Application of a flushing process, 
developed by AIR REDUCTION Sales 
Company engineers, by which dry 
nitrogen or argon is bubbled through 
the metal, eliminates the dissolved 
hydrogen efficiently and at a reason- 
able cost. The specimen on the right 
clearly shows the results obtained 
when the Airco flushing process is 



Page 142 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Spedfy QUAKER 

for PACKING ECONOMY 




EBONITE 
SHEET PACKING 

Nonporous . . . withstands highest steam pressures. Will not 
melt, harden or carboniie . . . resists ammonia, air, oils, 
gases and acids. EBONITE will retain its life and flexibility 
after ordinary sheet packings have broken down. Quaker is 
the sole manufacturer of EBONITE. 



SERVING ALL THE WEST 



168 Second St. 
San Francisco 

EXbrook 3880 

Factory: Quaker Rubber 




2036 Santa Fe Ave. 
Los Angeles 

Kimball 2201 
ation, Philadelphia. Pa. 




fOR 

TOP EFFICIENCY 

IN THE BOILER ROOM! 




• You can count on Todd Oil Burners 
to increase cruising range, minimize 
operating costs and insure trouble- 
free operation! 




COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT DIVISION 

TODD SHIPYARDS CORPORATION 

601 West 26th St., New York 1, N. Y. 



NEW YORK BROOKLYN ROCHESTER HOBOKEN NEWARK 
PHILADELPHIA CHARLESTON, S. C. CHICAGO BOSTON 

SPRINGFIELD. MASS. BALTIMORE WASHINGTON DETROIT 

GRAND RAPIDS TAMPA GALVESTON NEW ORLEANS 

MOBILE LOS ANGELES SAN FRANCISCO SEATTLE TORONTO 
MONTREAL BARRANQUILLA BUENOS AIRES LONDON 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 143 




lUe. Afift^uuMd ALl-Pu^fUUe. 2iUhad4. Si<^*uU 



TAKE THE HAZARDS 
AND MYSTERY OUT 
OF TANK GAUGING 

\^ hcrever fuel, water or other liquid must 
be measured, LIQUIDOMETER can provide a 
dependable gauge. These rugged, precision-built 
remote indicators have proven themselves by 
years of reliable performance in many exacting 
marine, railroad, aircraft and industrial appli- 
cations. Remember these gauge essentials: 

• Dependable performance • Simple operation 

• Rugged construction • Easy installation 

• Instant reading • Minimum maintenance 

If you have a liquid measuring problem write: 



THE LIOUIDOMETER CORP. 

AAarine Division 



41-52 37th ST.. LONG ISLAND CITY 1. N. Y. 



Steady h You Go 



THE SEXTANT continued from page 88 

a ship's position by use of horizontal sextant angles and 
the three-armed protractor just discussed. 

The Horizontal Danger Angle 

The horizontal danger angle is used to keep clear of 
shoals and obstructions much similar to the manner in 
which the vertical danger angle is used. The horizontal 
danger angle requires two prominent objects on shore 
whose positions are well known and charted. Its use is 
shown in Figure 22. 

Assume the ship to be on a course XY, and that the 

1^ 




A; 



fl-P©MNITE 



Patenti Apolied Fo 



DISTRESS 
SIGNAL 



1,500,000 NOW BEING MADE FOR ARMED FORCES 



M all 



-A- STANDARD — U.S. Novy ond 

U. S. Novol Air Forci. 
if STANDARD — U. S. Moiina Corpi. 
if APPROVID by the U. S. Coail Cuord 

(or ships lifeboots and life roHs. 
if APPROVED by the Civil Aeronoutict 

Administration as replocemool for 

Very pistol and cartridges. 
if SPECIFIED by Air Tronspott Associo- 

lion for oil inflotoble Ufa roHs 
if OBSERVED from oiiiraft in Offitial 

U.S. Coost Guord test -33 miles. 
if OBSOLETES pistol -projetttd, Boatjgg 

and roflion-iandle type signals. 



Hondl^eld.Safe.Dependobl.. 

brigitt orong. day '"""'• '"°^^P,„ „.,„>! would 

container. Can b ^°V' " ' ' signols. Av.il.W. .. 

obscure pistol or --'-''j:.;;^.' ,L,. « ..fc.""'"- 




scure pisiu' — , 



dERiei Prooucis, inc., m[rro. 



Flq 22. Hori2ontal danqe 



navigator wants to stay clear of island D. Shown on the 
chart are two prominent objects, A and B on shore. In 
order to pass safely offshore the island { D ) , draw a 
circle around (D) the required distance off necessary 
to clear it safely. Next transcribe a circle tangent to the 
offshore side of the first circle. From the point of tan- 
gency C draw lines AC and CB, forming angle C. Meas- 
ure angle C with a protractor and set this angle on the 
sextant. As the ship proceeds along the coast on track 
XY, continue to take horizontal sextant angles between 
A and B. As long as the angle measured does not be- 
come greater than angle C, the ship is well clear of the 
island. If, however, the horizontal angle becomes greater 
than angle C, it will be then necessary to haul offshore 
at once to avoid danger. 
iThe final article on the Sexlani uill appear in an early issue.: 

Your Problems Answered 

BACTERICIDAL EFFICIENCY 
continued from page 86 

bacteria was eliminated by collecting the samples before 
the feed water entered the first effect shell. 

Even though the feed water before heating had an 
average most probable number of coliform bacteria equal 
to almost 500,000 per 100 ml., only one sample of the 
feed water heated to 165" F. or 175 F. was positive for 
coliforms, and the most probable number was reduced to 
less than 3.6. The total bacterial content as given by the 



Page 144 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



^S^'. 



FOR ANY SHIP 

'Defte*icU6lc. Siicccc*a 

MARINE AUXILIARIES 

<?^ LIP6ERWOOP 

For over 72 years LIDGERWOOD marine equipmeni his 
provided reliable, truly economical service on all types of 
Goxernnicnt and merchant ships. 

STEERING MACHINERY • CAPSTANS 
DECK MACHINERY • WINDLASSES 
TOWING MACHINERY • WINCHES 




TIDGERWOOn 

■■fl ESTABLISHED 1873 ^B^ 



Ma^ui^nctktm^ C»m/f^^ 



7 DEY STREET, NEW YORK 7, N. Y. 



J 



NOETHWEST MAUmE 
lUON WORKS 

JOSEPH GREBE • GEO. GREBE • HARRY MENDENHAll 




24 HOURS A DAY 
7 DAYS A WEEK 



2 516 N. W. 29th AVENUE 
ATwater 8222 
PORTLAN D, O REGO N 



These Overseas Services 

Are Available To You 



TRAVEL — Specialists ready at all times to serve 
you vTa water, air, and rail to all parts of the 
world. 

CHARTER — Helpful counsel as to 
world markets trends, prevailing freight rates, 
ships and cargoes available. Brokers for purchase 
and sale. Agents for chartered vessels. 

TRAFFIC — Liner serv- 
ice to principal ports on all the seven seas. 

TRADE 
A trade promotion department which cooperates 
to bring importers and exporters together at home 
and abroad. 



General Steamship Corporation, Ltd, 

465 Califor]\i.\ St., San Francisco 

Lewis Bldg. Stuakt Bldg. Spring Arcade Bldg. Empire House 
Portland Seatde Los Angeles Vancouver 




L 



now 



MARINE 
DECKING 



• MAGNESITE 

• GRIP DECK 

• TRIMITE 

• KOROSEALTILE 



• RUBBER TILE 

• ASPHALT TILE 

• LINOLEUM 

• CARPETS 



• APPROVED UNDERLAYMENTS 

RECONVERSION SPECIALISTS 

Experienced estimators to give complete quotations 
from cleanings of the deck to finished deck coverings 

Completely Equipped Trained Workmen 

LORENTZEN CO. 
2207 MARKET ST. OAKLAND 12 

TEmplebor 5613 

ALLIED FLOORS CO. 

56 HAWTHORNE SAN FRANCISCO 

YUkon 0316 



BACTERICIDAL EFFICIENCY 

(Continued from page 14-H 
plate count at 37° C. was reduced from an average of 
50,000 per ml. to an average of 1 3 per ml. There was no 
discernible difference in either the coliforms or plate 
count between samples heated to 165° F. and those 
heated to 175' F. Neither was there any apparent differ- 
ence in the number of coliforms or the plate count when 
the rate of feed was increased. It should be pointed out 
that the temperature was not high enough to make the 
water sterile, since the plate count was never zero. Also, 
spore forming bacilli were not eliminated. This was 
evidenced by the fact that a large number of gas-formers 
were observed, which, upon cultivation and miscroscopic 
examination, were found to be spore formers. 

There was no chemical change in the water due to the 
preheating. 

Vapor Separators Removed 

After 46 runs had been made, it was decided to remove 
the separators from the first effect so that ( 1 ) it could 
be determined if the separators are responsible for the 
elimination of bacteria from the distillate and ( 2 ) to 
make it possible to operate the plant so that water having 
a salinity from 0.5 grain per gallon to 10.0 grains per 
gallon could be produced. In this condition there were 
no bafHes nor any device to prevent droplets of water 
from passing through the opening from the shell into 
the vapor feed heater, which collects the vapor produced 
in the first effect. With the separators removed it was 
found that water having a salinity of less than about one 
grain per gallon could not be produced. Consequently, 
the lower half of the separator opening was covered with 
sheet metal to reduce the number of droplets entering 
the vapor heater. This made it possible to produce water 
haying a salinit)' from one grain per gallon to 0.6 grain 
per gallon. 

Sixteen runs were made with the separators removed. 
Three of these were made with the sterilizing feed heater 
in opration at 165° F. The partial tabulation in Table II 
is representative of the bacteriological results of this 
series. 

TABLE II 

Bacterial Content 
Conform 

Distillate Density Plate Count 

Salinity M.P.N. at 37° C. 

Run No. Sample No. Reading Per 100 ml. Per ml. 

5V2 577 4.- 16.0 5 

5Vi ■ 591 5.0 1.1 29 

3V2 594 4.4 5.2 22 

31/2 626 1.3 1.1' 70 

4 540 2.5 9.2 2 

4 568 1." 1.1 10 

4 569 1." 1.1' 16 

4 587 1.8 1.1 36 

4 637 0.82 2.2* 60 

4 638 0.73 2.2* 55 

4 640 0.66 2.2* 47 

5 528 1.6 5.2 32 

5 563 1.2 1.1- 1 

5 564 1.3 1.1 • 11 

5 5"9 0.98 1.1* 11 

5 580 0.90 0.69 15 

5 581 0.70 1.1 13 

5 582 0.67 1.1* 12 

5 631 1.0 2.2* 130 

5... 632 0.83 2.2* 100 

'Indicateii less than. (See Footnote Table I). 



It will be observed from this tabulation that: 

(1) the plate count at 37° C. was at no time zero. 

(2) when the salinity of the distillate exceeded 1.5 
grains per gallon, coliform organisms were usu- 
ally present. 

(3) when the salinity was less than 1.5 grains {>er 
gallon, there were fewer samples positive for 
coliforms. 

Conclusions 

The results of this study show that water produced by 
the plant under consideration complies with the U. S. 
Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards when 
the plant is operated so that the saliniry of the distillate 
does not exceed I4 grain per gallon. This salinity con- 
trol is of no value if the plant is being operated on fresh 
or brackish water. 

Although the results show that the distillate is free of 
coliform bacteria and the number of other bacteria is in- 
consequential even when highly polluted feed water is 
used, it is recommended that operation in harbors and 
other contaminated areas be avoided. There is always 
the danger of a coil in the vapor feed heater, distiller 
condenser, or distillate cooler leaking and allowing pol- 
ulted water to enter the distillate. In any distillation 
process the danger from a mechanical failure or human 
negligence is greater in a harbor than when the ship is 
operating in water relatively free from contamination. 

The fact that some bacteria were carried over into the 
distillate when the separators were removed and the 
saliniry exceeded the usual I4 grain per gallon indicates 
the need for efficient separators or eliminators in all low 
pressure plants. In cases where the eliminators are not 
known to be effective in keeping the saliniry consistently 
below I4 grain per gallon other means must be provided 
for killing the harmful bacteria. 

If heat is used to kill bacteria, a minimum temperature 
of 165° F. is satisfactory. It was found that this tempera- 
ture was sufficient to kill aU coliforms, but not the other 
more heat resistant bacteria. In other words, a tempera- 
ture of 165° F. will not produce sterile water, but appar- 
ently it is sufficient to kill the intestinal pathogenic 
bacteria. It is believed impractical to rely on the heating 
of feed water to make the water safe to drink because 
of certain operating difficulties. For example, it seems 
impractical to prevent any feed water that is not heated 
to 165° F. from entering the first effect shell. It appears 
that the heating of the distillate can be accomplished 
satisfactorily and may be deemed necessary for a plant 
that is not known to maintain the salinit)' consistently 
below 1 4 grain per gallon. 

It has been demonstrated that any ammonia in the feed 
water will be carried over into the distillate. Therefore, 
due allowance must be made whenever water produced 
by distillation is chlorinated. If ammonia is present in 
the water, any chlorine that is applied will react with the 
ammonia to form chloramines. Chlorine in this form 
requires a much longer contact time with the water to 
kill bacteria than is necessary if the chlorine is in the 
"free" state. 

Any substances, for example oil, that volatilize at the 
same, or lower, temperature than water will be carried over 
into the distillate, if present in the feed water. This may 
cause the water to be unpalatable even if it is safe and 



Page 146 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




'i-MitiSJk^ 



^ T. M.. S«lby, BBtleroby 4 C... 

KOMUL is a well-proved 
itiiig for marine service. 
Application to damp sur- 
faces first recommended i I 
for use in spaces subject 
to condensation of moisture. Its continuous film and re- 
sistance to chemicals recommended it for use on steel 
decks underniagnesite. Simplicity of application has made 
marine men want it for hard-to-get-at spaces. 

Technically, KO>Il"L is an irreversible emulsion of coal- 
tar-pitch, retaining all the protective characteristics of 
pitch in an easily-used form. 

An illustrated folder and a sample on a steel panel . . . 
for the asking. The panel you can twist or bend as you 
will and you can dig at the Coating to prove KOMUL's 
adhesion and toughness. apobess wquiries to dept. 105 



SELBY, BATTERSBY & COMPANY 

Willom Bldj.. 33rd ind Arch Streets. PHILADELPHIA 4. PA. 

J. H. CORDES, 200 Dayi. SIrcel, San Francisco 11, Calif. 

J M COSTEILO SUPPLY CO., 221 Norlh Ayalon Blvd., Wilmington, Colli. 

TOURTEILOTTE k BRADLEY, 401 While BIdo., Seallle 1, Woih. 



EUGENE V. WINTER CO. 

— REPRESENTING — 

AMERICAN HAMMERED PISTON RING 
DIVISION • KOPPERS CO. 

Piston rings for diesei, steam, and gas engines, 
valves, compressors, etc. Diameters from I to 
120 inches — separately cast and made to 
order. 

NATIONAL TRANSIT PUMP AND 
MACHINE CO. 

Reciprocating and rotary pumps tor marine, 
industrial and refinery services. 

THE MAXIM SILENCER CO. 

All types of silencers and spark arresters for 
diesei and gas engines and compressors. Also, 
Waste Heat Boilers for exhaust heat recovery. 

RED HAND COMPOSITIONS CO. 

Marine Bottom Paints. 

SIMS PUMP VALVE CO. 

Special patented Inclined Port Rotating Valves 
for liquid ends of any reciprocating pumps. 
"Simsite" Graphitic snap ring packing for 
liquid ends. 

EUGENE V. WINTER CO. 

15 Drumm St., San Francisco, 11 
Phone DOuglas 2714 



'/iirjiinjuiii 
luu Obi \'i JjJ 




JANUARY • 1947 



Page 147 



Bactericidal Efficiency 



iCoiilhiiied from page 146) 
is, therefore, an additional reason for avoiding distillation 
in harbors. 

The most reliable control on the operation of a low 
pressure plant appears to be the salinity content of the 
distillate. For this reason, it is recommended that every 
low pressure plant be equipped with a low range salinity 
indicator with alarm and a salinity operated flow diver- 
sion valve to divert the distillate from the drinking water 
system when the salinity exceeds I4 grain per gallon. 
This valve should be controlled in such a way that the 
water will be diverted regardless of the position of the 
selector switch on the salinity indicator panel. 

The proper use of an automatic flow diversion valve 
should replace the too common practice of diverting 
the distillate from the boiler water tanks to the drinking 
water tanks when the salinity exceeds 0.3 grain per gallon 
but is less than 5.0 grains per gallon. It is believed that 
this practice could result in the delivery of non-potable 
water to the drinking water tanks and could be the cause 
of intestinal outbreaks on vessels equipped with low 
pressure evaporators. 



Builder or llJrecker? 

I watched them tearing a building down, 
A gang of men in a busy town, 
With a ho-heave-ho and a lusty yell 
They swung a beam and a side wall fell. 

I asked the foreman, "Are these men skilled, 
As the men you'd hire if you had to build?" 
He gave a laugh and said, "No, indeed! 
Just common labor is all I need. 

"I can easily wreck in a day or two 
What Builders have taken a year to do." 
I thought to myself as I went my way. 
Which of these roles have I tried to play? 

Am I shaping my deeds to a well made plan. 
Patiently doing the best I can? 
Or am I a wrecker who walks the town. 
Content with the labor of tearing down? 
— From the San Francisco Datagram, bulletin of Araer. 
Soc. Refrig, Engineers. 



Hordberg s Hew Series 
IDarine Gasoline Engines 

Nordberg Manufacturing Company announces a series 
of six-cylinder marine gasoline engines, each having a 
wide range of speed and power, and available for direct 
or reduction gear drive. Reduction ratios from 2.6 to 
4.33 to 1 are available, making the models applicable to 
a wide range of service — from the high speed 17' run- 
abouts to twin screw medium cruisers up to 80' in length, 
and to work boats up to 50' in length. 

The model 230 is rated at 52 bhp at 1600 rpm and 88 
bhp at 3000 rpm; model 320-70 bhp at 1600 rpm and 
102 bhp at 2400 rpm; and model 340-74 bhp at 1600 
rpm and 130 bhp at 3000 rpm. 

The Nordberg reverse and reduction gear assembly is 
designed as an integral part of the engine, forming a 
compact and efficient unit. All three models of Nord- 
berg Gasoline Engines use the same in-line planetary 
type reverse gear and reduction gears. 

The new series of Nordberg Marine Gasoline Engines 
will be exhibited at the National Motor Boat Show, in 
New York, January 10-18, 1947. 

The Nordberg engines offer many design features of 
special interest to the marine field, and provide a com- 
pact, dependable unit of outstanding performance. The 
engines incorporate such features as: 

1. Helical timing geats, providing separate drive for 
water pumps and generator. 

2. Self priming water pump with oil-lubricated shaft 
seals — no packing required. 

3. Four-point engine suspension. 

4. Large removable crankcase cover plates providing 
accessibility for inspection. 



5. Auxiliary drive available, operating at approximate- 
ly U 2 engine speed. 

6. Combined intake and exhaust manifold — water 
jacketed for heat control. 

7. Control valve provides means of regulating engine 
and intake manifold temperature, so that under any 
operating condition most efficient operating tem- 
perature may be obtained. 

8. Provision for attaching a drive pulley or twin disc 
clutch power take off on the forward or flywheel end. 

9. Reverse adjustment with automatic spring loaded 
take-up. 

10. Generator of ample capacity to meet electrical re- 
quirements when the engine is operated at ex- 
tremely low speeds. 
These engines, manufactured by Nordberg Manufac- 
turing Company, 3103 So. Chase Ave., Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, incorporate the experience gained in over twenty 
years manufacturing internal combustion engines. 




Page 148 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



8U 



aw» 



{.•fe^S^K 



oFJ-iVvs*"* 




IS a unique dry 
■ *« the iurtiace 

, ,- ,o hand cleanmg, "^^'„,^ienl heat 
bactones, ^-^S^cU be used .n aU 



. G«"l"'""*„„o.'ion.pro<.). P"";'V, 
","«'""''■'"':"' J '^tu, ana g''"," 



JANUARY • 1947 






195 Son Bi-^ 
^ ^ Brood' 



'•^■"►/rt Odd Slocki i 



■gh 12, Po. 
,„„ , ,„„..„o 3, Colif. 
-N.;w York City. N. Y. 
^11 Pnntipol Cilicl Old fo«j 



LIGNUM VITAE 

PL YWOOD 

SOFTWOOD 

IRONBARK 

HARDWOOD 

• 

Davis Hardwood 
Company 

Bay at Mason Street 
San Francisco 6 
EX brook 4322 



nYimffii 



VIC KNUDSEN 

SHIP RIGGERS 

Wire Rope Pilot Ladders 

Wire Rope Cargo Nets and Save-alls 

All Types of Splicing 

134 Sacramento Street SUtter 1362 

San Francisco 11 



Page 149 



Your merchant IDarine Pays Off 

iCoiilhiued from page 59) 

and charter merchant vessels from the government-owned 
fleet in order that the merchant fleet of the United States 
may assume its proper role in world commerce. We must 
on December 51, 1947, meet the goal of placing all ships 
not sold, or whose charter agreements have expired, in 
the statutory reserve fleet of the United States pending 
such national emergencies as might demand the service of 
these vessels. 

Our United States merchant fleet, despite its wartime 
construction record, is short certain types of vessels badly 
jieeded to maintain and continue essential services 
throughout the world. The Commission has determined 
and filled 31 trade routes essential to the economic wel- 
fare of our country. On some of these routes our present 
fleet cannot oflFer the type of service which it will meet 
in foreign competition. It is essential that the govern- 
ment and the private maritime industry foster services 
which will equal that of any other nation — continuing to 
build new, faster, and more efficient types. 

Most pressing among these problems is the need for 
high speed, economical passenger liners. Every passenger 
vessel of our fleet, worthy of the name, was converted to 
the use of our armed services at the outbreak of war. 
Some of these were lost. Others would be uneconomical 
to reconvert and the end result is a critical shortage of 
this type for our postwar fleet. 

For many reasons, the Maritime Commission had to set 
aside, temporarily, its plans for the construction of such 
vessels. However, I firmly believe that with the help of 
private operators we can and should go forward with 
plans to meet the present fleet deficits. 

In a public speech recently at New York I stated that 
we paid the Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth a million 
dollars per voyage to carry our troops in the Atlantic. For 
this I was criticized by London periodicals and my atten- 
tion called to the fact that this cost was credited to Re- 
verse Lend-Lease. Quite true. My purpose in mentioning 
the subject was not intended as criticism. We were 
indeed happy that our Ally could furnish this much 
needed service which we were incapable of performing. 
I wished then and I wish now only to bring home to the 
American public the critical need in time of emergency 
for fast and efficient passenger vessels, available to meet 
the demands of National Defense. 

We believe that Americans will travel as never before. 
We, as a nation, have become world-minded, even though 
it took a war to make us so. I do not believe we need 
fear, too greatly, the competition of air travel. For the 
past five or six years this nation has heard nothing but 
rush and speed. I believe the people as a whole desire to 
settle down and slow our tempo of living. We need a 
little time to relax. Ocean steamships offer an opportu- 
nity to do that in a most pleasant form of leisure travel, 
in excellent companionship, with the best of service and 
the finest food. This we hope to offer, for under the 
American flag our laws require that we have the safest 
ships afloat. 

We of the Commission believe that the future of the 



Merchant Marine is as much in your hands as it is in ours. 
We will gladly lead the way, but we cannot go far with- 
out your loyal and undivided support. If you believe, 
as we do, that the American Merchant Marine is essential 
to the economic welfare of this great country, we cannot 
fail to support it together. 

In closing, I should like to bring the Merchant Marine 
home to the kitchen of every householder in the United 
States. Even though I dislike returning to the war for 
illustration, it best points up some facts about our Mer- 
chant Marine. I am sure w-e haven't forgotten, even though 
it's past, the rationing of our coffee. This country lacked 
a merchant fleet of sufficient size to meet its domestic 
requirements. Foreign flag vessels had been withdrawn 
to serve this country's needs and we didn't get our coffee. 
The same story was true for rubber, tin, and essential 
ores, for prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor we could 
not stockpile these vital materials because of a lack of 
ships. It's been a long time since ample supplies of such 
things as sliced pineapple rested on the kitchen shelves 
of America. It takes pineapple, sugar, tin, and ships to 
get it there. 

Now we have the ships, we have the men, and we have 
the "know-how, ' but without a unit)' of effort on the part 
of labor, the elements that go to make up management, 
and the government, the American Merchant Marine 
cannot long prosper. When I say unity I mean it in the 
fullest sense of the word. It should include all branches 
of our industry — shipbuilders, ship operators, labor, bank- 
ers, shippers and the people. To succeed we must start 
at home. United we can express most strongly our firm 
belief in the future of the Merchant Marine industry. 
Together, we can recapture in spirit those glorious days 
of 100 years ago when America's own Merchant Fleet 
carried 90 per cent of her world trade and carried the 
Stars and Stripes of the United States into every port on 
the Seven Seas. 



IDovie Hvailable for Use 

National Federation of American Shipping announced 
that it had completed the first all-inclusive motion picture 
in sound and color which tells the complete story of the 
American Merchant Marine and its importance to the 
nation. 

Titled America Sails the Seas, the 16-millimeter film 
runs 32 minutes and is complete with dramatic charac- 
terizations, narration, and set to thematic music. 

The Federation said the film will be distributed without 
charge to schools, colleges, civic organizations, fraternal 
groups, and to a limited extent in some theaters. Dis- 
tribution date is January 15, 1947. 

"The primary purpose of America Sails the Seas is to 
show the importance of shipping to every segment of 
American agriculture and industry," the Federation said. 
"The picture tells the necessity for an adequate American 
Merchant Marine; how it operates; where it goes; what it 
carries; why it is vital for national defense and indispen- 
sable to peacetime commerce." 



Page 150 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



AMERICAN 3MELTINQAND 
REFININQ COM PANY 



NICKEL I 

BABBlTlJjJ 



XXXX \ICKEl BABBITT 

and other FEDERATED High 
Grade Babhitts arc now available 
for anv and all bearing purposes 
without restriction. 



» METALS DIVISION 

I AMERICAN SMELTING and REFINING COMPANY 



SAN FRANCISCO 

PORTLAND • SEATTLE • SALT LAKE 



LOS ANGELES 
EL PASO • BUTTE 



MARINE MARKETING CO. 

S. L. (Roy) KUYKENDALL 
J. H. (Jack) SEDERLUND 

Wholesale 

Ship Provisions 

and Supplies 



Cable Address — Marinmart fMorinmartl 
Office Phone — Terminal 2-5606 
Night Phones — Terminal 2-2692 
Terminal 3-1585 

1 3th and Grand Avenues 
SAIV PEDRO :: CALIFORIVIA 



McMillans 



CARGO HOISTING 

BLOCKS 

■ 

DISTRIBUTED BY 

HAVISIDE 
COMPANY 

40 SPEAR STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

CALIFORNIA 



W. H. McMillan's 
Sons 



SWIVEL EYE WITH 
SAFETY SHACKLE 



49 



SOUTH STREET 
NEW YORK 5. N. Y. 




Recent National Pump Survey Shows: 

VIKING TOPS 

ROTMCf PUMP FIELD 



In A recent national survey. Viking Ro- 
tary Pumps led the rotary pump field in 
popularity and widespread use. Vikings 
topped the field, being encountered 29.1% 
of the time among 17 makes ol rotary 
pumps listed. 

There is a reason for this popularity Vi- 
kings place first because of their extremely 
simple design, . . their rugged construction 
. . their record of dependable performance. 
Thus throughout the years they have 
earned their place as leader in the rotary 
pump field. 



For 



iplefe informo^'on 
obouf Viking Rotary Pumps, 
write today for bulletin series 
46$. It will be ieni to you free 
by return mail. 




mM 



2040 5. Santa h 



PACIFIC COAST DISTRIBUTORS 
BURTON 
! Ave., Los Angeles 



niatson's Plans for \1 



< Continued from page 43) 
amount of Hawaiian sugar will eventually reach West 
Coast ports in bulk. 

Port Accessories 

In San Francisco, the coming year will see full resump- 
tion of peacetime activities at the Matson Port Acces- 
sories Building. This operation, located near the com- 
pany's piers, is unique among the ship-servicing work of 
any U. S. steamship organization. Here, Matson is fully 
equipped to handle ship's laundry, drycleaning, furniture 
repair; to disinfect and clean pillows and mattresses; to 
store a ship with everything from efficiently prefabricated 
meat cuts to canned goods, glass, silver and chinaware. 
All these and many other servicing functions are carried 
on through the Port Accessories facility with maximum 
effectiveness during a ship's brief stay in port. 

Hotels 

■With full resumption of passenger service in 1947, 
Matson will again offer luxury facilities to tourists and 
commercial travelers both to Hawaii, Samoa, Fiji, New 
Zealand and Australia. On February 1, 1947, after a 
thorough redecoration program costing approximately 
S 1,000,000, the Royal Hawaiian Hotel will be ready to 
receive tourists. This world-famed luxury hotel, under 
lease from Matson to the Navy during the war, served 
for four years as a rehabilitation center for service per- 
sonnel. The nearby Moana Hotel, another property of 
Matson's Hawaiian Hotels Division at 'Waikiki Beach, 
will continue in operation as a popular tourist resort 
center. 

During the spring of 1947 a seven-story wing now- 
being added to the Matson Building in San Francisco, is 
scheduled for completion. 



Clobe lilireless Station KTH 

I Continued from page 50 1 
attack on Midway and Guam transmitted by the Pan 
American Airways operators. Later it was learned that 
passenger vessels and freighters in the Southwest Pacific 
received all up-to-the-minute war reports from station 
KTK. 

As darkness came over the Pacific that Sunday night, 
for security reasons, all marine stations were silenced, and 
KTK went off the air. 

In 1929 when the Mussel Rock station was a mere 
infant housed in a little shack 20 feet square, one of the 
nightly duties of the operator was to contact the first 
Byrd Antarctic Polar Expedition in Little America and 
copy the reports of Admiral Richard E. Byrd for relay 
to the New York Times for publication in the morning 
newspaper. Although Byrd's radio station was located 
,50 feet below the snow, marvelous communication was 
carried on w-ith KTK. 

That same year, R. Stanley Dollar, on board the SS. 
President Taft, two days out of Honolulu en route to the 
Orient, was the first San Franciscan to establish contact 
with the Graf Zeppelin on its round the world flight. 
Mr. Dollar wirelessed the Commander, Dr. Hugo Eck- 
ener, "Welcome to the Pacific." Then for eight minutes 



Mr. Dollar, with the aid of the radio operator on the Taft, 
and Dr. Eckener chatted back and forth through the ether. 
The Graf's commander reported "everything going well," 
thanked Dollar for his welcoming message and said he 
would answer it later in a more extended radiogram. 

During the entire trip to the Orient, the President 
Taft was in constant communication with KTK. 

One of the traditions of the sea is for the ears of radio 
operators to be constantly attuned to 500 kc, the distress 
frequency, and if an SOS is heard, immediately relay a 
call for aid to all ships in the vicinity. 

On September 29, 1932, word was flashed that the 
freighter Nevada had gone aground off the Aleutians. 
With her radio partially disabled and heavy breakers 
hammering at her hull, the radio operator sent out a 
feeble distress call that said she was sinking. The Dollar 
liner President Madison, bound from Kobe, Japan, to 
Seattle, preceded under forced draft to the stricken ves- 
sel's assistance. 

Then, after .36 hours of silence, to KTK came the first 
message from Captain R. J. Healy: 

"Have rescued three only survivors of Nevada. Now 
hoisting boats. Details later. " 

As the rescue ship pushed through the night toward 
Victoria, B. C, a second message followed: 

"Three men rescued, " it repeated. It gave the names of 
the survivors, and continued: "Rest of crew drowned. 
The rescue work of our officers was magnificent. Healy." 
That was all. A terse report in the abrupt language of 
the sea. But, for a statement by a taciturn veteran sea 
dog, it spoke volumes. Thus ended a tragic saga of the 
northern seas with the death of 34 men. 

In announcing the reopening of KTK, R. Stanley 
Dollar, president of Globe Wireless, Ltd., commented: 

"During the five years our station was silent it has been 
thoroughly modernized with the very latest equipment 
to give added protection to all ships at sea. As we resume 
service the ears of our operators will be constantly attuned 
to the wave lengths used by ships, either for distress calls 
or for receiving regular ship-to-shore messages. 

"On the first two expeditions that Admiral Richard E. 
Byrd headed to the South Pole our station at Mussel 
Rock was in almost constant communication with his 
base in Little America. Since reading the announcement 
of his forthcoming third expedition to the Antarctic, we 
have communicated with Admiral Byrd advising him 
that our Globe Wireless station again stands ready to 
offer every possible assistance to him and his parry of 
explorers. " 

Today the tiny shack at Mussel Rock, where the Dol- 
laradio system was born, has been replaced with a modern 
brick station housing powerful transmitters for the ma- 
rine service and the three Globe transpacific circuits to 
Honolulu, Manila and Shanghai. 

The company is incorporated as Globe Wireless, Ltd.. 
with R. Stanley Dollar as president, and his son, R. Stan- 
ley Dollar, Jr., assistant to the President and a member of 
the Board of Directors. Brigadier General W. P. Boat- 
wright is Vice President and is directly in charge of 
operations. 

Offices are located in San Francisco, Los Angeles, New 
York, Washington, D. C, Honolulu, Manila and 
Shanghai. 



Page 152 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




DARCOID 

ASBESTOS S Ri/BB^R PACKiN&S 




The Darcoid Company, Inc., 145 Sixth Ave., New York 13, N. Y. 
DISTRIBUTORS: Johnson Specially Company, Wilmin9tan. Calif.; Marde 



Pacific Coast Branch, 249 Ninth St., San Francisco 3, Calif. 
Haqist, Portland, Oreqon; Pacific Marine Supply Co., SeaHle, Wash. 



MOORE-McCORMACK 

AMERIl'AX REPlBLIt'S Li:%'E 

Freight and Passenger Service between the East 
Coa-t of United States and the countries of 
BRAZIL • IRIGIAY . ARGENTINA 

PACIFIC REPIBLICS LI^'E 

Freight and Passenger Service between the West 
Coast of Lnited States and the countries of 
BRAZIL . URUGUAY • ARGENTINA 
AMERIt AX SCAXTIC LI>E 

Freight and Passenger Service between the East 
Coast of United States anti the countries of 

NORWAY POLAND 

DENMARK FINLAND 
SWEDEN RUSSIA 

/■</; <■()////)/<'/<• i n formation applv 

MOORE-McCORMACK 
LINES 

.5 Bniaduiiy, A fir York 4, A. i . 

(Iffiivs in Principal Cities 

ojthr tr orld 





nm Prarl Hnrhfir Ut 
y. Moi,n.\tr(:nrmack 


U, 

that 

oj'Zr 
in tim 


es uprratvd nion- 
15() ships, lost U 
sets, transported 
1,239 troops and 
edSUKKUl Ions 
varpu. I'o disrharf*e 
h rrsftiinsihilitii's 
(ij crisis, tnirrica's 
ant Marint' must be 


ke, 


t strong in peace 







GENERAL MACHINE 

and REPAIR WORK 

Representatives for 

TODD COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT, INC. 

(TODD OIL BURNERS) 



coiuinitifl 
mncHioE 

UIORliS 



L. K. Siversen, Owne 



^""iSr" BERKELEY. CALIF. dTo: 



and 
St. 



TOUMEY 

Representing 

BENDIX MARINE PRODUCTS CO. 

Successors to 

CHAS. CORY CORPORATION 

Signaling. Communicating and Lighting Equipment 

PNEUMATIC CORPORATION (New York) 

Gauges: Liquid Level, Ships Draft. Pressure, 

Boiler Water Level 

PLANT MILLS DIRECTION INDICATOR 

AND ENGINEERS ALARM 

GArf ield 81 03 



ELECTRIC & 
ENGINEERING CO. 

MARINE AND INDUSTRIAL ELECTRIC INSTALLA- 
TIONS . . MARINE ELECTRIC FIXTURES . . SUPPLIES 
AND REPAIRS . . ARMATURE WINDING . . SEARCH- 
LIGHT PROJECTORS . . . SOUND POWERED TELE- 
PHONES . . . FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS 



SAN FRANC ISCO 



115-117 Steuart St. 



JANUARY • 1947 



Page 153 



(lew Ships for the Pacific 
end Round-the-Ulorld 



[Continued froni page 49) 

maintained on regular fortnightly schedules. Starting 
from New York and Boston, the regular ports of call 
include Havana, Cristobal, Balboa, Los Angeles, San Fran- 
cisco, Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, Shanghai, Hong Kong, 
Manila, Singapore, Penang, Colombo, Bombay, Suez, Port 
Said, Alexandria, Naples, Genoa, Marseilles, thence back 
to New York. 

Thus it will be seen there is no lack of forward think- 
ing, planning and action on the part of American Presi- 



dent Lines to provide, as speedily as possible, a type of 
equipment and service which will justify the fondest 
expectation of travelers and shippers everywhere and be 
second to none in the world. 

At war's end, American President Lines was faced with 
the necessity of acquiring virtually a whole new fleet 
with which to carry on its global services. Although a 
temporary handicap, this situation was recognized as a 
long range advantage because it gave the Company an 
opportunity to build or acquire vessels specially styled 
and designed to suit the Company's rapidly expanding 
and discriminating trade requirements. A large part of 
this new replacement tonnage should be in operation 
by the end of this year. 



General Steamship— 



[Continued from page 51 1 

fleet of C-l-A type motorships which are now going into 
operation. Shippers to the Argentine will thus be afforded 
regular and dependable monthly sailings (via Straits of 
Magellan ) while importers of coffee and other commodi- 
ties from the River Plate and Brazil will have this service 
placed at their disposal on the northbound run, where 
the vessels return to the Pacific Coast via the Panama 
Canal. 

In the Latin American trade, we also will have the 
Independence Line in full operation during the coming 
year; this service taking care of the trade with Buenaven- 
tura, with calls at intermediate Central American ports. 
The third vessel in this newly created line will be enter- 
ing that service shortly after the first of the year. 

Tonnage is also being acquired from the American 
government for the operation of the Pacific Mediter- 
ranean Line, enabling this service to further improve its 
schedule. This line was established shortly after termina- 



tion of the war and will be expanded in the coming year. 

The Pacific Australia Direct Line, which was operated 
as an important link between the Pacific Coast and Aus- 
tralia throughout the war, has continued not only with 
the fine fleet of vessels which it previously had available, 
but also with the addition of fast, efficient ships that 
were built in Sweden during the war. This also applies 
in the case of the Pacific Orient Express Line, which was 
inaugurated during the past year with Swedish and Nor- 
wegian ships. New construction is also being undertaken 
for this service, which has already been established in 
the China-Philippine trade and will be extended to in- 
clude Japan as soon as commercial operations in that 
sector are possible. 

Despite the many problems involved, we feel very en- 
couraged over the strides that have been made toward a 
resumption of free commercial enterprise in the field of 
international trade and shipping. We join our many 
friends in the foreign trade community in looking for- 
ward to substantial further progress in that direction 
during 1947. 




Page 154 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




(&^ 



■ United's full-scope facilities, including 
two drydocks, make available "complete, 
uninterrupted service for the over-all job." 
Among other definite advantages, this all- 
inclusive service speeds the job by eliminat- 
ing time loss in moving the ship from one 
yard to another. 

■ United's Alameda Yard, strategically 
situated on San Francisco Bay, is available 
with complete modern facilities for all types 
of ships. Extensive San Francisco waterfront 
shops and pier operations afford time-saving 
repair service on vessels while berthed. 
■ Ship operators interested in new high 
standard efficiency, economy and speed in 
work performance will find it advantageous 
to consult United on their requirements. 



Moin Office & Repair Strops: 500 BEALE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 5 
IShiovord: FOOT OF MAIN STREET, ALAMEDA, CALIFORNIA 




Oldtimer Steve Albgn beside a 
spinning machine in the Tubbs 
Mills. 



Watch for this famous trade- 
mark when the required quan- 
tities and grade of Manila 
fiber are once more available. 




To the average user, all rope may look alike. Then just what does make one 
rope better — more dependable — than another would seem a logical 
question. 

In the case of Tubbs rope, one of the important reasons for superiority 
is MEN. It is men skilled for many years in the fine art of making good 
rope that assure perfection in each stage of manufacture — from the very 
selection of the fiber to the exacting tests which each coil of Tubbs rope 
must meet. 

For nearly a century, this combination of men and rope has made the rope 
trademarks of the Tubbs Cordage Company outstanding leaders. For 
extra rope value — for extra dependability — specify Tubbs to your 
supplier. It will pay dividends in longer wear, greater safety, more rope 
value. 



TUBBS CORDAGE COMPANY 



SAN FRANCI 
LOS ANGELES 



SCO 



CHICAGO 



PORTLAND 



SEATTLE 
NEW YORK 




OFFICIAL ORGAN 
Pacific American 
Steamship Association 



Shipowners Association 
of the Pacific Coast 



I. S. HINES 

rmbllthtr 

I. N. DaROCHIE 

>l>tl>faiif 
PiiUliAer 

r. DOUGLAS MocMULLEN 

Eneatlv* 
tdHor 

UEXANDER J. DICKIE 

tdHer 

MIDREW P. HALL 

Editor 

I. N. DaROCHIE. Jr. 

Manager 

1. H. lOYNTON 

PredKffea 
Editor 

PAUL FAULKNER 

Pacific Cooft 
ildvorfliliig Mgr. 
Lot 4»g«l«t Offtco 

OAVID J. DcROCHIE 

A%tltfai>f 
Lei Angelai 

GEORGE W. FREIIERGER 

ildverfl«l«g Mgr. 
Sam Francisco 



TABLE OF CONTENTS ... - - FEBRUARY. 1947 



(ubscrfpffon rates: 

3ne year, $2.00; two y»»'y 
(J.50; «hroe yeart, $5.00: for- 
lign, $1.00 additional per year; 
lingle copiet, 25c. 



Don't Let Down the Guard! 

By T. Douglas MacMullen 

A Challenge That Must Be Met! 

By A J. Dickie 
Intercoastal Shipping Services— The National Economy and the National 
Defense 

By Lewis A. Lapham 



Steady As You Go . 

By "The Skipper"" 

On the Ways 
Running Lights — 

By B. H. Boynton 

Passenger Offices Reaching New Heights of Attractiveness 

Mariners Club of California News 

Accident Prevention Conference 
News Flashes 
Keep Posted 

Nordberg Announces Its New Diesel Engine 
Whaling De Luxe 



35 

37 
J9 



Adjustable Vane Dry Dock Pumps 

By J. D. Scoville and V. Chester Smith 

The Proposed C-3 

Accident Prevention in Pacific Coast Marine Operations ^" 

Mineral Fiber Insulations and Textiles for Marine Service 

By Gayle B. Dutton 

With the Port Engineers 

Pacific World Trade- 
By T. Douglas MacMullen 

The World Trade Center at San Francisco 

Danish Training Ship 

Foreign Market Is Vital 

Pacific American Steamship Assn. Elects, and Takes Stand for 

World Trade 

Key Figures for China's Reconstruction 

Marine Insurance — London Letter 

By Our London Correspondent 

Admiralty Decisions 

By Harold S. Dobbs 
Coast Commercial Craft — New Speedy Auto-Passe«ger Liner 

Your Problems Answered 

By "The Chief 



62 

63 

65 

67 
69 

73 
75 
79 
82 
86 
92 
104 



PUBLISHED AT 500 SANSOME STREET • SAN FRANCISCO 11. CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES OFFICE 816 West 5th Street, Zone 13. Telephone Michigan 3129 




Red 

While — •' 
Blue 



WATERPROOFING 

ENDURANCE 

FLEXIBILITY 

APPEARANCE 



C ■ 

^^^ QUAL emphasis upon all five vital qualities makes 
^_^^ Columbian Tape-Marked Pure Manila Rope a balanced rope! 
^^^^ In a good rope none of these qualities should predominate, 
for the accenting of one quality is at the cost of the others. 

STRENGTH . . . The test for breaking strain alone does not make 
quality! The minimum point established by the United States Bureau 
of Standards is one which Columbian Manila Rope has considered a 
minimum for years. Our standards were so high we had to make no 
change to meet government requirements. But strength alone is not 
enough. COLUMBIAN Balanced Manila ROPE has equal emphasis 
on all five! 

COLUMBIAN ROPE COMPANY 

400r90 Genesee St., Auburn, "The Cordage City," N. Y. 



'/(US^f MARKED 



PURE MANILA ROPE 



Page 34 



PACI FIC MARINE REVIEW 




Don't Let Down the Guard! 

As WITH OUR RELIGION, or our doctor, we are 
often inclined to forget our defenses until a time of 
emergency. 

Just now there is a tendency toward relaxing and even 
floundering in our attitude toward the MERCHANT 
MARINE. 

The Merchant Marine cannot afford this floundering 
attitude. Its fleets were completely absorbed into the war 
effort, its public following was lost, its selfish-purposed 
critics were given full reign. 

It should not be necessary for the industry to keep 
pounding on the doors of Government Departments in 
order to regain the very things to which it is entitled by 
law. And a well-planned trend of the industry may be 
stopped short by an arbitrary order. The shipping indus- 
try is not being fairly treated. 

It has been said that there is no problem of the Marine 
Industry that could not be solved by the stroke of a pen. 
There must, of course, be a willingness to use the pen, 
and to use it without unseemly delays. 

When, after World War I, the railroads were faced 
with operating losses, Congress and the ICC acted with 
great promptness and liberality. Under a limited guaran- 
tee of income provided by Congress, the Government 
paid the rails $536,000,000, and before the guarantee 
expired the ICC granted rate increases of $1,500,000,000 
additional annual revenue. The domestic shipping lines 
which saved the war but lost their business, are not ask- 
ing subsidies; they just want depressed rail rates to port 
cities eliminated. 

And they want action on their vital needs. Delays on 
requests for hearings are inexcusable. An air line appli- 
cation by Waterman Steamship Company has dragged 
for 6 years, but the British Commonwealth Pacific Air- 
lines' application for air service between Sydney and 
San Francisco via Honolulu was heard within twenty- 
jour hours. And this airline is owned by Australian Steam- 
ship Companies. A Matson application filed in September 
1943 was heard in twelve months and denied in 33 
months. 

The freight rate cases, rail competition, air applica- 
tions, Alaska services, subsidies, the ship construction 
program, are delayed, delayed, delayed. 

The stroke of a pen, in the right hands, is needed. 
Our Guard has been down too long! 



H Challenge that illust he IDet- 

AMERICA IS PRESENTLY BUILDING for private 
shipping firms, in seagoing vessels of over 1000 gross 
measurement tons, 33 ships with a combined gross 
measurement of 246,819 tons and a combined total pro- 
pulsion power of 290,750 shp. 

Dividing this total power into the types of machinery 
by which it is generated and applied to the shaft we find 
that 85.3 /( is generated in steam boilers and applied 
through turbines and double reduction mechanical gear- 
ing; 14.1% is generated in steam boilers and applied 
through steam turbines and electric speed reduction; and 
0.6% is generated and applied through diesel engines. 

The shipbuilding nations of the world are now build- 
ing, or have on order, approximately three and a half 
million gross tons of sea going vessels of 1000 gross tons 
and over. Lloyds Register reports for the quarter ending 
December 31, 1946, that vessels powered with diesel 
engines composed 55.4% of world shipbuilding tonnage 
and this percentage is on the increase. 

Great Britain is resimiing her traditional status as 
world shipbuilder and during the quarter under review, 
was building 52% of the world total. Great Britain has 
under construction or on order, nearly a million tons of 
motor ships. 

Since European motor ships in the decade following 
World War I helped drive our cargo steamers out of 
international trade, and since the competitive position 
(so far as wages, costs of construction, and manning 
scales are concerned ) is more unfavorable today than it 
was then, the question naturally arises "What can Ameri- 
ca do to stay in the overseas shipping business. " 

Evidently a very radical change is needed in our ap- 
proach to the problem. If we assume that the American 
standard of living ashore must be maintained on Ameri- 
can flag ships afloat, our problem must be solved by the 
development of techniques whereby a ship can be oper- 
ated by greatly reduced personnel and whereby the cost 
of longshore operations can be largely eliminated. 

This will require much first-class engineering applied 
to the design of piers and ports and ships. It will require 
a wholehearted cooperation btween politicians, operators, 
designing engineers, and organized labor. 

The designing end is well within the capacity of 
American naval architects, marine engineers, and mater- 
ial handling engineers. Will America meet the challenge? 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 35 




^ ^ 






^^ 



rresielehf Cleveland and President Wilson nearing completion at the 
Bethlehem-Alameda yard. These two ships are the largest to be constructed 
since the war. Both are for the American President Lines' run to the Orient 



Intercoastal Shipping Services- 
The Oational Economy and 
The national Defense 



By LEWIS A. LAPHAM. Assistant to the President, 
American-Hawaiian Steamship Company 

f RYSTAL BALL GAZING IS DIFFICULT „d „„- 

\7 certain at best, and so far as the intercoastal trade is 
concerned he is a foolhardy man who at the moment even 
approaches the ball. 

It is surprising how little appreciation there is gener- 
ally as to the vital importance of the domestic merchant 
marine in connection with the national economy and the 
national defense. Shipping in the domestic trade lacks 
the glamor and public appeal of the foreign trade. There 
is a common misapprehension that foreign trade opera- 
tions dominate the American Merchant Marine. Actually, 
the situation is the reverse, for more than two-thirds 
of our American shipping is normally engaged in the 
domestic trade. 

If shipping were merely another industry with its own 
special ailments, the problem while serious, would not 
present the critical aspects with which we are confronted 
here. But shipping is more than an industry. It is a vital 
link in the country's network of transportation; it is an 
instrument of national policy; and it is an indispensable 
part of the country's facilities for defense. 

Vital though it is to maintain American flag tonnage 
in the foreign trades, vessels engaged in the domestic 
trade are a first line of defense in national emergencies. 
The immediate availability of such vessels and their free- 
dom from seizure or internment by foreign governments 
enhances their importance in the national defense picture. 




Facilities 

No less necessary than the physical equipment for the 
transportation of men and supplies are the fund of man- 
agerial knowledge, the pool of seagoing personnel and the 
available facilities for shipbuilding, drydocking, repairs. 



An intensive study is being made of the 
comparison between prewar and postwar 
operating costs and it is hoped that publica- 
tion will be possible in our next issue. — 
Editor. 



stevedoring and terminal facilities necessarily maintained 
to operate and support the domestic trades. Physical 
plant is not in itself sufficient; machines must be operat- 
ed and serviced, and experienced management must be 
available. In a recent hearing before the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, Major General Leavey, the Army's 
chief of transportation, expressed the War Department's 
position as follows: 'The War Department is appearing 
in this hearing because it considers that a live, going 
and adequate Merchant Marine is an absolute essential in 
the national defense. " 

The Navy's views were presented following those of 
General Leavey by Rear Admiral Callaghan, "The Navy 
is very much interested in the condition of the Merchant 
Marine at all times. It is one of the important pillars 
which form the foundation of our sea power. Without 
it, sea power as we know it simply does not exist. " 

The successful outcome of each (5f the last two wars 
certainly was largely due to the fact that we were able 
to provide merchant vessel tonnage which gave the neces- 
sary logistical support. 

It is important to remember that with only 1,002 
merchant ships flying the United States flag in 1939, 
70 per cent of the total tonnage of our merchant marine 
was engaged in the intercoastal, or coastwise trade, and 
ships so engaged were the principal source from which 
the armed forces were able to draw. 

The Merchant Marine employed in our domestic trade 
should be given the right to live and prosper. 

It is fallacious to argue that a large number of ships 
constitute a merchant marine. An active merchant marine 
consists of modern ships, manned by trained men, men 
with years of seagoing experience to serve as their offi- 
cers and crews. It consists of shipyards with their dry- 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 37 



docks and ship repair facilities, it consists of ports with 
the requisite port facilities, it consists of ocean terminals, 
docks, warehouses, trained stevedore personnel, ship 
chandlers and the many other activities and personnel 
associated with shipping. If our merchant marine is al- 
lowed to disintegrate these supporting services, so im- 
portant in wartime, disintegrate in almost direct pro- 
portion. 

The record during the past 15 months under govern- 
ment operations in the intercoastal trade has left a 
gloomy financial result; even though the ships have been 
for the most part running full, and cargo offerings have 
been consistently heavy. 

Two factors are paramount among the problems that 
beset the trade: 

( 1 ) Depressed rate structure. 

(2) Increased operating costs. 

The intercoastal rate structure has been tied from time 
immemorial to the transportation railway and always will 
be, for the primary justification of the intercoastal trade 
has been its ability to provide a more economical form of 
transportation from coast to coast. 

The rail rates today are admittedly below what they 
should be for the long haul business and this differential 
is a bill that the short haul shippers are paying. Until the 
rails see their way clear to raising the long haul rates, the 
intercoastal carrier is not going to be able to raise its 
rates; and until the intercoastal carrier can raise its rates, 
it cannot hope to exist economically in the face of the 
increased operating costs of the past 6 years. 

Those costs have been rising steadily since the early 
1930's for the labor disturbances of that decade brought 
increasing wage bills on the one hand and decreased effi- 
ciency on the other. The effects were slowly but increas- 
ingly felt and the war put the finishing touches to the 



overall picture. Today, five years later, the intercoastal 
operator finds that his operating costs in every category 
have risen at least 100 per cent and in some cases twice 
that much. Efficiency is certainly no better, and in some 
cases is actually a little worse. The results lead to the 
gloom of the financial record of the past 1 5 months. 

The government originally proposed to abandon its 
intercoastal operation of some 55 ships on December 31. 
The operation has been extended, however, through Feb- 
ruary, and in a message from the White House in mid 
January, the President requested that the Maritime Com- 
mission extend its operation through June 30 of this 
year, clearly recognizing the difficulties and the problems 
affecting the trade. 

The almost certain alternative to the President's sug- 
gestion is the abandonment of the trade, at least as far 
as general cargo is concerned, for no operator so far as 
is known could hope to carry on in the trade today with 
his own ships and on his own money. 

What the future holds remains to be seen, but at the 
present writing it does not seem to hold much that is 
good. 

IFS 

There is, of course, an "IF " in the picture, or rather 
several "IFS". 

7/ the Interstate Commerce Commission, now charged 
with the development and maintenance of the country's 
water transportation, reviews the intercoastal rate struc- 
ture and comes up with some realistic decisions, and 

// the transcontinental rail lines revise their present 
long haul practices, and 

// the Maritime Unions will cooperate in a return to 
some reasonable degree of efficiency, then the trade would 
have a fair shot at the future and there are some who 
will be back in it with their own ships and their own 
money. 



The Victory Ship— War-bulll fype which has be 



Trying the built of the intercoastal traffic for the past year 




Page 38 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




No. 4 basin at Hunter's Point Dry Dock. 



Adjustable Vane 
Dry Dock Pumps 

By J. D. SCDVILLE and V. CHESTER SMITH 

I HE ADJUSTABLE VANE axial flow pump provided 
with means of changing the pitch of the impeller 
vanes while operating, offers certain advantages for un- 
watermg dry docks. Two large docks, using such pumps, 
were completed and placed in operation for the U. S. 
Nav\-. Since these docks were suitable for the largest 
ships, relatively large pumping capacity was required to 
unwater them in a reasonable length of time. The flexi- 
bility of the adjustable pitch t)'pe suggested the feasibilit)' 
of a few large units. Studies made by the Bureau of Yards 
and Docks resulted in the selection of four 1250 hp 
pumps for Pearl Harbor Dry Dock No. 4 and three 1 500 
hp pumps for the San Francisco Naval Shipyard at Hunt- 
ers Point Dry Dock No. 4, all of which were of the adjust- 
able vane type. There were many interesting problems 
involved in the selection of these particular pumps, in 
the design of the water passages to and from them and 
in the construction of the Dry Docks. It is intended that 
this article shall deal only with the pumping equipment. 

The two dry docks were practically duplicates in size. 



There is a slight difference in volume because of varia- 
tions of water levels but the total amount of water to be 
handled was approximately 60 million gallons in each 
dock. This had to be removed in 160 minutes which 
corresponds to an average pump discharge of 375,000 
gpm throughout the full range of head. 

The maximum depth of water is about 47 feet, but due 
to friction loss in the intake and discharge piping, the 
head varied from approximately 15 feet to 55 feet, based 
on design estimates by the engineers of the Bureau of 
Yards and Docks. Actually the head was slightly less, 
because of smaller friction losses than expected. 

The extreme variation of head, and the large quantity 
of water involved necessitated a careful study of the type, 
size and speed of, the pumping equipment. Cavitation 
and vibration present a distinct problem for fixed vane 
axial flow pumps for heads of this magnitude. The use 
of the mixed flow type of pump involves a greater cost 
because of its slower speed. The discharge of the adjust- 
able vane type can be readily controlled within the limits 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 39 










t 











■ i 

i' 



Fig. I. Model Test Pump in cavitation te$t stand. 



of the motor capacity without the use of throttling de- 
vices or speed change. Flexibility, from the standpoint 
of operation, is the outstanding feature of the adjustable 
vane pump. 

At the time this installation was being considered no 
pump of this type had been previously used for heads as 
high as 55 feet, nor for dry dock service. Therefore, the 
Bureau of Yards and Docks of the U. S. Navy Depart- 
ment felt the desirability of building and testing a 
model under full head conditions and with the same 
impeller submergence as on the prototype, or field instal- 
lation. 

Such a model was constructed by and tested in the 
H)'draulic Laboratory of the S. Morgan Smith Company 
in York, Pennsylvania. Tests were first, for efficiency 
and capacity at about 30 feet head, and second for cavi- 
tation performance at prototype head. The model im- 
peller was 9 inches in diameter and the set up including 
the pump intake, pump proper, and discharge piping, is 
shown in Fig. 1. 

In addition to the usual cavitation tests, four points 
were run on the model at 15, 25, .37 and 55 feet head 
with the proper sigma, or impeller submergence, and at 
the vane angle to meet the discharges specified. Per- 
formance as computed is shown on the curves herewith. 

A power variation of about 600 to 2300 hp occurs for 
the range of conditions cited. Advantage is taken of this 
in the use of 1500 hp motors on the pumps for Hunters 
Point Dr)' Dock. Fig. 2 shows that at 55 feet head the 
vane angle is about 12^ for 1 500 hp and greater than 20 ^ 
for 15 feet head. This represents the variation in pitch 
required, in order to use the full capacit)' of the motor at 
all dock water levels. 

Cavitation tests were then required to decide if this 
particular pump could be run at 12" pitch angle at 55 
feet head and 22^ with 15 feet head and at other inter- 
mediate positions, with the dock water level correspond- 
ing to each head, and operate without excessive vibration 
and with satisfactory efficiency at the intended impeller 
submergence. Fig. 3 shows the curves for 15, 25, 37 and 
55 feet head and effect on discharge and efficiency of 
varying impeller submergence, each at a vane angle which 
corresponds to at least 1250 hp on the prototype. The 
cavitation limit is the point where the efficiency', or dis- 




Vlew of flow to pump intakes at low dock water level. 

charge or both, start to drop, if the suction water level 
is further reduced. For instance, at 15 ft. head, if the 
water level above the center of the impeller is reduced 
so that the submergence is less than 23 ft., cavitation 
will occur. This is shown by a decided drop in discharge 
and a slight drop in efficiency. At 55 ft. head a drop in 
efficiency shows that it is undesirable to operate the pump 
if the impeUer is more than 1.5 ft. above the dock water 
level. This drop in efficiency caused by cavitation may 
be accompanied by pitting and vibration severe enough 
to prevent operation. A safety margin of submergence 
should be allowed. On Fig. 3 it will be seen that there 
is a safety margin of 28 feet against cavitation. Since at 
55 ft. head the safety margin is 3 ft., it is evident that 
the high head conditions control the elevation of the 
pump impeller. The advisability of reducing the pump 
discharge still further when the water depth is low in 
the drydock increases the safety against cavitation at the 
highest heads. This reduction of How is desirable to pre- 
vent the pump sucking air from the over-fall of water 
into the suction pits. The flexibilit)' of the adjustable 



Fig. 3. Cavitation limits of adjustable blade Fig. 2. Performance of adjustable blade Fig. 4. Comparative performance of adjust- 

pump from model tests. > pump computed from model test 15-55 feet able and fixed blade pumps of the same 

head, at 600 rpm. diameter and speed. 




FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 41 




Fig. 5. Sectional elevation through adjustable blade 



vane pump permits operation at a safe capacity in the 
event that such disturbances, in the intake and elsewhere, 
cause vibration of the unit. 

All of the preliminary studies were made on the basis 
of four 1250 hp units for the Pearl Harbor dock for 
which orders for the pumping equipment were already 
placed. About the time laboratory testing had been com- 
pleted the Bureau of Yards and Docks had made their 
decision to use the adjustable vane pumps on the Hunter's 
Point Dock also. 

After study of the cavitation performance of the model, 
it was decided to lower the pump impeller 3 feet for 
Hunters Point and use 1500 hp motors. The increased 
discharge made possible the elimination of one pumping 
unit and still permit unwatering within the required 160 
minute period. This resulted in a substantial saving in 
cost as only the motor capacity had to be increased. The 
same size and design of pumps were used without change 
for both jobs. 

The Laboratory tests showed that 12° vane angle 
would not produce objectionable cavitation at Hunters 
Point and that fixed vane 'pumps of such characteristics 
could be used. It will therefore be interesting to com- 



pare this performance with the curves for "A" and "B." 
Curves "A" on Fig. 4 are for the 1250 hp adjustable 
vane pumps for Pearl Harbor and curve "B " corresponds 
to the same pumps using 1500 hp motors for Hunters 
Point. Curve "C" is for the same diameter impeller but 
with the vanes fixed at a 12° angle. It will be seen that 
this pump has the same capacity at 55 ft. head as does 
the adjustable vane pump "B" but that at 15 ft. head its 
discharge is only 111,000 gpm whereas the adjustable 
vane pump can handle 172,000 gpm. The reason for this 
is evident from the power curves. The adjustable vane 
pump utilizes the full 1500 hp over its entire range of 
operation whereas the fixed vane pump can only absorb 
about 800 hp at the low head. With this diameter of 
fixed vane pump at 600 rpm a substantially longer un- 
watering time would be required. To obtain the required 
rate would necessitate the use of a larger impeller, a more 
powerful motor and a slower speed. The motor would 
only be used at its full capacity at the highest head. A 
mixed flow type of pump used for such service can be 
designed to use almost constant power input over this 
range but would operate at about 300 rpm and would not 
have the range of discharge as does the adjustable vane 
pump. 

Near the end of the pumping period neither the fixed 
vane impeller nor the mixed flow pump can control the 
discharges as readily as can the adjustable vane type. The 
fixed vane type would have to be shut down one at a time 
as the depth reaches a level where the water flowing 
down the dock can no longer keep up with the pump 
discharge. Eventually the point is reached where the 
capacity of one pump is too great and the final volume 
must be removed by small capacity drainage pumps. The 
adjustable vane pump can control the flow until the floor 
of the dock is practically dry. 

The maximum head on the installations described is 
55 feet, the speed 600 rpm, and the discharge 84,000 to 
172,000 gpm for the entire range of head for the Dry- 
dock at Hunters Point. Were it not for the adjustable 
vane features the shut-off head of such a pump would be 
as high as 165 feet and the torque against a closed valve 
more than double the full load torque of the motor. 
Relays are installed which will prevent the pump motor 
being started unless the impeller vanes are feathered. 
Under this condition the maximum head which can be 
produced is 37 feet and the torque required by the pump 
2900 ft. lbs. This head is less than the maximum oper- 
ating pressure and is therefore safe. The torque is only 
22 per cent of the normal full load value for the motor. 

Because of the low pull in torque required, synchro- 
nous motors were used with a very substantial saving in 
cost. In fact this saving together with the higher speed 
made the overall cost of the adjustable vane pumps and 
motors less than that of competing mixed flow or fixed 
vane axial flow pumps. The current characteristics for 
both docks were 2300 volts, 3 phase, 60 cycle. 

Figs. 5 and 6 are the general arrangement drawings of 



Page 42 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



the three 1500 hp units for Hunters Point Drydock 
No. 4. For reasons of simplicity, a flaring suction bell 
of cast iron was used, rather than the elbow type of 
intake. The impeller has four vanes. 

The vane pitch is changed by axial motion of the 
operating rod in the shaft, which transmits the required 
force to levers on the vane shanks, through links. This 
mechanism is contained in the impeUer hub, and is im- 
mersed in oil for lubrication. Force to move the vanes 
is applied to the draw rod by an oil operated servo-motor 
in the pump shaft. Oil is admitted through two co-axial 
pipes through the motor shaft, the center pipe connecting 
to the area below the piston, and the outer one to the 
space above the piston. The flow of oil is regulated by 
means of a vane control valve which is located on top of 
the motor. The position of the control valve is deter- 
mined by a frictional hp motor which in turn is actuated 
from the main control board in the pump room. Oil to 
actuate the servo-motor is furnished by a pumping unit 
which automatically maintains the required pressure. 

Above the impeller is located the diffuser section, the 
purpose of which is twofold. First it collects the water 
from the impeller, straightens it out and discharges it in 
an axial direction. Second, the guide vanes act as a sup- 
port for the lower guide bearing of the pump. 

This bearing, and the other two, are babbitt lined. 
Sufficient fresh water is forced into them to prevent the 
ingress of foreign material. 

The flaring discharge tube is formed in the concrete 
except for the elbow section, which is of welded steel 
construction, embedded in concrete. 

The shaft is covered with a coat of Bitumastic paint 



except where it passes through the bearings, where it is 
protected by a stainless steel sleeve. 

To maintain constant power input, an automatic watt- 
metric control reduces the pitch of the vanes as the water 
level in the dock is lowered. The discharge of the dock 
at Hunters Point is below low tide with a check valve in 
the line as well as a protective sluice gate, and the pump 
motors cannot start until the sluice gates are wide open, 
neither can they be started unless the impeller vanes are 
feathered. These conditions being satisfied, operation of 
the motor switch will start the motor, accelerate and 
synchronize it. The next step is to open the vanes by 
a manual control switch to a position corresponding to 
about 10 per cent capacity of the pump. This switch is 
then thrown over to the automatic position and the unit 
passes to control by the wattmetric device, which in- 
creases the vane angle by energizing the opening circuit 
of the vane control motor until the vanes have reached 
their proper position. As the water is pumped from the 
dock the head increases, which would naturally increase 
the power required by the pump if the vane pitch re- 
mained unchanged. The wattmetric control compensates 
for this by decreasing the vane angle to maintain a con- 
stant motor load regardless of the head on the pump, 
until the water approaches about two feet in depth in 
the dock. At this point, the vanes are automatically re- 
moved from wattmetric control and brought to a flat 
position. They are then controlled manually until all of 
the water is removed from the dock. 

Both docks have been in use for several years. With no 
ship in the Hunters Point Drydock the unwatering time 
I Please turn lo page 96) 



Fig. 6. 
Plan of Pump house. 




FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 43 



le Proposed C-3 




RE-DESIGN OF ITS STANDARD C3 cargo ship for 
increased speed, carrying capacity and economy of 
operation is announced by the United States Maritime 
Commission as a step in its plans to improve the com- 
petitive position of the American Merchant Mairne in 
postwar international trade. 

Plans and specifications have been completed, and 
invitations for bids will be issued upon receipt of ap- 



Vice Adr 


nir 


1 W. 


W. 


Smith 


USN, (R 


etired). ch 


airman 


of 


the 


U 


s 


Maritime 


C 


>mmis 


sion 


is be 


ng shown 


the important fea 


^urc 


by 


use 


of 


topping 


wi 


cties. 


rec 


oinng 


only a 


single va 


g for 


ea 


ch 


bo 


>m. 


James L 


Bates. 


mar 


aging 


director. 


Technical 


Departme 


nl 


of 


the 


Maritime 


Cc 


mmis 


ion 


isexp 


aining de 


:reased tim 


e regu 


red 


for 


sel 


up 


and 


the 


labo 


sav 


ed inc 


dent to r 


gging for 


cargo 


handlin 


g- 






fOB 




( S)TWIIIMHKMCS- SOLID UWC ®Ot B jTYU HU TCH- OOTTtB IIME 



plications from shipping lines for purchase of the new 
model. 

The new design, designated C3-S-DB3, will have more 
horsepower, and a speed of about 18% knots compared 
to the I6V2 knots of the present C3. It will also feature 
re-arrangement of the hull structure and cargo gear for 
more economical handling and stowage of cargo. Six 
holds will be provided instead of five as in the present 
design, and the midship holds will have twin hatches 
side by side for quicker and easier placement of cargo. 

Basically the new design is the same as the present 
C3 as to cargo capacity and stowage, the Commission ex- 
plained. The standard "C" ships were all designed as 
shelter deck type and the new C3-S-DB3 conforms to 
this practice, meeting the high standards for subdivision 
that has featured Maritime Commission vessels. Its scant- 
lings and structural design will, however, permit utiliza- 
tion as a full scantling type vessel, thereby obtaining 
minimum freeboard and maximum draft under load 
line requirements, and a consequent increase of cargo 
deadweight of about 1900 tons. 

Provision of the sixth hold permits equalization of 
cargo cubic per unit of cargo handling gear, it was ex- 
plained. With the additional length of the vessel it has 
been possible to maintain an adequate length of holds. 
The twin hatches of the midship holds will reduce cargo 
handling time by permitting more direct placement of 
loads in proper stowage space. This is accomplished 
partly by an increase of 50 per cent of area of holds and 
'tween decks directly open for loading, and by great 
reduction of distance over which cargo must be dragged 
for stowage at the sides. 

Operating experience with C3's especially during the 
war, greatly influenced modification of cargo gear de- 
sign for greater efficiency in breaking out booms, setting 
them in position, buttoning and returning the gear to 
stowed position on completion of cargo handling. The 
principal feature of the newly designed gear is the use 
of a double topping lift arrangement and topping lift 
winches. This arrangement requires only a single vang 
for each boom, which decreases the time required for 



Page 44 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



set-up and the labor incident to rigging for cargo hand- 
ling. 

In general appearance the C3-S-DB3 will be the same 
as the present C3. She will also carry 12 passengers, as 
does the present design. 

Comparative specifications of the modified and pres- 
ent design follow : 



Length between 


C3-S-DB3 


C3 


perpendiculars 


489' 0" 


465' 0" 


Beam 


70' 0" 


69' 6" 


Draft, designed 






(shelter deck) 


29' 6" 


28' 6" 


Draft, maximum 






(full scantling) 


32' 0" 


. . * 


Depth, molded 


45' 0" 


42' 6" 


Normal horsepower 


12,500 


8,500 


Bale capacity 


730,000 cu. ft. 


725,000 cu. f 


Estimated cargo dead- 






weight, Full bunkers 






( shelter deck ) 


10,000 tons 


10,000 tons 


Estimated cargo dead- 






weight, Full bunkers 






(full scantling) 


11,900 tons 


. .* 


Shelter deck type: 






Gross tonnage 


8,000 est. 


7,800 


Net tonnage 


4,800 est. 


4,600 


Full scantling type: 






Gross tonnage 


10,000 est. 


. .* 


Net tonnage 


6,500 est. 


. .» 




Cargo gear on present C-3 fype. Simplified gear on 
proposed vessel is shown on other cuts herewith. 



*Full scantling figures do not apply to the C3. 



This model illustrates the 
improved cargo handling 
gear with which the U. S. 



Ma 



'ill be 



of 



C3-S-OB3 V 
equipped. Operating e 
perience with C3"s, esp 
cially during the war, I 
fluenced modificati 
cargo gear design in thi; 
new C-type. with the ain- 
of greater efficiency ir 
breaking out booms, set 
ting them in position, bur 
toning and returning the 
gear to stowage position. 

U. S. Maritime 




FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 45 



Occident Prevention in 
Pacific Coast IDarine Operations 



By JOSEPH H. TRAVER5 



ORGANIZED ACCIDENT PREVENTION WORK 
in the Pacific:' Coast Marine Industry has come of age. 
This month, the Accident Prevention Bureau of the 
Waterfront Employers Association of the Pacific Coast 
starts on its 21st year of activity. The accident preven- 
tion program of this industry is outstanding in the 





On-shore Stevedoring Trophy presented by Pacific Marine Re 
to winner Portland Stevedoring Company. 



United States. Not only because it embraces the entire 
industry, but also because of the scope of the program. 
So far as is known, the Pacific Coast Waterfront Em- 
ployers are the only group whose A-ssociation program 
provides an inspection and consultation service of train- 
ed safety engineers who are available to the individual 
companies for help in solving their problems. Associa- 
tions in other industries have confined their efforts to 
furnishing their members with such help as safety post- 
ers and statistical material. 

Admittedly, mounting insurance costs through the 
middle and late twenties provided the incentive which 
prompted the leaders of the Pacific Coast Marine Indus- 
try to make some effort to curb the number of accidents 
which were occurring in the longshore industry. They 
realized that, to be effective, their efforts must be or- 
ganized on an industry-wide basis and in February 1927 
under the sponsorship of the Pacific American Steam- 
ship Association, the Shipowners Association of the 
Pacific Coast and the Waterfront Employers Union, the 
Accident Prevention Bureau was established in San 
Francisco as the agency which would head up the work. 

In 1929 Columbia River and Los Angeles joined in 
the movement. In 1936, Seattle, which first started ac- 
cident prevention work in 1924, joined in, thus making 
the movement coastwide in scope. 

The program which the Accident Prevention Bureau 
offers to employers is designed to aid in the continued 
reduction of accidents by improving the working places, 



We are very glad to present this article outlining the history and present position of the work 
of organized Accident Prevention carried on for the past 2 1 years by the Marine Industry of the 
Pacific Coast. 

Pacific Marine Review has been prominently identified with this work since its inception and 
has through the efforts of its editorial staff and its publication of preliminary safety codes, con- 
tributed largely to the success of the effort. 

The safety codes issued under the aegis of the Accident Prevention Bureau were pioneer 
codes for the American Marine Industry. They were worked out by industry-wide committees rep- 
resenting all phases of the industry and all classes concerned. These codes became practical work- 
ing models for codes evolved on the Atlantic Coast and in foreign countries, and they form an 
everlasting monument to the farsighted safety statesmanship of the late Byron Pickard, who for 20 
years and up to the day preceding his death, was the active head of the Accident Prevention 
Bureau. 



correcting the unsafe methods used and eliminating the 
unsafe practices of the men. The success of the program 
depends on the hard work and cooperation of all con- 
cerned. Management must continue to accept its respon- 
sibilities for providing safe working places and safe 
methods of operations. Labor must do its share by edu- 
cating its men to work safely and to correct their unsafe 
habits. 

Services which the Bureau offers can be segregated 
into four phases: 

1. Statistical, including the investigation of accidents 
and analysis of accident reports. By means of statistical 
studies, a picture is obtained of the progress which is 
being made. Accidents are investigated strictly from an 
accident prevention viewpoint, — "What can be learned 
from this accident that will aid in preventing another 
one like it.'" The accidents are not investigated from 
an injury-claim standpoint nor are the results of the 
investigation turned over to the claims departments. 



The Bureau's concern is solely with the prevention of 
accidents and the results of their investigations are made 
available to the operating department in the form of 
recommendations. 

2. INSPECTIONS. The Bureau's supervisors are con- 
stantly inspecting stevedoring operations both afloat 
and ashore. Unsafe gear, accident-producing conditions 
of working places such as poor housekeeping, improperly 
covered hatches, ladders and gangplanks in poor con- 
dition, or improperly rigged, are sought out and if found, 
brought to the attention of the ship's officers or stevedor- 
ing company representatives, or both. The Accident 
Prevention Supervisor cannot correct the conditions he 
finds. He cannot require that they be corrected. All he 
can do, and all he should do, is report them to those in 
charge of operations, for safety is and must rernain a 
part of operations. 

Thus far, only physical conditions have been discussed. 
( Please turn to page 85 ) 



This picture shov 
tation of Off-sho 
ing made by A 

feldt. District K ,... _ 

ployers Mutual Liability Ins 
ancc Company of Wisconsin. 
On-shore Stevedoring Trophy, 



Trophy 
M. Scho 



Ma 



(Portland Steve 
pany) has iust 
and is being I 
Olsen. People sh 

are: Ralph Ke . 

boss; Carl Olsen, super 
ent (holding trophy)- 
Dinwiddie, Portland rcpr 
five of Employers Mutu 
bility Insurance Comp, 
Wisconsin; Dwight Morri 
agcr, Portland Sfevt 
Robert Bel 



company 

g Com. 

av/arded 

by Carl 

n picture 

walking 

intend- 

Rufus 

>senta- 



idoring 



Sch 



albinc 



and 



mfeldf 
sponsor of the Off-i 
Trophy. 




mineral Fiber Insulations and 
Textiles for lllarine Service = 



By GAYLE B. DUTTDN of Western Fiherglas Supply, Ltd. 



MINERAL FIBER INSULATIONS AND TEXTILES, 
consisting of rock wool and glass wool insulating 
blankets or shapes, and asbestos fiber or glass fiber tex- 
tiles or combination asbestos glass textiles, have within 
the past ten years increased their importance many fold 
to the naval architect. 

Prior to preparations in the late thirties to augment 
this country's battle fleet and to sharply increase our mer- 
chant tonnage, textiles of asbestos fiber were the only 



( Paper presented to the Northern California Section of 
The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers) 




group of the subject products which possessed any real 
history in marine usage. These products, consisting of 
cloths with asbestos contents ranging from 80 per cent 
to 95 per cent, and with weights per square yard ranging 
from 20 oz. to 40 oz., were used primarily as fireproof 
lagging over insulation in boiler and fire room spaces. 

With the increased naval building activity, the demand 
for items of the subject group of products became very 
great. There were five principal reasons for their speci- 
fication: ( 1 ) increased production of these materials was 
available or was made available, ( 2 ) the lightness in 
weight of these materials was desirable, ( 3 ) the lifetime 
thermal efficiency of the products was excellent, (4) the 
fire rating of the products was "Incombustible," (5) con- 
struction and repair man-hours were saved with these 
materials. 

To evaluate the worth of the present end uses of these 
materials, it is best to examine the individual require- 
ments which arose for their use. 

Quarters Insulation 

One of the fiist major end uses of these products which 
displaced previously specified materials was as insulation 
for refrigerated spaces and about quarters and machin- 
ery spaces. In 1938 naval architects for private steamship 
companies were specifying the use of mineral or glass 
wool bats as reefer insulation primarily for reasons 2 
through 5 above. Likewise the United States Navy had 
specified the use of glass wool as quarters insulation on 
horizontal surfaces and as refrigerated space insulation on 
some types of fighting ships. 

Products of the type mentioned last above which were 
available for Maritime Commission use included fibrous 
glass bats without binder and fibrous glass and mineral 
wool bats with resinous or asphaltic type binders. There 
products were already available commercially and were 
adapted easily to marine requirements. The use of these 
bats as quarters, galley, or machinery space insulation 



Applying asphalt as a vapor barrier on the bulkhead separat- 
ing the hold and the combined galley and forecastle. The 
Fiberglas insulation, already in place, Is concealed by the 
vapor barrier which Is nailed to the studs, leaving about 2 
inches of «ir space between the insulation and the vapor 
barrier. Two-inch planking will be nailed to the studs, over 
the vapor barrier. 



Page 48 



PAC IFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Above \i the ratchet nail method ot assembly, using Fiberglas 
Insulation, Type TW-MC. 

To the right is shown the stud weld method, the fastest and 
most widely accepted method of attaching Fiberglas Insula- 
tion, Type TW-MC. 

Typical "hair-pin" clip made of strap iron used to attach 
Fiberglas Insulation, Type TW-MC. to plating. 

where a metal sheathing is used as finish has varied little 
since their introduction. 

Products for this same type for U. S. Navy use have 
been modified. The use of some products for refrigerated 
spaces at such installed densities as 1 V2 lbs. per cubic foot 
has been changed to densities of 3 lbs. per cubic foot for 
better efficienc)' for the temperature differential obtain- 
ing. 

For Navy requirements for hull insulation, a number 
of factors brought about a radical change in the t)'pe of 
insulation to be used. Shortages of aluminum, plus short- 
ages in manpower for installing metal sheathing de- 
manded consideration of a more rigid material with an 
integral non-metallic, fireproof finish. To meet these 
requirements, which were multiplied many fold from a 
quantity angle after disastrous post - engagement fires 
caused corkboard to be elminated from combat craft, a 
rigid board of bonded fibrous glass with a fine weave 
glass cloth facing one side was developed. This material 
was designed for application by cement to the ship's 
plates, and for finishing the exposed surface with glass 
tape over joints. Later, ship production schedules as well 
as service records brought about an application method 
using stud-welded pins and studs. 

Sound Absorption 

Other uses for mineral fiber blankets have included 
those in connection with sound absorption. The high 
sound absorbing or attenuating qualities of these prod- 
ucts (especially efficient for sounds of low frequency) 
have caused their adoption in such places as machinery 
space intercommunication booths, sound detection rooms, 
radar rooms, control center rooms, and as liners in the 
ventilating ducts aboard ship. 

Reasons, 2 through 5 listed above, again were respon- 
sible for the increased use of mineral fiber sheets and 

Cutting the Fiberglas insulation to fit the space between the 

studs of the bulkhead separating the hold and the combined 

galley and forecastle. 



blankets as thermal insulation on ventilating ducts. Large 
sheets, light in weight, and possessing high insulating 
efficiency so minimum thicknesses could be used, were 
well received. 

The increased use of high pressure steam, and the 
resulting large quantities of flanged fittings to insulate, 
demanded prefabricated removable flanged fitting covers. 
Through the use of a felted fibrous amosite asbestos mat, 
these covers were made with speed and possessed excel- 
lent service efficiency. This felted mat also was valuable 
as a filler for insulating blankets about mrbine casings, 
pumps, and other irregular objects. 

Mineral fiber textiles proved to be of tremendous aid 
to many phases of ship construction and operation. 

Naval Uses 

For those fighting ships where weight was of first im- 
portance, light weight textiles were first accepted. In 
some cases the substitution for lagging cloth of thin 
fibrous glass cloth over previously used heavier weight 
cloths, together with the amount of paint saved by reason 
of non-absorption by the glass fibers, resulted in an esti- 
mated saving of six tons in the weight of a cruiser type 




FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 49 



vessel. Since these hbrous glass cloths and tapes in 6 to 
10 mil thicknesses had breaking strengths in the range 
450 to 500 lbs. per inch widths, they could be woven into 
thin tapes in widths from 2" to 6" and used as a spiral 
lagging about the insulated pipes and fittings. In other 
cases, the light weight fibrous glass cloth was substituted 
for asbestos cloth for finish on the insulation about 
breechings, and over large pieces of heated equipment. 
It was also substituted as a smoke-pipe cover in some 
cases. 

A completely fireproof gray -colored glass cloth portiere 
was adapted instead of doors for fighting ships. This 
material saved weight and was not subject to "jamming." 
It was also used as porthole curtain material ,and was 
adapted in some cases for covers over officers' bunks and 
other flammable furniture. 

Electrical Uses 

The uses of asbestos and fibrous glass textiles in elec- 
trical apparatus aboard ship were many. Fibrous glass 
cloth coated with vinyl resin compounds was found to 
be extremely resistant to moisture penetration when used 
as a membrane in electrical cable splices. In general, the 
use of fibrous glass textiles as electrical insulation allowed 
the use of smaller size, lighter equipment to do the work 
of larger, heavier units, and at the same time failures by 
reason of moisture or operating temperature conditions 
were practically eliminated. 

Fibrous glass cloth used as a reinforcing medium in a 
laminated plastic sheet proved of very great service as 
an electrical panelboard material on shipboard. The com- 



bination of Fiberglas cloth and melamine resin was found 
to result in a board possessing tensile, compressive, and 
impact strengths over three times as great as linen-base 
phenolic materials previously used, and also possessing 
considerably better arc resistance. 

Since all of the materials included in this discussion 
are inorganic in nature and possess diameters running 
from .00005" to .00090", they are of such shapes and 
weights that once lodged they may remain in position 
against the skin and cause a sensation similar to that 
caused by hair down one's neck after a visit to the barber. 
Although a number of plants producing these fibers have 
exceptional health records and medical research records 
show there is no health danger to workers using the 
fibrous glass textiles or mineral fiber insulation, the psy- 
chological attitude toward the material by many workers 
has necessitated the maintenance of above average fresh 
air and temperature conditions in spaces aboard ship 
where these materials are being installed. Also many 
demands have been made for premium pay for installing 
these materials. In this latter respect, records kept where 
large numbers of workers are handling these materials 
indicate claims much below the average of other crafts. 

Application Techniques 

At the present time, mineral fiber insulations are in- 
stalled as quarters insulation in bat form by impaling 
the sheets over welded studs, or studs attached to the 
plates by means of cement-bonding to a mesh or screen 
base attached to the studs. This method can be used by 
' Please ti/ni lo page 9Sl 




Fitting the Fiberglas in- 
sulation between the 
studs of the bulkhead 
separating the hold and 
the combined galley and 
forecastle. 



Page 50 



PACI FIC MARINE REVIEW 




Frank W. Smith, president of 
of Port Engineers of San Fr< 




eph F. Gisler. a founder and first 
sident, Society of Port Engineers of 
San Francisco. 



With the Port Engineers 



The editor of the Pacific Marine Review has 
been notified of the desire of the Society of Port 
Engineers of San Francisco that the broad cover- 
age of the Marine Industry of the West provided 
by this publication be made available to the So- 
ciety, and that its meetings and other activities 
be reported herein. This we have arranged to do. 



THE SOCIETY OF PORT ENGINEERS of San 
Francisco, which has been holding a series of advance 
meetings during the past year, was officially organized last 
month and has filed its articles of incorporation with 
the Secretary of State at Sacramento. 

Most important among the objectives of the Society 
are the investigation and discussion of problems of the 
industry, and aid in their solution; and the development 
of cooperation and friendship among the members. 

It is expected that the society will eventually estab- 
lish and maintain its own club rooms and library. 

The first regular election of officers was held at the 
January meeting with Frank W. Smith, American Mail 
Line, being chosen president; Louis Deppman, Sudden 



& Christenson, vice president; and James A. Riemers, 
States Steamship Company, secretary treasurer. The 
powers of the corporation will be exercised and cen- 
trolled by a Board of Governors consisting of twelve 
members. Elected to be Chairman of the Board is 
Joseph F. Gisler, Interocean Steamship Company with 
the following constituting the full Board: 

Joseph F. Gisler, Interocean Steamship Company, 
Harold Wrigley, Weyerhaeuser Steamship Company, 
A. D. Higgins, American Mail Line, M. C. Wright, De- 
conhill Shipping Company, Fred Deckard, Marine 
Transport Lines, M. T. J. Garlinger, Army Transport 
Service, John Laine, Williams Dimond & Company, 
Robert Streiff, Coastwise Lines, Ray Sample, Matson 
Navigation Company, Chester McKay, Pacific Tanker, 
E. I. Graff, Grace Lines, Robert E. Murphy, J. H. Win- 
chester & Company. 

Committee Chaiimen for the ensuing year are Joe Gis- 
ler, Entertainment & Publicity; Harry Martin, Education; 
Chester McKay, Program; R. E. Murphy, Welfare. 

Among the new members of the society is George 
Barr of General Electric Company who made the prin- 
cipal address at the first regular program meeting Feb- 
ruary 4th at the Palace Hotel. His subject was "Care 
and Upkeep of Steam Turbines." Mr. Barr's address will 
be fully reported in the March Pacific Marine Review. 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 5 I 




Members of 
Board of Governors u 
of Port Engineers 
of San Francisco 



At left: M. C. Wright. Decon- 
hill Shipping Company; Joe 
Gisler. chairman. Interocean 
Steamship Corporation; M. T. 
J. Garlinger. United Stales 
Army Transport Service; and R. 
H. Sample. Matson Navigation 
Company. 

Below, left: Robert Streiff, 
Coastwise (Pacific Far East) 
and United States Line; Ed J. 
Graff. Grace Line; F. W. 
Smith. American Mail Line; 
J. Riemers. Pacific Atlantic 
Steamship Company; Hugh D. 
Higgins. American tvtail Line; 
Chester McKay. Pacific Tankers 
Line; and Robert Murphy, J. H. 
Winchester & Company. 



R Valuable Report On California Ports 

Need for additional coastal harbors and inland water- 
way marinas for light draft vessels in the State, particu- 
larly for fishing and recreational craft, is among the 
findings presented in a report on California ports and 
harbors just issued by the State Reconstruction and Re- 
employment Commission. 

It was pointed out by A. Earl Washburn, State Di- 
rector of Reconstruction and Re-employment, that addi- 
tional harbors for fishing craft are of vital importance 
to California because a recent survey shows that the 
Pacific Coast States are producing half of the tonnage 
and almost half of the total value of fish taken in ocean 
and inland waters in the United States. 

The report recommends that, because of many dupli- 
cations, inconsistencies and ambiguities in the State 
Harbor and Navigation Code, a revision commission 
be designated to clarify and simplify this code. 

Other highlights of the report are: 

1. The Public Resources Code seems inadequate be- 
cause no State agency, for example, is given power to 



prevent one city or county possessing tideland, from 
building structures which might cause damage to ad- 
joining communities. 

2. It is recommended that the State, through a desig- 
nated agency, actively participate with the U. S. Army 
Engineers in studies and surveys of the entire coast of 
the State. 

3. It is recommended that the State investigate the 
desirability of unification of port terminals in Califor- 
nia's major harbors similar to the New York Port Author- 
ity. It is pointed out that among the advantages of such 
unification would be: 

A. Elimination of needless movement of ships from 
one terminal to another. 

B. Greater efficiency in handling freight and passen- 
ger traffic. 

C. Less duplication of effort and expense in terminal 
operations. 

D. Pooling of facilities would save new construction 
unless and until needed. 

E. Aid in long-run planning of terminals and high- 
way approaches. 



Page 52 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 





uiemo 

TRflDf 



Bsc. V. S. Pat. Off 



By T. Douglas MacMullen 



The IDorld Trade Center Ht San Francisco 



THE GREAT WORLD TRADE CENTER project to 
cover from 9 to 20 square blocks in the shipping dis- 
trict of San Francisco, and which has been featured in a 
number of issues of the Pacific Marine Review during 
the last several years, is definitely under way. As a con- 
struction project it compares with Radio City in New 



York, and as a means of concentrating the World Trade 
of the Pacific if not of the entire country in San Francis- 
co, the program will be watched with great interest by 
shipping people and traders the world around. 

After several years of spade work, sparked by Olaf 
Hansen of Frazar & Hansen, and an earnest group of busi- 




Air view of shipping district of San Fran 

FEBRUARY • 1947 



ness leaders, the California Legislature last year requested 
the State Board of Harbor Commissioners to investigate 
and report at the 1947 session. The Board appointed Dr. 
Tadeusz B. Spitzer to conduct the survey, and now in 
a 200 page volume replete with tables, charts and maps 
the Board reports to the Legislature the result of the in- 
vestigation. In its judgment such a World Trade Center 
at San Francisco is both desirable and feasible and in its 
letter of transmittal submits the following: 

1. Desirability 

The project is desirable for the reasons that: 

(a) It will provide, in a single, readily accessible loca- 
tion, close to San Francisco's harbor facilities, its business 
and financial districts, a center, in and around which will 
be concentrated more efficiently and effectively, the activ- 
ities of those persons, firms and agencies, both private 
and governmental, whose efforts and functions are con- 
cerned primarily with foreign trade. 

(b) Such a project will materially facilitate and stimu- 
late trade between the United States and other nations 
of the world, particularly those nations bordering the 
Pacific Ocean. 

( c ) Such a project will contribute, substantially, to- 
ward, and will speed, the development of the economy 
of California and of the entire western area of the United 
States. 

(d) This increased development and foreign trade 
will inevitably create greater opportunities for employ- 
ment. 

( e ) Employment will also be provided for a great 
many persons in producing and fabricating the materials 
to be used in the construction of the buildings compris- 
ing the center and for an additional large number of 
persons in the actual construction of the project. 

2. Feasibility 

( a ) The project is feasible for much the same reason 
that make it desirable. 

( b ) The many persons with whom the project has 
been discussed have expressed themselves emphatically 
that the project is both desirable and feasible. A partial 
list includes representatives of foreign governments, firms 
engaged in import and export business, steamship com- 
panies, manufacturers eng.iged or interested in engaging 
in foreign trade, and a large and diversified list of per- 
sons and firms engaged in business or professions serving 
persons and firms engaged in foreign trade. Virtually all 
of them have expressed a readiness to make such a center 
the headquarters of their foreign trade activities. 

(c) The project can and should be self -supporting. 

It is intended that the material gathered for this re- 
port will be analyzed and quoted from time to time in 
the Pacific Marine Review. One of the chapters (Chap- 
ter 9) and two of the tables are given herewith: 

FOREIGN TRADE ROUTES SERVED BY 
SAN FRANCISCO 
Some analytical thought should be given to routes 



served by the San Francisco Port in world trade. 

The following table is a tabulation of trade routes, 
radiating from and agglomerating in San Francisco in 
10-year periods from 1900 to 19.i9. 

FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE SAN FRANCISCO 

CUSTOMS DISTRICT FROM 1900 TO 1939 

By Trade Routes 

Total Exports Per 

in 40 years Centage 

Northern Europe $ 283,801,000 '6.457c 

Scandinavia 84,177,000 1.91 

United Kingdom and Ireland.. 829.530,000 18.87 

Mediterranean Basin 24,879,000 .57 

West Coast Africa 4,026,000 .09 

South Africa 15,543,000 .35 

East Coast Africa 3,736,000 .08 

Red Sea and Indian Ocean 97,862,000 2.22 

Far Eastern Asia 1,865,609,000 42.43 

Oceania 592,262,000 13.47 

Canada and Labrador 163,645,000 3.72 

Central America and Mexico.. 234,394,000 5.33 

West Coast of South America.. 89,472,000 2.03 

Caribbean Sea 68,192,000 1.55 

East Coast of South America.. 28,754,000 .65 
Noncontiguous shipments which 

could not be successfully 

eliminated— 1900 only 12,442,000 .28 

TOTAL 4,398,324,000 100.00% 

FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE SAN FRANCISCO 

CUSTOMS DISTRICT FROM 1900 TO 1939 

By Trade Routes 

Total Imports Per 

in 40 years Centage 

Northern Europe $ 196,343,000 4.62% 

Scandinavia 36.946,000 .87 

United Kingdom and Ireland.. 105,923,000 2.49 

Mediterranean Basin 94,451,000 2.22 

West Coast Africa 737,000 .02 

South Africa 334,000 .01 

East Coast Africa 2,265,000 .05 

Red Sea and Indian Ocean 400,111,000 9.43 

Far Eastern Asia 2,395,651,000 56.40 

Oceania 2.36,276,000 5.56 

Canada and Labrador 85,587,000 2.02 

Central America and Mexico.. 321,222,000 7.56 

West Coast of South America.. 83,495,000 1.97 

Caribbean Sea 148,240,000 3.49 

East Coast of South America.. 128,572,000 3.03 
Noncontiguous shipments which 

could not be successfully 

eliminated— 1900 only 11,169,000 .26 

TOTAL 4,247,322,000 100.00% 



Page 54 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Doctor Tadeusz B. Spitzer, who conducted this nionuniental 
investigation and prepared the report, is an economist of wide 
reputation who has specialized in industrial and public works 
programs in many parts of the world for 30 years. Born in Poland 
and educated in Poland and Austria, he has owned and operated 
many large plants in Europe, and since coming to the West Coast, 
has been working on shipbuilding, railroads, machinery and other 
industrial developments, as well as on public utility projects. The 
World Trade Center report is a model of completeness and pains- 
taking accuracy. 

Dr. Spitzer is director of research on World Trade Center, 
Board of State Harbor Commissioners, San Francisco. 




A. EXPORTS 

The highest or largest ranking customer of San Fran- 
cisco's foreign trade during the whole 40-year period 
was Far Eastern Asia, exports to countries of the Far 
East reaching an average of the total percentage of 
about 42.5 per cent. 

Second largest were the United Kingdom and Ireland, 
prominent buyers of our vegetable food products, which 
countries took about 19 per cent of our total export 
average over the same 40-year period. 

Third, comes Oceania with its 40-year total average 
reaching 13.5 per cent. 

Fourth in importance is Northern Europe, rising from 
1.82 per cent in the first decade of this century to 11.21 
per cent of San Francisco Bay region's total export in the 
last decade, or during the whole 40-year period the 
average percentage for Northern Europe being 6.45 per 
cent. This, in particular, is an important factor and needs 
to be strongly emphasized so as to prove that the claims, 
regarding the impossibility for West Coast products to be 
hauled to Europe, do not agree with the actual facts. An 
even higher ratio in the exports increase in the 40-year 
period, and therefore a still more persuasive argument, 
is to be observed in the rise of San Francisco's exports to 
Scandinavia from 0.03 per cent in the decade between 
1900-1910 to 2.60 per cent in the 1930-1939 decade. 

B. IMPORTS 

This harbor's imports from the Far East reach an 
average of well-nigh 56 per cent of its total import. Con- 
sequently, we partially finaflce the whole of the Far 
East's business with us, and probably with some other 
countries as well, which is the natural function of highly- 
industrialized countries in foreign trade and which from 
the general standpoint is a sound investment of long 
range. 

Strong on the import side of our trade is the region 
of the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, as in the 40-year aver- 



age our total imports from that area reached 9.43 per 
cent. 

Next in importance is the area of Central America and 
Mexico, our imports from these countries totaling an 
average of 7.56 per cent over the same four decades. 

From Oceania our imports totaled only 55 per cent, 
not nearly balancing our exports which totaled an aver- 
age of 135 per cent in the whole 40-year period. Mani- 
festly, Australia buys mainly oil products from us which 
purchases we cannot offset by any considerable amount 
of imports from her. 

Imports from Northern Europe total only about 70 
per cent of San Francisco's exports to that area, but 
imports from Scandinavia in the last decade come very 
close to exports (2.17 per cent import and 2.60 per cent 
export ) , a very encouraging factor. 

England and Ireland at the present time are not large 
vendors to the San Francisco Bay region, our imports 
from them totaling an average of only 2.5 per cent 
through this harbor during the 40-year period, thus 
placing these countries in eighth rank in our table. 

The foregoing analyses encourage the conclusion that 
the trade of San Francisco Bay's area with the countries 
of the Indian Ocean, Central America, Mexico, and in 
a certain degree Oceania, marks the trend for the future 
development of both export and import in a balanced 
increase of our prominent trade with the Far East. 






TRflD€ 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 55 




lining Ship, Dan- 
about to swing 
\e pier at San 



Danish Training Ship 




The recent arrival in San Francisco of the Danish State 
Training Ship Danmark, which left Copenhagen in Sep- 
tember on its annual training cruise with cadets from the 
Danish Merchant Marine was commemorated by a series 
of civic programs sponsored by the Chamber of Com- 
merce, Marine Exchange, United Seamens Service and 
others. Featured were trips to the Maritime Schools about 
the bay and visits to Stanford and the University of 
California. She arrived in San Francisco on January 6, 
to remain for a period of five days. The Commander is 
Captain Knud L. Hansen, who is assisted by 10 officers 
and 6 noncommissioned officers. On board there are 115 
cadets who are being trained in practical stemanship and 
navigation. According to Danish law a seaman's educa- 
tion shall partly take place on board sailing ships, and 
Danmark is built for this purpose. 

When Denmark, on April 9, 1940, was occupied by 



of the 5000 American cadets who received their 


training 


training ship Danmark when the vessel was unde 


r United 


States control during the war. 





Page 56 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



the Germans the Training Ship Danmark was lying in 
Jacksonville, Florida. The Captain immediately wired 
to the Danish Minister in Washington, Henrik Kauft- 
mann, that he joined the free Danish movement and did, 
therefore, not return to Denmark. At the time of the 
United States' entry into the war he and his crew placed 
themselves at the disposal of the American Government 
"in our joint fight for victory and liberty." The ship 
thereafter was used by the U. S. Coast Guard as a train- 
ing ship, and during the war not less than 5000 American 
cadets received their training on board. In these years 



the ship was stationed in New London, Connecticut, 
which city will be visited on Danmark "s return trip to 
Denmark. The contribution to the war effort from the 
ship and its Captain was highly appreciated by the 
American authorities. In September 1945 Danmark was 
handed over to the Danish Government. 

The three-masted Danmark was built in Nakskov 
Shipyard, Denmark, in 193.^, and has a length of 189 
feet. She measures 777 tons gross, and is provided with 
a 250 horsepower motor. 



8. F. lUorld Trade Delegation IDeets Danmark 



Top row. Ie«: Standing on the pier alongside the Danmark are: John Parker, vice president of Marine Eichange. and president of American 
Marine Paint Company; M. A. Cremer. manager. Marine Eichange; Henry B. King, president. Junior Chamber of Commerce; Alvln C. Elchholl. 
manager World Trade Department. San Francisco Chamber of Commerce; Fred B. Galbreath, president. San Francisco Foreign Trade Association 
and manager Marine Office of America. At right: Colonel S. M. Montesinos. USA. representing the Sixth Army Fred B. Galbreath. Commander 
E. J. McDonald. USMS. District Supervisor. U.S. Merchant Marine Cadet Corps. lOOO Geary Street San Francisco- Captain Malcom E. Crossman, 
superintendent. U. S. Maritime Service Training Station. Alameda; and Master of the Danmark. Captain Knud L. Hansen. 

The bottom row. left: Shipbuilders together! Left to right: T. C. Ingersoll. Bethlehem Steel Co.; Robert E. Christie. United Engineering i Dry 
Dock Co.; Harvard P. Stewart. Bethlehem Steel Company's San Francisco Yard- and Joseph A. Moore, Jr.. president Moore Dry Dock Company. 
At right: left to right: Alvln C. Elchholl. Henry B. King. Sooran Fi-dler. Danish Consul-General at San Francisco; L. B. Lundborg. general 
manager. San Francisco Chamber of Commerce; Captain Knud L. Hansen, and William Montgomery, manager Far East American Council, 
San Francisco. 







TRHDf 



Foreign Olarket is Vital 

American firms must allocate a definite share of their 
production to the foreign market even before domestic 
needs are filled or "someone else will have the business," 
says R. W. Giflord, chairman of the board of Borg- War- 
ner International Corp. and vice president of Borg-War- 
ner's Norge Division. 

Because "the pent-up demand in the world for our 
merchandise is beyond belief, Mr. Gifford predicted that 
America ultimately will reach an export volume of more 
than 14 billion doUars annually. The new desire abroad 
for a higher standard of living indicates that our great- 
est foreign trade will lie in manufactured products, he 
added, and urged advertisers to make careful analysis of 
the foreign markets for their products and to study the 
psychology of their consumers overseas. 

"The American advertiser," Mr. Gifford said, "must 
make foreign customers want his products and want 
them more than they would that of any foreign producer." 

The extent of our foreign trade may determine whether 
or not the country prospers, Mr. Giflord said, "because 
in our nation's business just as in private business, it is 
generally the last 10 or 15 per cent that determines the 
profit or loss. 

"Those who were doing business abroad before the war 
have just as definite an obligation to their foreign dis- 
tributors as they have to their domestic distributors. 
Those who wish to develop these foreign markets for 
the first time cannot afford to wait until the domestic 
market is supplied. 

"As other countries with lower wages improve their 
relative industrial efficiency, they will become more diffi- 
cult competition." 

Mr. Gifford found the foreign trade picture shadowed 
by international bickering. 

While "every country in the world is crying for mer- 
chandise and raw materials of every kind," Mr. Gifford 
said, "the world is engaged in the greatest political fight 
it ever has seen." 

England, he observed, is fighting desperately to uphold 
the world trade inHuence of the British Empire "while 
we argue with the Russians." He pointed out that Eng- 
land is withholdii'^ all luxuries from her own people 

Page 58 




R. W. Gifford 



in order to regain her trading position abroad through 
exports. J 

"England is doing a good job," Mr. Gifford said, "and 
she has no intention of making concessions that will be 
to our special benefit. She is now making trade agree- 
ments in all parts of the world while we talk about what 
we hope to do. Other countries also are striving for a 
place in the foreign trade sun." 

Mr. Gifford does not look for Russia itself to be a 
serious commercial threat outside her own trade sphere 
for many years, though this sphere is being widened to 
include much of Eastern Europe. 

Expressing the belief that "almost all wars are eco- 
nomic wars," Mr. Gifford added that: "Unless we can 
find ways and means of solving our international trade 
problems, and at the same time learn the relationship of 
trade problems to political problems, we will stand little 
chance of achieving our goal of a lasting world peace. 

"Unfortunately, some departments in the government 
seem determined to put every possible obstacle in the 
way of those who wish to do business abroad. 

"You will remember that early in the New Deal period, 
the President almost eliminated the one and only de- 
partment of our government then devoted to foreign 
trade because it had been built up by the former Presi- 
dent Hoover. I refer to the Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce Department of the U. S. Department of Com- 
merce. I have only the best to say for this department. 
They have tried to the best of their abilit)' but with very 
limited funds. Of Course, during the war everyone had 
a finger in the pie, and at present the work is divided be- 
tween the State and Commerce Departments. I am glad 
to say that considerable effort is being made to rebuild 
suitable staffs." 

The closest cooperation between sales, advertising and 
service, Mr. Gifford concluded, will enable American 
(Please turn to page 100) 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Pacific Hmerican S. S. Hssn. Elects 
Hnd Takes Stand for lUorld Trade 



Officers for the Pacific American Steamship Associa- 
tion, oldest trade association comprising the majority of 
American lines on the Pacific Coast, were elected at the 
annual meeting in San Francisco, January 30. 

President is E. Russell Lutz, executive vice president 
of the American President Lines. 

Executive Director is A. W. Gatov. 

Vice Presidents include A. R. Lintner, president, 
American Mail Lines; H. Lueddemann, vice president, 
Pope & Talbot, Inc.; R. J. Chandler, vice president. Mat- 
son Navigation Company; Donald Watson, manager, 
Weyerhaeuser Steamship Company; K. C. Tripp, Pacific 
Coast manager, Moore-McCormack Lines. 

Secretary-Treasurer is Henriette T. Smith. 

The Association went on record against any broad pro- 
gram of tariff increases such as "shut us out of world 
markets ' following the enactment of the Smoot-Hawley 
Bill in 1930. Albert W. Gatov, re-elected Executive Di- 
rector of the group of American lines was authorized to 
work closely with interested civic and commercial groups 
now preparmg briefs for presentation at State Depart- 
ment hearings in San Francisco on March 10. 

The State Department hearings, being held simul- 
taneously in six major cities, are for the purpose of re- 
ceiving public opinion on the highly controversial tariff 
question and other trade matters. Following these hear- 
ings, American delegates to the International Trade Or- 
ganization (ITO) meeting at Geneva, Switzerland, in 
April will negotiate with 17 other countries for the gen- 



eral lowering of world import duties, and removal of the 
other trade barriers. 

But for Amarican delegates to have authority in Gen- 
eva, the 80th Congress must leave undisturbed the pres- 
ent Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act. This Federal Law, 
first enacted in 1934 and renewed in 1945, passes to the 
President the power to lower American import duties 
on foreign made products. While it is now on the books 
to June 1, 1948, several bills have been introduced in 
the 80th Congress to restrict or eliminate the Chief Exe- 
cutives tariff adjusting powers. 

In adopting a world trade promotion policy, the As- 
sociation recognized that a thorough study by the State 
Department will show the need for guarding against 
drastic tariff reductions which might be ruinous to 
American economy. "We support the general philosophy 
of freer world trade," Gatov said, "as an essential to our 
domestic prosperity in the years to come. If we raise 
our duties across the board, we'll get the same treatment 
from the rest of the world. This was our experience in 
the Smoot-Hawley days, when 71 countries shut us out 
of their markets. 

"Based on normal prewar figures, 10 per cent of 
American industrial and agricultural products are export- 
ed and such exports for many businesses mean the differ- 
ence between profit and loss. Exports alone will create 
two million jobs in the United States, and port cities 
have an even greater stake in world trade." 



LINKIi THE m] WITH THE PRESENT 



The newly acquired 
Swedish consulate-gen- 
eral in San Francisco. 
the former Matson 
mansion. A coincidence 
of note: Captain Will- 
iam Matson was the 
first Swedish consul in 
San Francisco. 




FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 59 



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II 



Marine Insurance 



London Letter 



Pilferage 



By Our British Marine 
Insurance Correspondent 



THE FACT THAT, in the United States of America, 
the theft and pilferage bureau has been revived, has 
been noted here with interest, as the theft and pilferage 
evil continues to be a real one. Pilferage froin the Liver- 
pool Docks, for example, has come under discussion at a 
meeting of the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce. J. H. 
Brooks, chairman of the Canned Goods Trade Section, 
read the following extracts from a letter written by R. 
J. Hodges, general manager and secretary of the Mersey 
Docks and Harbor Board: 

"The pilferage situation is still unsatisfactory and every 
effort is being made towards improvement. A series of 
meetings has taken place with representatives of the 
Liverpool Steam Ship Owners' Association, the Liverpool 
Master Porters' and Master Stevedores' Association, the 
police and the Food Ministry. 

"The general question of the necessity for an improve- 
ment being effected has been impressed on all parties. 
In addition, the matter has been brought to the attention 
of the Transport and General Workers' Union through 
the Dock Labour Joint Committee, and I am' sure that 
the unions are taking a very serious view of the matter 
and are prepared to do whatever they can to help. They 
are dealing with it through their various branch com- 
mittees so that the men themselves will be reached and 
the serious reactions on the port as a whole as the result 
of the continuance of dock thieving made clear to them. 

"Apart from this, the board have also taken the matter 
up with the Mersey Shiprepairers' Federation and the 
Liverpool Cart and Motor Owners' Association, as cover- 
ing two important sections of labour on the docks, asking 
thefti for their co-operation. The board also intends to 
discuss the position with the representatives of the appro- 
priate Trade Unions so that both sides of these bodies 
will be aware of the importance of the position being 
improved. The board have also detailed an official to 
investigate this question and he has been given the widest 
terms of reference. He has already made contact with 
the various parties connected with the handling of cargo, 
and his independent reports are being considered not 
only by the board but also by the Liverpool Master 
Porters' and Master Stevedores' Association, and the 
police, to whom copies are being sent. 

"It is not the Board's intention to relax the efforts 



being made, though the primary responsibility for pro- 
tection against loss and damage rests, of course, with the 
master porters, and they are being encouraged in their 
efforts to combat this position. The board themselves 
are doing everything possible to improve the conditions 
of the dock sheds, many of which are in a damaged 
state, but here there are unfortunately restrictive limita- 
tions which make rapid progress impossible. " 

The foregoing illustrates the active steps which are 
being taken in the Liverpool area to combat what is, in 
effect, a worldwide evil in this untidy postwar world. 

British Government Enters Fire Prevention 
Activity 

Considerable interest is being taken in the formation 
in Britain of a new Fire Research Organization by the 
Government, through the Department of Scientific and 
Industrial Research ( D.S.I.R. ) , jointly with the Fire 
Offices Committee. The board is fully representative of 
insurance companies and makers of fire-fighting appli- 
ances, etc., and a well-known Lloyd's Register of Ship- 
ping personality ( Dr. S. F. Dorey ) is also on the board. 
The board is regarded as a very strong one, containing 
as it does representatives from all the interests involved. 
Dr. Dorey 's inclusion is taken to mean that fire on ship- 
board will have the consideration it deserves. 

Any step to reduce losses by fire will naturally have the 
wholehearted support of the marine insurance market, 
as such losses in the past have been both numerous and 
disastrous. While the Fire Offices Committee are very 
well represented on the new Board — as indeed, they 
should be — there is surprise, in view of the importance of 
this subject to their industry, that there are no comparable 
representatives from the marine insurance compaines or 
from Lloyd's, ( i.e., Lloyd's of London, the group of under- 
writers). As, however, the Board is still in its first stages, 
it is more than likely that steps will be taken to take 
evidence from those who have the knowledge, so that 
the views of the marine insurance market may receive 
full attention. 

The Fire Research Organization is something entirely 
new in relations between Government and industry. It 
is a joint organization, in which an industry and the 
Government are partners. The cost is shared equally be- 
tween them. The organization will be responsible for 
the conduct of research on all aspects of the prevention 
and extinction of fires, on the safety of life in fires and 
the mitigation of damage, except that, on the fire resis- 
tance of buildings, the organization will collaborate with 
the Buildings Research organization of D.S.I.R., where 
much research on this subject has already been done. A 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 61 



fire research station will be jointly established. The capi- 
tal cost is likely to be of the order of £75,000 to £1 00,000, 
and the ultimate annual cost running up to £50,000, both 
shared equally between the D.S.I.R. and the Fire Offices 
Committee. As part of their contribution to the capital 
cost, the F.O.C. will transfer their fire testing station at 
Elstree to the Government. 

The board subjects on which research will be under- 
taken are: ( 1 ) Research on fire prevention, i. e., research 



on methods of preventing the occurrence of fires. (2) 
Research on fire fighting, i. e., research on methods of 
extinguishing fires and on equipment. (3) Research on 
fire protection of buildings, i. e., on the fire resistance of 
buildings, properties of building materials and elements 
of structure, safety of life in fires, e. g., means of escape, 
the prevention of the spread of fire within buildings and 
from building to building. (4) Research on other fire 
hazards, e. g., ships, aircraft, special industrial hazards. 



Admiralty Decisions 



By HAROLD S. DOBBS 

of San Francisco Bar 

Duty on Ship Repairs in Foreign Ports 

IT HAS BEEN SUGGESTED that many of the regular 
readers of the Pacific Marine Review are interested in 
some of the unusual statutes and decisions that exist 
under the customs law of the United States. From time 
to time I will brief the important decisions that hold 
particular appeal to the shipping industry. 

Many know, and probably an equal numfcer do not, 
that the Federal Statute, 19 U.S.C.A. 257, requires that 
the customs officers of the United States collect a duty 
on equipment or repair parts for vessels made in a for- 
eign country upon a vessel documented under the laws 
of the United States. The Statute provides as follows: 
"The equipments, or any part thereof, including 
boats, purchased for, or the repair parts or materials 
to be used, or the expenses of repairs made in a 
foreign country upon a vessel documented under the 
laws of the United States to engage in the foreign 
or coasting trade, or a vessel intended to be employed 
in such trade, shall, on the first arrival of such vessel 
in any port of the United States, be liable to entry 
and the payment of an ad volorem duty of 50 per 
centum on the cost thereof in such foreign country; 
aiid if the owner or master of such vessel shall will- 
fully and knowingly neglect or fail to report, make 
entry, and pay duties as herein required, such vessel, 
with her tackle, apparel, and furniture, shall be 
seized and forfeited. For the purposes of this sec- 
tion, compensation paid to members of the regular 
crew of such vessel in connection with the installa- 
tion of any such equipments or any part thereof, or 
the making of repairs, in a foreign country, shall not 
be included in the cost of such equipment or part 
thereof, or of such repairs." 

In United States vs. Admiral Oriental Line, 18 CC.P.A. 
137, the court held that equipment for a vessel is ordi- 
narily limited to portable things while the hull and fit- 
tings constitute things of permanent character and, there- 
fore, the permanent installation of a steel swimming tank, 
which necessarily becomes attached to the hull of an 



American registered vessel while in a foreign port, is not 
equipment nor repair and, therefore, the cost of installa- 
tion is not dutiable as such. The reason for the rule or 
the theory behind the statute is certainly obvious. 
Cheaper labor and cheaper materials provided by foreign 
countries in their ports of repair would give the Ameri- 
can shipowner a decided advantage if he were able to 
arrange and schedule repairs and the furnishing of new 
equipment at foreign ports instead of the vessel's home 
port or other American ports. The duty is equal to 50 
per cent of the cost of repair or equipment which again 
is theoretically equivalent to the difference between the 
actual cost of the repairs or equipment if completed at 
American ports or with American labor and material. 

Many cases have attempted to define the meaning of 
the word "repairs" as it is used in the aforesaid statute. 
In E. E. Kelly & Company vs. U. S., the court held that re- 
pairs in a foreign country within the statute include 
"maintenance painting". In Anieriean Mail Line vs. U. S., 
50 per cent ad valorem duty was held to be properly 
assessed under the act on the expenses of certain painting 
done in a foreign port, in part on the exterior and in part 
on the interior of the ship by a foreign contractor, the 
paint itself being purchased in the United States. 

While fuel and ship's stores may be retained on board 
vessels arriving in the United States from foreign ports 
without payment of duty, a part of a manifest cargo of 
oil pumped into the bunker tanks of the importing vessel 
after its arrival in the port of entry, not included in the 
ship's stores list, is not exempt from duty as fuel supplies. 
Sinclair Refining Co., etc., vs. U. S. 

19 U.S.C.A. 258 provides an exception to the rule ex- 
pressed under the duty statute where, if the owner or 
master of the vessel furnishes sufficient evidence that the 
vessel during the course of its voyage was compelled by 
stress of weather or other casualty to put into a foreign 
port and purchase equipment or make repairs to secure 
the safety or seaworthiness of the vessel that would in 
turn permit her to reach her port of destination, or if the 
equipment or parts thereof or repair parts or the materials 
were manufactured or produced in the United States and 
the labor necessary to install the equipment or make the 
repairs was performed by a resident of the United States 
or by members of the regular crew of the vessel, then the 
Secretary of the Treasury may remit or refund the duty. 



Page 62 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



ormm€Rcifii 

CRflfT 




Oew Speedy 
Huto-Passenger Liner 



Puget Sound Navigation Company, the largest inland 
water shipping firm operating on the Pacific Coast, is 
now demonstrating again the carefully progressive man- 
agement that has characterized their executives for many 
years. They have ordered and now have under construc- 
tion at the Seattle yard of the Todd Shipyards Corpora- 
tion, a motorship for the Seattle-Port Townsend-Port 
Angeles- Victoria overnight run that will be the most 



modern and most lavishly equipped vessel for automobile- 
passenger service yet built in Am.erica. 

Designed by the well-known firm of naval architects, 
Gibbs & Cox, Inc. of New York, she is described by Wil- 
liam Francis Gibbs, senior partner of the firm, as "The 
Queen Elizabeth of the Inland Seas." The table herewith 
gives her principal characteristics. 

Keel for this ship was laid December 17, 1946 at 




Artist's sketch of new auto-passenger liner for Puget Sound Navigation Company. SeaMle-Victorii 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 63 




el-laylnq for the ne» 
Shipyard Corpor, 



el aula passenger liner, at the Todd 
Plant A. Seattle, Washington. 



Todd's Plant A, Harbor Island, Seattle. She is scheduled 
for launching April 18 and for delivery June 1. 

The steel hull is designed for maximum safety and the 
arrangement of watertight bulkheads makes her a two 
compartment hull, "which means that three compart- 
ments must be flooded before a sinking condition could 
occur. " All combustible materials used in construction 
or outfitting are being completely fireproofed. Adequate 
fire extinguishing systems covering accommodations, 
machinery spaces, and automobile deck will be installed. 
The most up-to-date navigation devices, including radar, 
will be installed on bridge and in pilothouse. Ship-to- 
shore telephones will be a feature. 

Propulsion power is provided by four General Motors 
diesel engines each rated 1500 shp and each driving a 
525 volt electric generator. Each generator is electrically 
coupled through suitable controls to a 1200 shp electric 
motor. The motors work in pairs, each pair driving one 
of the propellar shafts through reduction gears. In ordi- 
nary weather this plant will drive the hull easily at 18 
knots. For au.viliary power and lights there are installed 
2 — 200 kw diesel engine drive generating sets. Twin 



rudders are fitted at the stern to give great maneuverabil- 
ity which is much needed on this run, especially in the 
harbor of Victoria. An unusual color scheme is being 
used in the engine room. Bulkheads and ceilings are to 
be aluminum and engines and other machinery are to 
be white. 

Accommodations for passengers will be spacious and 
luxurious. Large lounges, smoking room and writing 
room, together with a covered glass-enclosed promenade 
take up most of the space on the promenade deck. The 
public rooms are air conditioned and lighted with fluores- 
cent lamps. Dining room facilities are installed on the 
boat deck aft. The main room seats 100 or more at 
tables. This room is surrounded by large windows, giving 
an uninterrupted vista of the natural beauties of Puget 
Sound and the Straights of Juan De Fuca. A modern 
electric galley will serve these dining facilities. A coffee 
shop is installed for short orders. 

One hundred and four sleeping rooms are to be in- 
stalled in three classes, — cabin, de luxe, and super de 
luxe. Each room is furnished with twin beds so that the 
sleeping capacity is 208 total. Each room is fitted for air 



Characteristics 

Length O. A 312 -2" 

Length W. L BOO'-O" 

Beam Molded 53 -0" 

Beam Overall 62'-6" 

Depth to Main Deck 20-0" 

Draft Loaded 13'-0" 

Auto. Capacity 100 cars 

Passenger Capacity 900 persons 

Propulsion Two screws 

Propulsion Power Total 4800 shp 

Service Speed 18.5 knots 

conditioning and is equipped with Combolet lavatories, 
supplied with hot and cold running fresh water, and cold 
salt water. 

A clever arrangement of the automobile or main deck 
allows high central clearance for very heavily loaded 
trucks. The engine room trunk is made very narrow with 
a truck lane on each side. Above these truck lanes is a 
clerestory running up to the second deck above and giving 
a net clearance of 16 feet. On each side of this clerestory 
is a platform deck reducing the clearance to a net of 
seven feet. Under this clearance, port and starboard, there 
are two lanes for automobiles. On the platform deck on 
each side are cabin class bedrooms with a four foot pas- 
sageway running along the inboard margin giving access 
to the rooms. 

When placed in commission this ship will make daily 
trips — leaving Seattle evety night and arriving at Vic- 
toria, with stops at Port Townsend and Port Angeles en 
route, early the next morning. During the summer she 
will make a trip to Port Angeles and return in the early 

(Please turn to page lOOi 



Page 64 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




U(nt^ 0uHfUm& Gn&w^^uL 



by "The Chief" 

"The Chief's" department welcomes questions — Just write "The Chief," Pacific Marine Review. 



The marine Ooiler 

II— Modern Boiler Design 



IN OUR FIRST INSTALLMENT OF THIS SERIES 
on the marine boiler we traced rather sketchily the 
development of this steam generator down to the famous 
cylindrical fire-tube boiler, known as "Scotch." The upper 
pressure limit of this boiler in large sizes is for practical 
marine purposes approximately 300 psi and most en- 
gineers would prefer it to be 225 psi. The more modern 
type water tube boiler, perfectly adaptable to very much 
higher pressures, is now available for shore plants in 
specially designed types up to 3000 psi and has been 
installed in marine plants up to 1400 psi, and at tempera- 
tures up to 900° F. 

Since these higher pressures and temperatures offer 
great inducements in the way of saving in fuel the trend 
is upward. In America the pressure range of 450-600 
with a temperature of 750°-800°F. has become standard 
for medium powered steam plants of 2,500 to 10,000 
shp on one propeller shaft. Well designed boilers in con- 
junction with double reduction geared turbines running 
at these temperatures and pressures have produced a 
shaft horsepower on trials at a fuel consumption rate 
as low as 0.54 lbs. of oil per hour. 

The relative advantages and disadvantages of the 
"Scotch" fire tube boiler as compared with the water 
tube boiler have been discussed pro and con in technical 
literature to such an extend that many volumes can be 
found devoted to that topic. Briefly Scotch boilers are; 
easily accessible for maintenance and repairs and are un- 
derstood by marine mechanics at every port in the world; 
they are reasonably economical; they can be operated with 
sea water or impure fresh water; and they do not require 
any high degree of skill in their operation. Conversely 
Scotch boilers; are very heavy and bulky due to the large 
water content; are slow to meet rapid changes in steam 



demands; are slow to raise steam in starting; are ex- 
tremely dangerous in the event of explosion; and are 
subject to tremendous stresses caused by unequal expan- 
sion of parts. 

Water tube boilers; allow a much more flexible design 
and are 25 to 50 per cent lighter and 10 to 30 per cent 
less bulky for a given capacity; have much higher rates 
of evaporation; have ability to raise steam much more 
quickly in starting. In a well designed water tube boiler 
with oil fires steam has been raised to 200 psi in 10 
minutes. Usual practice is to take an hour. With large 
double end Scotch boilers usual practice is to start fires 
15 hours ahead of scheduled start of voyage. 

In modern, closed feed water cycle, water-tube boiler 
turbine combinations, the transformation of heat and 
pressure into dynamic energy is extremely rapid. Steam 
leaves the boiler at a pressure of say 600 psi gage and at 
a temperature hot enough to set fire to a stick of dry 
pine wood and 0.05 of a second later leaves the turbine 
and drops into the condenser at a temperature too cool 
for a comfortably warm bath and at a pressure of approx- 
imately 0.7 pounds absolute or 28.5 inches Hg vacuum. 
The modern steam turbine deserves great credit for its 
economy in turning the energy of the steam into motion. 
The double reduction gears also deserve great credit for 
the efficiency with which they transform the very high 
and economical rotative speed of the turbine into the 
comparatively very low efficient speed of the screw pro- 
peller. However, the design of the boiler and its auxiliary 
equipment must be such that the necessary steam at the 
right pressure and temperature may be delivered at the 
turbine nozzles at a fuel consumption rate within the 
guarantee for the ship or she will not make her economy 
record. Therefore it is up to the engineer on watch to 
see that his boilers and their auxiliaries are functioning 
properly. If he does this the turbine and the gears will 
usually take care of themselves barring emergencies. 

In the great majority of modern American steamers 
under 12,000 shp the engine and boiler rooms are com- 
bined. This obviously has the advantage of very short 
steam connections and an overall saving of valuable cargo 
space. However, to the mind of the writer its chief 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 65 



advantage is in the fact that the engineer on watch can 
more easily and without getting away from his station 
keep a watchful eye on boiler performance. 

Standard Marine Boiler 

Out of the great shipbuilding program of World War 
II there emerges a somewhat standardized water tube 
boiler design for the long range Maritime Commission 
vessels. This is the D type fitted with economizer, air 
heater, and superheater and built with water tube furnace 
walls. 

Illustrations show this design as manufactured for 
the U. S. Maritime Commission by three of the principal 
marine boiler manufacturers of the United States. For 
the Liberty type steamer the design shown in Fig. 4 was 
chosen and nine American manufacturers built these 
boilers for the Liberty ships that form the bulk of the 
lew American merchant fleet. This boiler design is 
ibsolutely standardized and is interchangeable regardless 
of ship or manufacturer. 

For the D design there are numerous small differences 
between the boilers coming from different factories and 
also between the boilers specified for different types of 
ships. In general the D is specified and installed two 
boilers to each set of turbines and of such capacity that 
each of the boilers is able to supply steam for the normal 
rating of the turbine for a considerable period of time, 
if not continuously. This capacity to handle large over- 
loads is a very valuable characteristic of this type of 
steam generator. 

The care and maintenance of this equipment is very 
important, and is reflected in the overall performance of 
the vessel by evidence that is readily recognized by the 



ator equipped with superheater, 




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Effect of scale and rate of driving. 

port engineer and the operating manager. Cleanliness is 
all important and there are certain fittings built into the 
boiler and certain instruments supplied by its manufac- 
turer that, if properly used, go a long way toward keeping 
the boiler clean inside and out. 

An engineer coming onto the staff of a ship should as 
promptly as possible get a copy of the instruction book 
issued by the manufacturer of the boilers installed on 
that ship. He should thoroughly inform himself about 
all the details of that boiler and follow carefully the in- 
structions given for starting or putting the boiler in serv- 
ice and for taking it out of service. He should inspect the 
tools and spares to see that everything needed is there 
and is in order for use. He should inspect the fittings 
and equipment of the boiler itself and of the apparatus 
for feed water and for flue gas analysis. 

Many operation engineers do not fully appreciate the 
importance of keeping the heat transfer surfaces of a 
boiler clean. As an example take the inner and outer 
surface of a tube in a water tube boiler. The inner suf- 
face is subject to deposits of scale from the feed water. 
The outer surface is subject to deposits of soot from the 
products of combustion in the furnace. 

Scale 

Boiler inspection reports to insurance companies show 
that more than Vi of all the boiler troubles are due to 
overheating of metal caused by scale deposits. It is a 
characteristic of most scale that it becomes more danger- 
ous as the boiler is forced to keep up steam. Since a thin 
layer of this material will cause a loss of 10 to 12 per 
cent in steaming capacity, its very presence on the tubes 
induces forcing of the boiler to maintain the steaming 
rate. This forcing dries out the scale next to the tube 
surface and makes it a better insulator and the tube be- 
comes overheated and breaks down. This effect is shown 
very graphically for various scales in the diagram ( Fig. 5) 
herewith, taken from a publication of the Cochrane Cor- 
poration. The coefficients of transmission of heat were 
( Please turn to page 97 ; 



Page 66 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 






KnOUILEDGE IS THE STRHICHT 

COURSE TO ROunncEmEnT 
by "The Skipper" 

Questions Welcomed. Just Address "The Skipper," Pacific 
Marine Review, 500 Sansome St., San Francisco, California 



Cockeyed Vessel 

The cartoon illustrating this page and reproduced 
from "Zenith" the magazine published by the Alumnae 
Association of the U. S. Merchant Marine Cadet Corps 
represents two deck officers evidencing their interest in 
ship development. 

Prompted by this drawing we are here presenting 
some of the strange fancies of inventors with regard to 
ship hulls and marine propulsion. Inland inventors who 
know nothing about the sea are bringing out these ideas 
constantly and it may be assumed without much danger 
of successful refutation that their ancestors were a nui- 
sance to old Noah while he was building the Ark. 

The story is told of Moran, the great New York tug 
boat operator that, after listening patiently to the long 
story of such an inventor who had a new revolutionary 
form of huU, he said, "Thanks my friend for showing 
me this very interesting model; now all you have to do 
is to go home and invent a new form of ocean on which 
this boat will run." 

One of the strangest of fancies regarding ships and 
ship propulsion is the jointed hull. Our illustration of 
this type of monstrosity is from a drawing in an Illus- 
trated London News issue of the 1850's. The article says 
that such a vessel was actually built in a Spanish ship- 
yard and had a successful trial trip wherein the inventor 
proved mathematically that she ran 4 knots faster than 
a stiff hull of the same dimensions would run with the 
same power. Of course, in order to do this or show any 
gain at all she would have to have waves made to order 
and arranged so that their crests were perpendicular to 
the line of her desired course, and of the correct dis- 
tance apart to suit the length of the sections of the hull. 
This same idea was revived and patented by- an American 



inventor (an engineer and bridge builder of some note) 
just after the first world war. He added to the joints 
an interrupted gear arrangement whereby the motion 
of the joints was changed into continuous rotation of a 
shaft driving an electric generator that produced electric 
power to drive a propulsion motor. However, the prin- 
cipal claim of this engineer's patent specifications, des- 
cribed the use of his invention as a floating power 
plant used to generate electric power for shore pur- 
poses. He was forming a nonprofit organization which 
would rent the right to use this invention off continen- 
tal coast lines and would use the proceeds to take care of 
widows and orphans of World War I. So far as we know, 
nothing was ever done with this one. 

Many curious schemes for improving marine trans- 
portation were presented to the U. S. Shipping Board 
during and after the first world war and caused much 
mental disturbance to that political body. The natural 




light-weight metals they're trying out!' 

Cartoon courtesy of 'Zenith' 
Alumni Association of the U. 
Merchant Marine Cadet Corp 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 67 



method by which an inventor in any State approaches 
the Federal Government is through a congressman from 
his district. The congressman, if the invention is nauti- 
cal, naturally refers him to the Shipping Board or, as 
it is now, the Maritime Commission. The Shipping 
Board writes him a nice letter letting him down as easy 
as they can. The would-be inventor complains to the 
Congressman who, knowing nothing about the merits 
and caring less, writes a hot letter to the Commission 
telling them to try this idea out or else. A copy of this 
letter sent to the inventor keeps the electorate at home 
keyed up to the belief that their individual problems 
are well taken care of by their representative in Wash- 
ington. 

Here is a copy of a letter sent to the Shipping Board 
and illustrative of many such: 

Personal and Private 

Esq., 

Chairman, U. S. Shipping Board, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: 

As you are now the executive head of the shipping 
business of the Country, I present to you a plan to bet- 
ter sea transportation. Up to this time I have kept my 
ideas secret, as I knew the heartless capitalists would rob 
me of them. But now. Sir, I feel safe in telling you a 
way by which the tremendous costs of fuel may be 
eliminated. 

If the U. S. Shipping Board takes advantage of this 
offer of mine, and after the War is over a grateful gov- 
ernment should present me with a part of the millions 
of dollars saved, I shall not have thought and planned 
in vain. 

Briefly, my system is this: — Everyone know the great 
heat generated by electricity. My invention arranges to 
pass a current of electricity through the furnaces and 
tubes of the present boilers of a steamer. This would 
make steam that would operate the propelling engines 
as well as a dynamo to generate more electric heat for 



the boilers. Thus the cycle would repeat itself and we 
would have a self-propelled vessel, with all fuel costs 
cut out. As a lack of capital has prevented me perfecting 
the plan, I present it to you as above stated. Will say 
that I have never operated either a steam engine or an 
electric machine, but have read about them both. Of 
course you will see the simplicity of the idea. 

Please advise me promptly as to the date I am to re- 
port to you to take charge of the building of the first 
unit. 

Yours very truly, 

Sam Scoville. 



After every major wreck at sea there are always a 
flood of patents on such equipment as lifeboats, life 
rafts, releasing gears, davits, etc., practically all from 
would-be mechanical experts who may never have seen 
a ship. Some of the patentable new ideas on deck gear 
and hull forms should be the object of study by qualified 
deck officers of ^e merchant marine. In the past most of 
the improvements in navigational mathematics and in ob- 
serving instruments have come through deck officers of 
the Navy or the merchant marine. Examples are Captain 
T. H. Sumner, Admiral Marcq St. Hilair, Nathaniel Bow- 
ditch, and P. V. H. Weems. Any mathematically or 
mechanically inclined deck officer can and should think 
up improvements in the equipment he is using or 
supervising every day. 

Fortunately we have the Bureau of Marine Inspection 
of the U. S. Coast Guard who must approve all equip- 
ment before it can legally be used on an American ves- 
sel and license all officers before they can serve under 
the U. S. flag. So the American Merchant Marine is pro- 
tected against the crop of would-be inventors and is 
kept conservative in its engineering safety, and naviga- 
tional fittings. The wonderful safety record at sea over 
the years is largely due to the conservative practice of 
this bureau, formerly the U. S. Steamboat Inspection 
Service. 




Page 68 



Iron Sfeamer Connector 
PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Jew Construction — Reconditioning — Repairs 



Radar Demonstrated on 
San Francisco Bay 

The first commercial demonstra- 
tion of radar navigation in the Bay 
Area was shown to newsmen Janu- 
ary 30, by officials and engineers of 
the General Electric Co. on the 
Southern Pacific's ferryboat Sacra- 
mento. 

The electronic navigator, a "pack- 
aged unit," designed specifically for 
maritime service, provides the mari- 
ner with an instrument to plot a 
safe course any time, day or night, 
even though his normal visibility is 
strongly limited by darkness, fog or 
rain. 

The navigator consists of two 
main parts: ( 1 ) the rotating an- 
tenna which is located on top of the 
ship's pilothouse; ( 2 ) the viewing 
console on which the radar picture 
is presented is in the wheelhouse. 

The rotating antenna sends out 
powerful radio micro-waves, capa- 
ble of penetrating any atmospheric 
condition such as thick fog, and 
traveling with the speed of light. 
These waves bounce off any solid 
object and scatter, some returning 
to the antenna during the time in- 
tervals between outgoing pulses. 
Amplified, these "echoes" appear as 
bright spots on the face of a cath- 
ode ray tube which is similar to a 
television screen tube. 

Fixed electronic marker - circles 
on the face of the screen indicate 
the distance of objects from the 
ship. These' markers are calibrated 
in three ranges: two miles for very 
close work in crowded areas; six 
miles for coastwise, and 30 miles for 
open sea. Since the measure of dis- 
tance to an object is given with ex- 
treme accuracy by the marker cir- 
cles, the system must be able to 
measure time down to 1/100 mil- 
lionth of a second. 

The radar unit demonstrated on 

FEBRUARY • 1947 



the Sacramento is the same as that 
for the luxury liners, SS President 
Cleveland and SS President Wilson. 
A direct-reading instrument, it is 
extremely simple to operate and 
untrained persons can master it 
readily. It is unaffected by static or 
interference from the ship's electri- 
cal equipment. A 115 volt alternat- 
ing current is used and power con- 
sumption is less than that for an or- 
dinary electric toaster. 

General Electrics factory in Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., is shipping electronic 
navigators on a 60 to 90 day deliv- 
ery basis with manufacture now on 
a full production schedule. 




Dominat 


ng th 


e picture is the Sa 


n Franci 


CO 


Oakland 


Bay 


bridge. 


The 


dot i 


n the ex 


ac 


center i 


s the 


"Sacra 


■nento 


•■ wh 


ch has 


us 


passed 


under 


the b 


idge 


and 


past Ye 


rb 


Buena 1 


land, 


midway 


betw 


een Sa 


n Franc 


sc 


and Oa 


land. 


Every 


white 


speck 


is obsta 


cl 


of some 


kind. 


The la 


ger o 


nes ar 


e ships, 


th 


sma 


Iler o 


les buo 


ys or 


small 


boats. 





The Radar rotating 
(■■whirling eye^^) 
antenna on top of 
the Southern Pacific 
ferryboat Sacra- 
mento. The rotat- 

ogous to a rotat- 
ing searchlight in 
that it sends out 
radio beams to lo- 
cate obstacles in 
the ship^s path. 



the ferryboat dur- 
ing demonstration 
run on San Fran- 
cisco Bay held 
Thursday morning, 
January 30, l?47,and 
Captain Charles F. 
Heath (right), as- 
sistant supt.. West- 
ern Division, in 
charge of Southern 
Pacific's ferryboat 
operations, look on 




Page 69 




An old familiar ferryboat. Sierra Nev 
pany's Alameda Repair Yard, now e 
two Coast Guard cutters, the Cahoor 
going tug, hull inspection, painting 



ida, in for repairs at Bethlehem-Alameda Repair Yard. At the right 
nploys close to 100 men. Left to right: A U. S. Army Transport S 

e and Pulaski, being decommissioned; - - "- - " ■' 

and voyage repairs; and the Sierra N 
masts of the North Bend, steam lur 



Bethlehem Steel Com. 

_ .,_ _ __ J 45-ton derrick barge; 

3000-ton floating dry dock, the ATR59, a sea- 

Behind the floating drydock can be seen the 



Ferry Boat Conversion 



Proof that not all of the old rail- 
road passenger ferries, which for 
many years plied between San Fran- 
cisco and Oakland, have outlived 
their usefulness on San Francisco 
Bay is seen at Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany's Alameda Repair Yard. Here 
the former Edward T. Jeffery, now 
the SS Sierra Nevada, is being con- 
verted to a combination vehicle and 
passenger ferry for the Richmond- 
San Rafael Auto Ferries, and will 
go into service in May, completely 
renovated wifh a capacity of 400 
passengers and 35 autos, plus a mod- 
ernized restaurant to seat approxi- 
mately 40 persons. 

The SS Sierra Nevada was built in 
Oakland in 1913 by the Moore & 
Scott Iron Works for the Western 
Pacific R. R. and christened Edward 
T. Jeffery. She has an overall length 
of 218 feet, an overhang guard-to- 
guard beam of 63' 8" and a gross 
tonnage of 1578. She is powered by 
a Moore & Scott double compound 
reciprocating engine and has double 
end screws for four water tube boil- 
ers. Her name was afterward 
changed to Feather River and later, 
when bought by the Southern Pacific 
Co., to Sierra Nevada. 

During World War II the ferry 
was taken over by the U. S. Maritime 
Commission from the Southern Pa- 
cific and operated by the U. S. Coast 
Guard between San Francisco and 
the Richmond Shipyards. Work now 



being done includes removing all 
passenger seats from the lower deck 
to make room for three lanes of 
autos; removing the sliding doors 
at both ends of the vessel for free 
openings; installing steel racking 
plates for added support of the deck 
above; and relocating two life boats 
and stanchions from the outboard 
end to saloon deck level. The exist- 
ing cigar stand and washroom will 
be removed from the main deck to 
permit free access by automobiles. 
Four frames two on each side of 
main deck, are to be altered to give 
overhead and lateral clearance for 
autos and trucks. 

She will be drydocked, cleaned, in- 
spected, and painted white from the 
main deck up to and including the 
pilothouse. Both tailshafts will be 
drawn for examination, and two new 
propellers will be installed. Both 
rudders will be checked for clear- 
ance of gudgeons and pintles. 

All main and auxiliary machinery 
is being inspected, boilers tested, and 
both fire alarm and fire extinguish- 
ing systems will be put in top oper- 
ating condition. 

Richmond-San Rafael Auto Ferry 
operates steamers every 22 minutes 
between Richmond and Point San 
Quentin. With the addition of the 
SS Sierra Nevada the ferry company 
will have four steel ferry steamers, 
which with the new ferry pier ex- 
tending 1000 feet out into the Bay 
at Richmond will materially shorten 
travel time. 



Giant Crane at 
Hunter's Point 

The world's largest overhead 
traveling crane, capable of lifting 
battleship gun turrets and other 
huge sections weighing as much as 
450 long tons is being erected by U. 
S. Steel's American Bridge Company 
in the San Francisco Naval Ship- 
yard at Hunter's Point, California. 
Completion of the giant lift will 
make Uncle Sam fastest on the draw 
among the nations in the replacing 
of battleship guns. 

Swifter repair service for fighting 
ships also will be made possible by 
the twin cranes that will operate 
singly or in tandem atop the bridge 
type runway 207 feet high. Airway 
obstruction lights will shine from 
the top of the structure, which will 
be accessible by an elevator in one 
of the four steel towers that are its 
supports. The structure is designed 
to resist earthquake shocks and high 
wind loads. It was fabricated at 
plants of the American Bridge Com- 
pany in Ambridge, Pennsylvania, 
and Gary, Indiana. 

The 730-foot runway spans a pier 
405 feet wide, extending 162 Ve feet 
over the water on each side. The 
cranes, which have a 142-foot span, 
thus will run out over the bay, where 
they can operate their main hooks 
through a vertical range of 185 feet, 



Page 70 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




World's largest overhead traveling crane being erected 
San Francisco Naval Shipyard at Hunter's Point. 



The Panama Liner Cristobal in dry dock at Todd Shipyards Coi 
ration's Brooklyn Division undergoing final stages of reconveri 



from 25 feet below to 160 feet above 
water level. 

Besides a main hook having a 
rated capacity of 225 long tons or 
250 short tons at a hoisting speed of 
10 feet a minute, each crane has an 
auxiliar)- hook with a rated capacity 
of 50 long tons lifted at 30 feet a 
minute. Loads in excess of 225 long 
tons will be lifted by coupling the 
two cranes together. They will then 
use an equalizer beam which gives 
them a combined rated hoisting ca- 
pacity of 450 long tons at 10 feet 
a minute. Automatic electric 
switches by lighting red or green 
lights will indicate whether or not 
the two separate cranes are lifting 
in unison. 

A total of 8,400 tons of steel went 



into the runway structure and cranes, 
according to E. E. McKeen, project 
engineer of U. S. Steels American 
Bridge Company. 



Cristobal Re-enters 
Panama Run 

The 10-000-ton liner Cristobal of 
the Panama Line after reconversion 
at Todd Shipyards Corporation's 
Brooklyn division, has returned to 
service between New York and the 
Canal Zone. 

She will have accommodations 
for 202 passengers, all one class, and 
will be the second of the Panama 
Line's modern ships to re-enter serv- 



ice, her sister, the Panama having 
resumed last September. 

Every piece of machinery in the 
entire ship was taken down for 
overhaul and repair or replacement 
of parts. This included a total of 
290 electric motors 186 of which 
were placed in the shops, cleaned 
and balanced and given new bear- 
ings and fittings. Hundreds of "cus- 
tom-made" fittings — even locks — 
were turned out for the Cristobal 
by the machine shops in the yard. 

Sand-blasting to remove old paint 
and scale, was used on all external 
surfaces, from the top of the funnel 
to the keel. Special tubular steel por- 
table staging, was used throughout 
the operations. 

Some 2,200 troop bunks were re- 



A MODERN ARK 
>al barge, »<ith a coal-carrying capacity of 2050 long tons, 
of four, the largest of their type ever built for harbor 
s. Constructed by Bethlehem Steel Company's Staten 
Yard for the M. & J. Tracy Company. The all-steel craft 
is 144' long, 3B' beam and I7'6" in depth. 



THE 50th S. F. BUILT DESTROYER 

USS William C. Lawe, 2200 ton vessel built at Bethlehem Steel'! 

San Francisco Yard and recently commissioned. 




FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 71 



moved and the cabins and public 
rooms stripped of their wartime fit- 
tings, the "degaussing" system taken 
out, and 1,100 tons of cobblestone 
ballast removed. 

New protex glass was installed in 
doors and windows of the public 
rooms; blackout partitioning and 
sheating was dismantled; a new 
club room bar installed; and new 
magnesite and tile decking laid in 
many sections of the ship. 

The swimming pool on the boat 
deck, which had been used as an 
adjunct to the troop quarters, is be- 
ing restored with new tiling, cement, 
piping, lighting and mesh safety net. 

Ventilating, refrigerating, fire- 
alarm and telegraph systems were 
repaired and overhauled. Lifeboats 
and davits were removed and over- 
hauled, and eight new king posts 
for cargo-handling, constructed in 
the yard, were put in the ship. The 
main engines were opened for in- 
spection and boilers, condensers, tur- 
bines and generators were taken 
down for repairs and renewals, and 



one of the ship's twenty-ton, forty- 
two foot tail shafts was replaced. 

Anti-corrosive and anti-fouling 
cold plastic paints were used on the 
hull, from keel to deep load-line. 



Hmerican Shipbuilding 

The table herewith reproduced 
from the current issue of The Bulle- 
tin," American Bureau of Shipping 
shows at a glance the contracts for 
new construction existing in Ameri- 
can Shipyards as of January 1, 1947. 
It will be noted in the recap at bot- 
tom of table that the self propelled 
craft included a total of 179 with a 
gross tonnage of 428,150. 

A careful study of the contracts 
included in this table shows that 
58 vessels with total gross tonnage 
of 60,180 (all self propelled) are 
building in Pacific Coast yards. This 
means that approximately 33 per 
cent by number and 1 5 per cent by 
gross tonnage of the self propelled 



vessels building in American yards 
are in Pacific Coast yards. Among 
these are the two largest vessels 
building in America. 

Practically all of the shipbuilding 
represented here will be completed 
before the end of the year. 

Of the totals shown, 33 vessels 
with an individual gross measure- 
ment of over 1000 tons and i com- 
bined gross measurement of 246,- 
819 tons are building for private 
American interests. These figures in- 
clude all vessels receiving a govern- 
ment construction-differential subsi- 
dy. The 33 ships have a combined 
total horsepower of 290,750, of 
which 247,400 shp is generated 
through steam turbines in 29 ves- 
sels; 41,000 shp is generated through 
steam turbo-electric in 2 vessels; and 
2,350 shp is generated by diesel in 
2 vessels. 

The six cargo vessels with 40,080 
total horsepower listed in the table 
as diesel powered are building in an 
American yard for the French gov- 
ernment. 



RECAPrrUlATION OF SHIPBUILDING CONTRACTS IN EXISTENCE JANUARY 1st, 1947 
AS TO TYPE AND PROPELLING POWER 





No. 


Gross Tons 
(Bst.) 


Reciprocating 


Turbine 


Turbo-Electric 


Intemal-Comb. 


Diesel Electric 


Type 


No. 


H.P. 


No. 


H.P. 


No. 


H.P. 


No. 


H.P. 


No. 


H.P. 


Cargo Ship 


36 


224,591 


- 


- 


30 


227,400 


— 


- 


6 


40,080 


- 




Cargo-Refrig. 


12 


63,900 


- 


- 


12 


89,100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Passenger — Cargo 


8 


83,184 


- 


- 


6 


53,350 


2 


41,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Tanker 


2 


24,450 


- 


- 


2 


18,900 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Coastal & Harbor Tanker 


4 


4,105 


- 


- 


— 


- 


- 


- 


4 


3,029 


- 


- 


Cargo-Coaster 


- 


— 


- 


- 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Trawler-Steel 


37 


5,886 


— 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


37 


13,063 


- 


- 


Trawler-Wood 


12 


1,345 


- 


- 


■ - 


- 


- 


- 


12 


2,990 


- 


- 


Tug-Steel 


7 


1,549 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


3,200 


3 


3,600 


Ferryboat 


2 


1,395 


- 


- 


— 


- 


— 


- 


1 


1,600 


1 


1,628 


Towboat 


12 


5,505 


1 


1,625 


- 


- 


— 


- 


11 


16,000 


- 


- 


Tank Barge 


38 


26,000 


- 





- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hopper Barge 


73 


37,335 


- 


- 


— 


- 


- 


- 


— 


- 


— 


- 


Derrick & Drill Barge 


13 


3,105 


- 


- 


— 


- 


- 


— 


12 


1,920 


- 


- 


Cargo Barge 


50 


18,175 


- 


- 


— 


— 


— 


- 


26 


12,660 


- 


- 


Dredge 


3 


6,640 


- 


- 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Yacht— Launch— Aux. 


9 


960 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


3,970 


1 


600 


Totals 


318 


508,125 


1 


1,625 


50 


388,750 


2 


41,000 


121 


98,512 


5 


5,828 



Self-Propelled Vessels — 179 — 428,150 gross tons — 535,715 horsepower. 
Non-Propelled Vessels — 139 — 79,975 gross tons. 



Page 72 



PAC IFIC MARINE REVIEW 



"^cMiiUi^ ^Ci^^t^ 



Edited by B. H. BOYMTDN 




Passenger Offices Reaching 
Oew Heights of Attractiveness 



LOOKING FORWARD to a greatly expanded volume 
of overseas passenger steamship travel, with Southern 
California the point where much of this business will 
originate, the American President Lines has opened its 
magnificient new passenger offices at 514 West Sixth 

FEBRUARY«I947 



Street, Los Angeles, in the heart of "Transportation 
Row." 

Designed by Walter Dorwin Teague, celebrated in- 
dustrial designer, whose staff has been at work on the 
premises for the past eight months, the ultra-modern, 

Page 73 




streamlined offices were officially opened to the public 
Friday morning, January 24. Many new and novel re- 
finements for the comfort and convenience of patrons 
and for the display of information concerning President 
Line ships and services are features of the new ground 
floor ticket offices. 

One feature of the office, is the "viewers" set into the 
counter, in which colored slides can be inserted, display- 



ing scenes on ship and shore in various parts along the 
Round-the- World route. 

Ronald M. DeLong, American President Lines' gen- 
eral passenger agent for the Southern California district, 
will be in charge of the new location. Edgar M. Wilson, 
the company's General Agent in Southern California, 
will maintain his headquarters on the third floor of the 
same building. 

In announcing the passenger office opening. President 
Henry F. Grady said: 

"We are trying to anticipate the expected heavy de- 
mand for de luxe passenger steamer service to the Orient 
and around-the-world as soon as the postwar emergency 
travel subsides and we have our new fleet of luxury 
passenger liners. 

"The first of these large transpacific vessels, the S. S. 
President Cleveland, now nearing completion at Bethle- 
hem-Alameda Shipyards, will probably be ready for serv- 
ice in June of this year. Her sistership, the President 
Wilson, is scheduled for delivery in early fall. 

"In addition we expect eventually to have a fine well- 
balanced fleet of smaller luxury liners in the Round-the- 
World service, two of which, the President Polk and 
President Monroe, are now in operation." 

Dr. Grady announced further that American President 
Lines would open a similar passenger office, also designed 
by Walter Dorwin Teague, in San Francisco at 152 Geary 
Street, just off Union Square, on or about February 15, 



WUB 



American President Lines' pas- 
senger department staff, left 
to right: Bingham F. Muller, 
Everett Nicholson, Ronald M. 
Oe Long (general passenger 
agent, in charge of the new 
office): Matilda Weinstein; 
Hugh Mackenzie (vice presi- 
dent, passenger traffic, who 
came from San Francisco head- 
quarters for the opening cere- 
monies); Robert G. Dlnwoodie 
(district passenger agent) ; 
George L. Crow; Tom Jones. 




Page 74 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




The pleased smile 
on Tom Short (left) 
retiring prexy of 
Mariners Club, is 
over the Chronom- 
eter given him by 
club members when 
he turned the gavel 
over to Fletcher 
Monson (right) gen- 
eral sales manager 
of General Engi- 
neering & Drydock 
Co., who was re- 
cently elected pres- 
ident. 




1947 OKicers of IDariners 
Club, San Francisco 



^^ :::-=■::; 





< Jb/n ■ ^Ol Tbomas 1. snori, 
hAjJ^^ , A^raflld»nt. 1945 t 1946 

' i rA jitarlnsro Club - - - - 



^? 



I CluO ooogratulst 

;h€ Clu 



; for 



ila of tb« good ship llarlnor". ^Jr 

Cbrouonatsr, a anall tokan of our eataem, V* 
lu of ttaa many tiappy boura apent with our , ^' 












,:^^^ii^r^^yrKtM4iJ ■ ■ <4^ 



^^5^^ 






Ly. f'^ ^7^L..^A)£;^ ■ JhjU- ^ggi:^^^ 



Above: Charles Rice; Rear Admiral J. A. Alger. USCG (retired); 
Stanley Allen; Fletcher Monson, new master of the SS Mariner; 
Tom bnort, retiring president; Felix Billig, and Capt. Al Berry. 



At left: Jack Clark, Lou Deppman, Ed Whittemore, John E. Ega 

At right: A. M. Chriistianer, Fred Archbold, George L. Crow 

George Barr, "Dad" Le Count, David Neilson. 



ft # 



Executives of C. C. Moore & Company 




Left to right: H. H. Smith, president of C. C 
vice president of C. C. M " '^^ *"""' 



. _ _ & Co., Engine 

i Co., Engineers and D. P. Vail, comi 
in Los Angeles. 



S. Curr 
Mce pr 



Hew President of 
United Engineering 

Election of Commodore Lisle F. 
Small, U.S.N, retired, as president 
of United Engineering Company is 
announced by Raymond P. Hasen- 
auer, who retires from that office to 
resume his duties as treasurer of the 
Matson Navigation Company. 

Comm.odore Small joined United 
last fall as executive vice president. 
He had previously been Comman- 
dant of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. 
Hasenauer, who has been on leave 
of absence from Matson, will con- 
tinue to take direct interest in 
United as a member of the com- 
pany's Board of Directors. 



IDorris Guralnick 
Establishes in S. F. 

Morris Guralnick announces the 
opening of his office to practice 
marine surveyiiiR, naval architecture, 
and marine engineering. He is 
located in the Transport Building at 
the foot of Mission Street. 

Mr. Guralnick has been connected 
with the marine industry continu- 
ously since 1933 when he was gradu- 
ated from the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology with a degree 
in naval architecture and marine en- 
gineering. He went to sea for a year 
to round out his training and obtain 
an engineer's license. Recently he has 
been Chief Estimator of Ship Repair 



all, president, United Engineering Co. and Raymond P. Ha 
his duties as treasurer of Matson Navigation Company. 







for the Kaiser Richmond Shipyards, 
retaining the responsibility of the 
position during the change from 
"cost-plus" to firm price contracts. 

Following the decline of ship re- 
pair activities at Richmond, Mr. 
Guralnick demonstrated his versatil- 
ity by supervising the preparation of 
contract plans and specifications for 
converting a Victory ship to a self- 
unloading bulk carrier using the 
Leathern D. Smith system of unload- 
ing. 

In former years, Guralnick was 
connected with Gibbs and Cox of 
New York and the Cramp Ship- 
building Company of Philadelphia 
in both ship design and estimating. 
He brings a well rounded back- 
ground of training and experience 
to the assistance of ship operators 




and prospective owners on the West 
Coast. He is a member of the So- 
ciety of Naval Architects and Marine 
Engineers and the U. S. Naval In- 
stitute, and is a contributor to sev- 
eral trade publications. 



Shoreside Personalities 

THOMAS W. SMITH, marine 
surveyor of many years' standing in 
San Francisco is now established in 
his own office at 109 Clay Street. 



Page 76 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



fllcLean of HIameda Retires 

Fredric McLean, 69, Piedmont, 
assistant to the manager at Bethle- 
hem-Alameda Shipyard, Inc., in 
Alameda, retired on January 1 after 
28 years of service with the com- 
pany. 

Mr. McLean, who was born in 
Blackburn Luncastershire, England, 
came to the United States in 1907. 
He starred co work for Bethlehem as 
a draftsman in 1917 at what was 
then the Union Iron Works Plant, 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corpora- 
tion, Ltd., in San Francisco. Later 
that year he was placed in charge of 
an engineering drafting department 
at the Alameda Yard of Bethlehem 
Shipbuilding Corporation, Ltd. In 
1919 he was made assistant manager 
at this Yard, a position he held until 

1924 when he was made assistant 
superintendent at the Yard. From 

1925 to 1940 Mr McLean was gen- 
era! superintendent at Bethlehem's 
Alameda Repair Yard. 

Two years later, and up until 
1944, he was managei of both Beth- 
lehem-Alameda Shipyard, Inc., and 
Bethlehem Steel Company's Ala- 
meda Repair Yard. He was ap- 
pointed to the position held at his 
retirement in August of 1945. 

Mr. McLean is married and has a 
daughter and a son who is principal 
surveyor for the American Bureau 
of Shipping in Portland. He plans 
to spend the first year of his retire- 
ment seeing the United States in his 
automobile, with a trip to his native 
Erigh-nd contemplated in the not too 
distant future. 

Frederlcli McLean 




W. Miller Laughlon 
presides at the first 
meeting of th 
year at the ban 
Francisco Propeller 
Club. Left to right: 
Robert H. Wylie 
(Brigadier General. 
USA, retired) newly 
appointed manag 



the 



Board; E. Russell 
Luti {behind the 
bell): Mayor Roger 
Lapham; J. J. 



prexy; Wm. Laugh 
ton. new prexy: and 
Joseph Moore, Jr. 




rbo 



Hllis-Chalmers Field 
Organization Changes 

W. C. Johnson, vice president in 
charge of the general machinery 
division of Allis-Chalmers Manufac- 
turing Company of Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, announced an important 
change in the division's field organi- 
zation, a change aimed at furthering 
customer service. 

District offices will be grouped 
under the direction of regional 
managers who will each have a staff 
of specialists, and the regions will 
operate as self-contained field units. 

The first regional managers, who 
will act as a nucleus for building 
the first four regional organizations 
are: 

W. F. Taylor who will supervise 
the New England area, who for- 
merly was manager of the Allis- 
Chalmers district office in Boston, 
Massachusetts. D. S. Kerr will handle 
the Southeast. He was manager of 
the Atlanta, Ga., district office and 
at one time was connected with the 
district office at Knox\'ille, Tenn. 
The Southwest will be supervised 
by J. L. Pratt, who has been manager 
of the Dallas, Texas office, while A. 
J. Schmitz will continue to direct 
operations in "-he Pacific Coast area. 
Before assuming the regional post, 
Schmitz was in charge of the com- 
pany'; operations in Havana, Cuba, 
and he also has been in charge of 
the district offices in Portand, Ore- 
gon, and Seattle, Washington. 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



The flew Fuller-nason 
Industrial Division 

Establishment of the new Fuller- 
Nason Industrial Division of W. P. 
Fuller & Co., combining the spe- 
cialized industrial finishes depart- 
ments of two pioneer Western paint 
companies, has been announced by 
President A. H. Brawner. 

Effective February 1, the new 
division brings together the indus- 
trial finishes sections of W. P. Fuller 
& Co., oldest and largest Western 
paint firm, and R. N. Nason & Co., 
also a pioneer company and a leader 
in the development of many modern 
industrial finishing products and 
techniques. 

Outside the field of industrial 
finishes, the two companies will con- 
tinue their independent operations. 

Construction of a $1,000,000 
plant specially designed to provide 
the most modern production, control 
and research facilities for all of the 
many types of specialized industrial 
finishes has been started at Fuller's 
South San Francisco factory. 

President D. J. Tight of R. N. 
Nason & Co., enters the Fuller or- 
ganization as Industrial Advisor. His 
place in the Nason organization will 
be taken by W. W. Holt, for many 
years a co-worker with Mr. Tight in 
direction of that company's affairs. 

W. P. FULLER, SEATTLE 
BRANCH MANAGER is Byron 
W. Butler to succeed George W. 
Feldmann. 

Page 77 









William F. (Pop) Schuerbrock, (center) San Francisco, has retired 
after serving 40 years with the Army marine transportation service. 
35 of them at sea as a marine engineer. William C. Blake. Chief 
of Engineer Branch. Superintending Marine Engineer Office. SFPE. 
and Mr. P. H, Thearle. the Port's Superintending Marine Engineer. 



one of America's greatest shipbuild- 
ing geniuses who started life as a 
riverter in the Pusey & Jones yard in 
Wilmington, Del., Herbert Todd 
brings with him a tradition of jobs 
"well done" that span the past 31 
years. 



J. Herbert Todd 



J. Herbert Todd h\i 
lUith Staten Island Firm 

J. Herbert Todd, formerly vice 
president and director of Todd Ship- 
yards Corporation and one of the 
leading figures in the shipbuiding 
and ship repair industries of the 
country, has allied himself with the 
Brewer Dry Dock Co., Mariners 
Harbor, Staten Island, in the capacit)' 
of vice president. 

Son of the late William H. Todd, 



Hayes manufacturing Buys 
Hmerican Engineering 

It has just been officiaOy an- 
nounced that effective October 1, 
1946, the Hayes Manufacturing Cor- 
poration of Grand Rapids, Michi- 
gan, became owner of the American 
Engineering Company and its sub- 
sidiaries. The American Engineer- 
ing Company retains its corporate 
identity as it will not be merged 
with Hayes. 



AMERICA EXPORTS MEMORIAL BELL 




Pop Schuerbrock Retires 

William F. Schuerbrock, "Pop " to 
most of San Francisco s maritime in- 
dustry, began an uneasy retirement 
January 6 after 40 years of Army 
marine engineering at sea and 
ashore. 

"Pop " came to work for the Army 
transportation service in the spring 
of 1907 as third assistant engineer 
aboard the Logan. For the next 35 
years he served on such old-time 
troop carriers as the Thomas, Meigs 
and Grant. He was chief engineer 
of the Grant for 12 years prior to 
coming ashore in 1941 when the 
Navy took over that veteran trans- 
port. 

During the war he was placed in 
charge of fire prevention aboird all 
Army owned or allocated ships dur- 
ing their stay in S. F. Port of Em- 
barkation. So well did he do the 
job that there was not a single seri- 
ous fire aboard any Army vessel dur- 
ing the war, or in the equally busy 
demobilization period which fol- 
lowed. 

The men and women of the office 
of Superintending Marine Engineer 
P. H. TKearle of Port Water Divi- 
sion, on learning of Pop's retirement 
plans, are buying an easy chair in 
which to take that well-deserved 



To < 


ommem 


orate 


the 


4 C 


)eck and 


Engine 


Offic 


ers lost 


thro 


ugh e 


emy 


action 




pany 


vessels 


dur 


ng th 


> w 


r, the A 


Tierican 


Export Lines 


was 


preset! 


ted 


with a m 


emorial 


bell 


by the 


Brotherhoo 


d o 


Marine 


Officers 


durir 


g cere 


nonie 


s Jan 


uary 


li at c 


jmpany 


offic 


>s. 25 B 


roadway. N 




Cork City. 


Capt. 


Ceci 


D. Davies 


made 


the 


presenta 


ion to 


J. E 


Slater, 


exec 


utive v 


ice 


president. 


Ameri- 


can 


Export 


Lines 


Lett 


to 


right are 


J. F. 


Geh. 


n vice 


pres! 


dent; I 


. S. 


Andrews. 


operat- 


ing 


Tianager 


Mr. 


Slater 


Ca 


pt. Davies 


Henry 


K. Urion. Broths 


rhood 


attorney, and 


E. F. 




Far 


. Bro 


therho 


od s 


ecretary. 





Page 78 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Accident Prevention Conference 

SAFETY TROPHIES AWARDED 

PACIFIC COAST WATERFRONT CONCERNS 





H. Gade. supt.. San Francis 
Stevedoring Company; C. G 
low, supt.. San Francisco St( 
adoring Company; Capt. J, 
Gade. general manager a 
pres.; A. M. Ramsay, 
surveyor and safety engineer, 
Fireman's Fund Insurance Com- 
pany; J. Olsen. supt.. San 
Francisco Stevedoring Com- 
pany. 



At right: Gordon Woods, rep 
resentative of East Bay Term 
inals Assn.; A. Scharff, Fore 
man, Howard Terminals; Petei 
Howard, supt. of operations 
Howard Terminals; Captair 
Cyril Meeks, traffic manager 
Jones Stevedoring Company 
W. Mellor supt. Jones S- 
doring; W. E. Jones, Sr., p 
dent, Jones Stevedoring; F. C 
Wagener, general manager, C 
J. Hendry Company. 



Above, top: Lary Miller, chiel 
safety engineer of the Pacific 
Employers Insurance Company 
presents the Pacific Employers 
trophy to R. S. Gray, asst. gen 
supt. of the Matson Navigatior 
Company. Below: T. W. Buch 
holz, operating manager, Met 
ropolltan Stevedoring C 
pany, presents Bilge Club Safety 
Trophy to Charles Bayly, pr 
dent, Crescent Wharf & W, 
house Company. 



Left: Captain O. W. Peason. 
v.p.. Marine Terminals; C. J. 
Chodzko. operating supt.. Long 
Beach Terminals; T. R. Karlson. 
operation supt.. Seaboard Ste- 
vedoring Company; J. H. Trav- 
ers. mgr. of the Accident I, 
Prevention Bureau. Waterfront 
Employers Association of the 
Pacific Coast; and Walter 
Martinell, operating supt.. As- 
sociated-Banning Company. 



Right: Larry Powers, stevedor- 
ing supt., Matson Navigation 
Company; Capt. H. H. Gill- 
espie, operating supt., Matson 
Navigation Company; Larry 
Sulli' ■ - ' - 



Neal, forema 

gett, foreman 

asst. general 

Navigatl< 



He 



Ha 



and R. S. Gr 



Matson 
I Company. 





At bottom left: Larry Powers, stevedoring supt., 
Matson; T. W. Buchholz, operating mgr.. Metropolitan 
Stevedoring Company; J. H. Travers. Jack Waters, 
operating supt.. Pope i Talbot and chairman of the 
Southern California District Accident Prevention Com- 
mittee, and J."V Rer-v ^sst. oen. mgr.. Outer Harbor 
Dock S Wharf Company. 



At right: Frank P. Foisie, 
Assn. of the Pacific Coasi 
General Steamship Corp 
operating supt.. Matson 



pres. Waterfront Employers 
; William Bryant, dist. mgr.. 
.; Captain H. H. Gillespie, 
Navigation and William R. 
District Waterfront Employ- 
Assn. 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 79 



Pioneer Hardwood Firm 



In 1872 the San Francisco waterfront was a forest of 
masts. Sailing vessels were the backbone of ocean com- 
merce. This sight was typical of all the great ports of 
the world. Most of these vessels were built of wood and 
a great deal of hardwood was required for fenders, stems, 
sterns, stern posts, rudder stocks, rails and deck houses. 
Foreign ships, British, Norwegian, Danish and German, 
were seen, together with a number of the fine old New 
England built clipper ships, such as, Sovereign of the 
Seas, Glory of the Seas and many others of the famous 
old time craft. 

Practically everything was built of wood and to cater 
to this demand, in 1872 Peter and Asa L. White entered 
the hardwood business. 

In those days most of the hardwoods were brought 
around the Horn by sailing vessels from the eastern 
producing centers of Maine, Vermont and New Jersey. 
Every type of vessel coming into the Port of San Fran- 
cisco required for its carpenter stock alone, a very con- 
siderable amount of oak and ash, making up in the 
aggregate quite a business. There was also considerable 
shipbuilding around the Bay of San Francisco. Shipyards 
like Middlemass and Boole at Hunters Point, Charles 
White at North Beach and many others were active in 
building sailing vessels, and later on, steam schooners, 
which were used in the Oregon Pine and Redwood lum- 
ber carrying trade from the northern mills. All these 
vessels used hardwood in various parts of their struc- 
tures. 

It was the custom in the early days, when a sailing 
vessel or a steam schooner was built, to secure the money 





Present plant at 5th and Br. 



Streets. San Fr, 



Early day view of original White Bros, plant in San Franc 

Page 80 



by selling shares in the vessel. This was divided into 
128ths, 64ths, 32nds, and so on. Merchants supplying 
material for a vessel to be constructed were brought in 
to take shares, usually for the amount of their material 
which went into the finished vessel. The operating owner, 
of course, usually invested much more than the lumber 
dealers, ship chandlers and other merchant suppliers. The 
small steam schooners of the early days usually took about 
$6,000 worth of hardwoods. The founders of White 
Brothers were part of this method of building ships, and 
had considerable money invested in this manner. The 
returns, in the early days, were very good, — sometimes 
the entire amount invested being paid back in five or six 
years. 

As time went on, steel vessels replaced the wooden 
vessels and the demand for hardwoods changed in the 
uses to which the lumber was put. As fine yachts were 
built finer woods were required and White Brothers 
furnished the hardwoods for many of the finest and most 
famous yachts built on the Pacific Coast. They still spe- 
cialize in hardwoods such as oak, ash, ironbark, plywoods, 
— in fact, everything for the shipbuilding and boatbuild- 
ing industry. 

The founders, Asa L. White and Peter White, have 
been gone from the scene for many years and for the 
last forty years the business has been under the manage- 
ment of W. T. and C. H. White. Now the younger men, 
William T. Meyer, Keith McLellan, Don F. White and 
Charles B. White, have taken hold. All these gentlemen 
have had years of experience in the hardwood industry 
with White Brothers — all of them brought up in the 
business from boyhood. Thus the basis remains for the 
continuation of White Brothers as Hardwood Headquar- 
ters for another 75 years. 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




. . BENDIX-SCINTILLA 



FUEL INJECTION 
EQUIPMENT 



Means Dependable Performance for Diesel Engines 

Around the world, wherever American Diesels are in 
operation, Bendix-Scintilla* Fuel Injection equipment 
provides reliable performance under even the most 
difficult conditions. In frigid Greenland, in stationary 
engines in Russian oil fields, in the South Sea tropics, on 
African railways, and on ships of all types, Bendix- 
Scintilla spells extra performance and dependability. 
Specify Bendix-Scintilla — the name that is known for 
reliability the world over! 'ih.de h.«k 

SCINTILLA MAGNETO DIVISION of 

SIDNEY, N. Y. 








AVIATION eORfORATIOH 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 8 1 




n E Ul S FLASHES 



TWO VICTORYS TO BE CONVERTED FOR BELGIUM 

The Victory ships Pomona Victory and Westminster Victory, now on the Pa- 
cific, will be given temporary conversion so as to carry crews of 100 and 170 
passengers each between the Belgian Congo and Antwerp. The work will probably 
be done in a Pacific Coast yard. Owner is Compaguie Maritime Beige SA Antwerp. 

+ + * * * 

BETHLEHEM LOW BIDDER ON THREE SHIPS 

Conversion work on three APA vessels to cargo design C3-S-2A for Pope & 
Talbot, Isthmian Line, and Matson Line has been awarded to Bethlehem's Boston 

yard on its low bid to the Maritime Commission. 

***** 

RECONVERSION OF SEVENTY-ONE VESSELS UNDER WAY 

Now in progress is reconversion of 71 merchant vessels which served as 
naval auxiliaries. They are mostly of C2 and C3 design but include the Argen- 
tina, Brazil and Uruguay. The work is being handled in 26 shipyards. 

***** 

MATSON-OCEANIC GETS FIRST OPERATING SUBSIDIES 

First granting since before World War II of Government financial aid to 
enable a United States steamship operator to meet foreign competition was an- 
nounced January 3 by the Maritime Commission. The recipient of the new operat- 
ing-differential subsidy is the Oceanic Steamship Co., of San Francisco, sub- 
sidiary of the Matson Navigation Co. and one of six lines which last summer 
sought new or modified subsidies on transpacific services. 

***** 

ARMY RELEASING TWELVE TROOPSHIPS 

Brigadier General N. H. McKay, commanding S. F. Port of Embarkation, is 
releasing 12 troopships to the Maritime Commission. Most of these are Victorys, 
11 of the vessels will be decommissioned on the West Coast, 1 in Seattle and 10 
at San Francisco. 

***** 

PERMANENT ARMY FLEET 

The San Francisco Port of Embarkation in addition to 16 Maritime Commis- 
sion vessels has 27 Army transports and 5 freighters which form the nucleus of 
the permanent peacetime fleet operating out of San Francisco. 

***** 

MARITIME COMMISSION ANNOUNCES NEW C3 DESIGN 

Re-design of its standard C3 cargo ship for increased speed, carrying ca- 
pacity and economy of operation was announced by the United States Maritime Com- 
mission as a step in its plans to improve the competitive position of the Ameri- 
can Merchant Marine in postwar international trade. 

Plans and specifications have been completed, and invitations for bids 
will be issued upon receipt of applications from shipping lines for purchase of 
the new model. 

The new design, designated C3-S-DB3, will have more horsepower, and a 

Page 82 PACIFICMARINEREVIEW 



speed of about 18^ knots compared to the IS'i knots of the present C3. It will 
also feature rearrangement of the hull structure and cargo gear for more econom- 
ical handling and stowage of cargo. Six holds will be provided instead of five 
as in the present design, and the midship holds will have twin hatches side by 
side for quicker and easier placement of cargo. 

♦ * V * * 

SENATE SHIPPING COMMITTEE 

Senator White of Maine will be chairman of the Senate Interstate and For- 
eign Commerce Committee during the 80th Congress. Other members of the Commit- 
tee are Tobey, Reed, Brewster, Hawkes, Moore, Capehart , Johnson, Stewart, McFar- 
land, Magnuson, Fulbright, Myers, McMahon. 

***** 

PREWAR SHIPS NEARLY ALL RETURNED 

Of 900 merchant vessels which were requisitioned for war service only 25 
remained to be redelivered to their owners. The ships already returned include 
460 dry cargo carriers, 341 tankers, 36 passenger ships, 34 colliers, three 
barges and one cable ship. Still to be redelivered are 20 passenger ships and 
5 dry cargo vessels. 

***** 

SOUTH AMERICA TRADE EMPLOYS 300 U. S. SHIPS 

Almost 300 American merchant ships are engaged in trade between the U. S. 
and South American ports. This fleet is almost five times the number of vessels 
that postwar surveys indicated would be necessary. 

***** 

FORD TO HOLD PURCHASE EXHIBIT IN SAN FRANCISCO 

The Ford Motor Company will hold a gigantic parts purchasing exhibit in 
San Francisco February 17 and 18 and intend to purchase their requirements for 
2600 different automobile and truck parts from California manufacturers. It is 
expected that purchases will be in excess of $50,000,000 annually. The exhibit 
will be at the Fairmont Hotel. 

***** 

THE RICHMOND SHIPYARDS 

Evaluation of the Government-owned Richmond Shipyard will take place 
shortly. George H. Thomas of San Francisco and R. W. Kittrellie of Oakland have 
been selected to appraise the properties which cost the Government $26 million. 
Completion of the appraisal by about the end of March was anticipated. Informa- 
tion on real estate at the shipyards may be obtained from the WAA Office of Real 
Property Disposal at Room 212, 1182 Market Street, San Francisco. 

WAA now has custody of Yard 2 (largest of the former Kaiser war plants in 
Richmond), the Pre-Fabrication plant. Warehouse A and Hopeman Brothers ware- 
house. The firm of LeBoeuf and Dougherty, Inc., has been awarded a contract for 
protection and maintenance of the shipyards in WAA custody. 

***** 

Thermador Electrical Mfg. Co. has purchased the Rotom Mfg. Co., Alhambra, 
Calif. This will be operated as a Thermador unit, making fractional horsepower 
electric motors. 

***** 

WOULD INCLUDE RADIOMEN WITHIN DEFINITION OF OFFICERS 

Senator Morse, Oregon, on January 6, introduced a bill (S.75) to amend the 
definition of vessels of the United States and officers, contained in the Re- 
vised Statutes (46 U.S.C. 221), so as to include chief radio-telegraph operators 
and assistant radio-telegraph operators within the term "officers". The measure 
was referred for consideration to the Senate Committee on Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce. 

FEBRUARY»I947 Page 83 



MARITIME COMMISSION STATISTICS 



Ships built by U. S. Maritime Commission 1939 to No- 
vember 1, 1946 
Merchant Fleet owned by U. S. Gov't and U. S. Citizens 
October 1 

Includes dry cargo 1,000 gross tons and over and 
tankers of 1,600 gross tons and over 
U. S. owned ships under Maritime Commission control 
148 allocated to carry UNRRA cargo, 283 to carry 
International Programs cargo, 76 troop ships 
Lend-lease and bareboat chartered to foreign 

governments 
Army 
Navy 
Reserve Fleet (includes 3 dry cargo and 24 tankers 

incomplete) 
Vessels returned, sold or chartered to U. S. private 
companies 
Number of men in U. S. Merchant Marine Labor Force 

(Sept. 1946) (Includes shore reserve) 
Long tons of cargo shipped from U. S. on all flag vessels 
during 1945 



5,860 
5,756 



57,106,038 dwt 
57,406,300 



1,504 15,938,800 





442 


4 


002 


900 




285 


2 


242 


800 




418 


3 


682 


900 


1 


,563 


15 


862 


700 


1 


,544 


15 


,676 
197 


200 
000 






83 


469 


000 



^i 



***** 



HALE PROPOSES EXTENSION OF U. S. ADMIRALTY JURISDICTION 

Extension of the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States 
to include all cases of damage or injury, to person or property, caused by a ves- 
sel on navigable water, notwithstanding that such damage or injury be done or 
consummated on land, was proposed January 3, 1947, in a bill (H.R. 238), intro- 
duced in the House by Representative Hale, Maine. The measure, which was re- 
ferred for consideration to the House Judiciary Committee, also would provide 
that "in any such case suit may be brought in rem or in personam according to 
the principles of law and the rules of practice obtaining in cases where the in- 
jury or damage has been done and consummated on navigable water". 



IDetals Congress at 
Oakland in IDarch 

Plans for the American Society for Metals Congress, 
with affiliate organizations — to be held in Oakland in 
March — are completed. Sixteen organizations have 
agreed to go "all-out" in cooperation with the parent 
group's show. 

The Congress and Exposition, expected to attract 
55,000 persons from all over the nation during the 
period from March 19 to 29, is one of the largest con- 
ventions to be held in the nation, and is the largest show 
of its kind in the world. 

Tied in with the Congress will be the American Metals 
Conference of representatives of the following groups: 

The American Chemical Society, American Foundry- 



men's Association, American Industrial Radium and 
X-Ray Society, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical En- 
gineers, American Society of Tool Engineers, American 
Welding Society, Society of Automotive Engineers, 
American Petroleum Institute, Mining Association of 
California, Northwest Electric Light & Power Associa- 
tion, Pacific Coast Electrical Association, 'Western Oil 
& Gas Association, and Purchasing Agents Association 
of Northern California. 

The Congress, popularly known as the Western Metals 
Congress, last was held in Oakland in 1931. Such exposi- 
tions were not held during the war. Now, getting back 
into the pattern of postwar development, it is a bigger 
event than ever before, and both exposition buildings 
are completely sold out. 



Page 84 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



kcident Prevention in 
Pacific Coast Marine Operations 

[Continued jrom page 47) 

Now poor or unsafe physical conditions actually are re- 
sponsible for only about 25 per cent of all longshore 
accidents. Why then this seeming preoccupation with 
conditions? Only this. They are much more obvious than 
unsafe work methods or unsafe acts of men. If an unsafe 
physical condition exists it is rather difficult to interest 
the workman in his own unsafe acts. On the other hand 
if management will clean up on the physical conditions 
under its control, then it can more successfully and with 
a greater hope of obtaining cooperative action, appeal to 
the men to correct their unsafe habits. 

The Bureau's Supervisors are also on the look-out for 
unsafe or accident-producing methods of work and where 
they are found, recommendations for safer methods are 
made to those in charge. The unsafe acts of an individ- 
ual workman, ( what he actually does with his hands 
and his feer, how and where he places his body), con- 
tribute to many of the accidents. In about 16 per cent 
of all stevedoring accidents, the unsafe act is the sole 
cause of the man being injured. However, in 95 per 
cent of all accidents, not only are there unsafe acts but 
also unsafe conditions ( 25 per cent ) , and unsafe methods 
( 59 per cent ) . Here a correction of any one of the three 
— ^physical conditions, methods of work, or acts of 
workmen would undoubtedly prevent an accident. 

3. The third part of the program is EDUCATION, 
perhaps "training" would be a better word. Training is 
needed all along the line. Training of management to 
accept its responsibilities for providing and adminis- 
tering an accident prevention program; training for 
supervisors to enable them to properly and efficiently 
carry on their work of supervising and instructing their 
personnel; and training of longshoremen in the safe 
and proper way of performing their work. 

During the 20 years the accident prevention program 
has been under way, various means of accomplishing 
this training have been used. For management, com- 
mittee meetings, statistical material, bulletins, all have 
been used, and successfully, for accident prevention 
work is now accepted and practiced by far more of our 
managements than was the case 20 years ago. 

Training for supervisors has been carried on through 
foremen's dinner meetings, through first aid courses, and 
during the war years, by courses in foremanship. Some 
progress has been made, but much yet remains to be 
accomplished and it is expected that more and more 
time and effort will be spent on training in the imme- 
diate future. 

Training of the longshoremen themselves has been 
given plenty of thought over the years, but not much has 
actually been done. First aid courses have been given 
and during the war years training programs for winch 



drivers and lift truck drivers were put on. However, 
so far that has been the extent of the training. It is hoped 
in the future that, with the cooperation of the Union, 
more can be done along training lines for here lies the 
greatest opportunity for reducing the number of acci- 
dents. 

4. CONSULTATION. By consultations with manage- 
ment, the Bureau is often able to aid in the solution of 
the various accident prevention problems with which 
the industry is confronted. 

The program has been successful. The number of 
accidents has been reduced as evidenced by a 70 per cent 
reduction in injury frequencies for last year over the 1927 
experience. How many lives have been saved and how 
many men are today working on the various Pacific 
Coast waterfronts with arms and legs intact, who might 
not be had there not been an accident prevention pro- 
gram, cannot be known accurately, but they must run 
into the hundreds. 

It has been especially gratifying that during the war 
years, despite the influx of new men, the handling of 
new types of cargos, and the strain that was inevitably 
present in those days, — nevertheless, despite all these 
handicaps, year by year the injury frequency was re- 
duced. Who or what was responsible for this continued 
decline? The knowledge by management that accidents 
could be prevented and their determination that they 
would be on their own individual jobs, is the answer 
to that. By continued interest and follow-up in their 
own companies, the rate was kept down. Some com- 
panies were more successful than others but on the 
whole, each company's record reflected the degree of 
determination of that company to reduce accidents. 

While the industry can take credit unto itself for the 
good it has done, it must not be satisfied to rest on its 
laurels, for there is still much work to be done. Stevedor- 
ing is still well up in the list of hazardous occupations 
and it is only by continued effort that its relative posi- 
tion can be lowered. 

The interest and participation of the member com- 
panies in this program is not based on altruistic motives 
alone, but rather on an enlightened self-interest which, 
after all, is the best possible basis for sustained effort. 
The companies benefit through a reduction in costs, re- 
sulting from a decreased number of accidents. Compen- 
sation insurance premiums are reduced. Losses due to 
breakage of gear and damage to cargo are reduced. Last 
but by no means least, are the benefits to the longshore- 
men themselves. To them there are two types of bene- 
fits; first, the financial one, for without injury their abili- 
ty to earn remains unchanged; second, the incalculable 
benefit of freedom from pain and suffering and loss of 
life. 

From the beginning this entire program has been a 
voluntary one on the part of the companies. There has 
been no compulsion by State or Federal agencies re- 
quiring participation. The control has been vested sole- 
(Ptease turn to page 91 1 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 85 



Keep Posted 

New Equipment and 
Literature for Yard, 
Ship and Dock 




Zurn T Strainer 

A "Y" Strainer, manufactured by 
the J. A. Zurn Mfg. Co., Erie, Pa., 
has been designed which has the 
perforated strainer sleeve snugly fit- 
ted into the body. This enables the 



FITLER 

LUBRICORE 

There is but one genuine 

"LUBRICORE" 
Self-Lubricaf!ng Rope made and 
placed on the market by FITLER, 
patented by FITLER and easily 
identified as a FITLER product 
by the Self - Lubricating 
"Green Yarn Center" 

insist on "LUBRICORE"— Be- 
ware of imitations — Don't 
accept substitutes. Ask for 
"LUBRICORE", the Self-Lubri- 
cating Green Yarn Center Pure 
Manila Rope made by FITLER. 

The Edwin H. Filler Co. 

PHILADELPHIA. PA. 

MANUFACTURERS OF QUALITY 
ROPE SINCE 1804 



strainer to be installed in close quar- 
ters where space is limited, in addi- 
tion to preventing the sleeve from 
getting out of place or vibrating. 

The strainers, by cleansing liquids 
and steam of solids, afford protec- 
tion for pipe line equipment such 
as valves, pumps, traps and other 
mechanical apparatus. All units are 
hydrostatically tested according to 
service conditions under which they 
are required to operate. 

Available with or without plug at 
cleanout, and a magnetized strainer 
plug for intercepting ferrous par- 
ticles too small to be retained by a 
strainer sleeve. Made of cast bronze, 
brass, cast iron and cast steel, and 
with flanged, threaded or butt-weld 
connections. 




Dearborn Diesel Cooling 
Ulater Comparator 

How diesel engine cooling system 
can be safeguarded with Dearborn 
cooling water comparator plus Dear- 
born treatment is described in a 
recent bulletin issued by the Marine 
Division of the Dearborn Chemical 
Company. This pamphlet is avail- 
able through their various marine 
offices and is used in conjunction 
with Dearborn Engineering Service. 

The comparator illustrated here 
and also in the bulletin is a compact 
duplex unit containing chromate 
and pH standards calibrated for use 
with the standard types of Dearborn 
diesel cooling water treatment. 

Frequent checking of the jacket 
water with this visual unit gives an 



accurate indication of the treatment 
adjustment required to keep the sys- 
tem both corrosion- and scale-free. 

Davy Direction Finding 
Equipment for Civilian 
Davigation 

The Lear Radio Direction Finder 
(Model DBD), developed for the 
Navy Department during the war, 
and now released for private and 
commercial navigation, is basically 
a highly sensitive radio receiver, 
using superheterodyne circuit in 
combination with certain other cir- 
cuits necessary for radio compass 
operation. 

The equipment is designed for 
remote control operation, with pro- 
vision for either single or dual con- 
trol. Shock mounted, the remote 
control units are of special design 
which facilitates ease and accuracy 
for the four methods of operation: 
(1) automatic compass; (2) 
matched line indicator; (3) sense 
antenna (non - directional recep- 
tion); and (4) loop antenna (di- 
rectional reception). 

The complete radio direction 
finder equipment is operated di- 
rectly from the usual 115 volt, 60 
cycle ac power lines through a ro- 
tary type frequency changer which 
supplies the type of current re- 
quired for the specialized radio 
compass circuits. No batteries of 
any kind are used. A total of 24 
vacuum tubes are employed. 

For complete data, write Lear, 
Inc., Grand Rapids, Mich. 




Marine Dl 
ly of thes 

'navigVtio 


ect 
th 


on-Fi 

. All 
deve 


ding System 
mpact units, 
the benefi 
oped under 


with 
s o 
U. S 




are 


now a 




com 


srcial and 


pn 


vale 


avigation. 





Page 86 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Rebuilt E. J. eiock 
Fitted with MU Blocks 

From our old friend E. E. "Doc" 
Eyman, Manager of Marine Sales, 
National Malleable and Steel Cast- 
ings Co., Cleveland, Ohio, we learn 
that the 552-foot ore carrier E. J. 
BLOCK, owned by Inland Steel 
Company and featured in the De- 
cember Pacific Marine Review, is 
equipped with 180 fathoms of 
NACO cast steel stud link chain two 
inches in diameter for use on the 



^^3 




NACO-J cast steel stud link-chain. 

two main bower anchors; and also 
45 fathoms of 1-5/8" NACO cast 
steel stud link chain for her stream 
anchor. 



Two Simple Inventions Offer 
Savings in Condenser Operation 

W. B. Kennedy, president of Con- 
denser Service & Engineering Co., 
Inc., Hoboken. N. ]., recently an- 
nounced two new inveotions: the 
new Fiberclad Flowrite tube inserts, 
which stops condenser tube end ero- 
sion, seals tube leaks, prolongs life 




FIBRE SLEEVE 



TUBE SHEET N TUBE 



ad Flowrites can be used with 
type of tube joint. 



of old tubes and reduces water fric- 
tion up to 80 per cent; and the new 
Detectaleak rube tester which in- 

FEBRUARY • 1947 



FLOWRITE MADE OF 
SAME METAL AS TUBES 



THIN FIBRE 
SLEEVE 




MADE IN 

ANY LENGTH 

TO SUIT CONDITION 

OF TUBES 



Cross section of Fibreclad Flowrite showing 
new fibre sleeve feature. 

stantly locates leaking tubes without 
necessity of dismantling condenser. 
Flowrites, the metal belled-end 
tube inserts, have been used success- 
fully to protect condenser tube inlet 
ends against erosion and to elimi- 
nate expensive shutdowns for tube 
replacements for over 20 years. Now 
the new type insert, called Fibreclad 
Flowrite, offers many important ad- 
vantages over other types previously 
available. The Fibreclad tube con- 
sists of an unbreakable metal tube, 
similar to the old Flowrite, with a 
very thin fibre sleeve shrunk on the 
outside. The installation is simple, 
requires no cement and no special 
care. After installation, the fibre 
swells when in contact with water. 



producing a very tight seal which 
prevents leakage. These Fibreclad 
Flowrites are available for any size 
tube, in length to suit the erosion 
problem of the particular unit for 
which they are ordered. 

Detectaleak Tube Tester 

The newly invented simple tool 
called Detectaleak tube tester is a 
handy tool in detecting leaking tubes 
instantly without dismantling the 
condenser. The tube tester consists 
of a rubber body, one end of which 
is conical to fit into the tube, and 
the other end is a thin-walled bulb. 
An air passage connects the bulb 
with the conical end. A knurled 
metal sleeve surrounds the body to 
provide a grip for the hand. 

The illustrations show the simple, 
effective operation of the Detecta- 
leak tube tester. 



Plug one end c 
tubes with fibr 
plugs. 



Insert Detectal. 
Tube Testers in c 
er end of tubes. 



, ► 
If Detectaleak bulb 
is sucked in, tube 
leaks. Each pene- 
trated tube is lo. 
cated quickly, pos- 




r^ 



Cut me out and send me 



PACIFIC 
MARINE REVIEIV 




Page 87 



S 11 1\ 1> 
F R 

Brlckseal eoatea 



BRICK 




M/7 Tes/ 
yourse/f 




Brickseal penetrates 
the pores and joints 
of firebrick and 
forms a highly glaz- 
ed ceramic coating 
many times harder 
than the brick. 



Tough and semi-plastic under heat, it 
prevents cracking and spalling re- 
gardless of temperature change — heat 
the sample and douse in cold water 
any number of times. 



Brickseal resists 
abrasion. Force the 
sample brick, either 
hot or cold, against 
an emery wheel and 
see the dilTercnce on 
the coated and un- 
coated sides. 


El 


^ 


Brickseal is a su- 
perior mortar for 
fire walls. Try to 
pull the sample 
bricks apart after 
they are heated to 
2200°. 



Write today for a free sample. No 
obligation, of course. 

Brickseal 

REFRACTORY COATING 

5800 So. Hoover Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 
1029 Clinton Street, T^oboken, New Jersey 



Lyman King, of 
King - Knight Co. 
and Captain Rufus 
G. Thayer, USN 
(Retired) now asso- 
ciated with King- 
Knight Co. 




Thayer Joins king -Knight 

Captain Rufus G. Thayer, USN 
recently retired, is now with King- 
Knight Company. 

His service record is as follows: 

Appointed to the U.S. Naval 
Academy from San Francisco in 
1917. Served on various battleships 
and destroyers in the Pacific and 
Asiatic fleets. After two years at 
Mare Island Navy Yard foUowed 
two years as Assistant Fleet Main- 
tenance Officer on the stafi of Com- 
mander Base Force; 1931 at the 
Naval Academy and University of 
California, and fleet engineering 
posts until 19.37; 1937 to 1939 on 
the 12th Naval District staflf. 

In 1939 in charge of structural 
and metalsmith shops in fleet repair 
ship Vestal. In 1941 went to the staff 
of Commander Base Force as Force 
Material Ofiicer with direct supervi- 
sion over all fleet repair ships. Was 
in Pearl Harbor in this capacity' 
when the Japs struck on December 
7. 1941. Received a promotion and 
awarded Bronze Star medal for ac- 



complishments in minimizing dam- 
age and prompt start of salvage work 
during and after the surprise attack. 
In 1943, to Ellice, Gilbert and Mar- 
shall Islands in charge of ship main- 
tenance and repair activities in that 
area. 

In 1944 went to the Naval War 
College in Newport, Rhode Island, 
for the command course, followed 
by a tour in the Navy Department 
at Washington in the material sec- 
tion of the office of Chief of Naval 
Operations. Left this assignment to 
take command of USS General 
Breckenbridge, a transport of the 
P-Z class, which he commanded 
until he retired recently to join 
King-Knight Company. 



PROHTABLE OPPORTUNITY for 

distributor or agent on Pacific Coast to 
rcprc.'cnt manufacturer ot marine en- 
gine replacement part?. Long estab- 
lished manufacturer now making 
prompt dehvery from Pacific Coast 
factory. For interview with Division 
Manager in your office, write to Box 
2H. Pacific Marine Review, 500 San- 
some Street, San Francisco H, Calif. 



WILMINGTON 
TRANSPORTATION COMPANY 

Sfeamer Service fo Caialina Island 

GENERAL TOWAGE AND LIGHTERAGE SERVICE 
LOS ANGELES - LONG BEACH HARBORS 



TUGBO.^T OFFICE: Berth 82, San Pedro, California 

TELEPHONE NUMBERS: Terminal 2-4292; Terminal 2-4293; Long Beach 636-563 

WHISTLE CALL FOR TUGS: 1 long — 3 short 

GENERAL OFFICE: Catahna Terminal, P. O. Box 847, Wilmington, Calif. 

Phones: Terminal 4-5241; Nevada 615-45: Long Beach 7-3802 



Page 88 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Harang Represents 
Thomas C. Wilson, Inc. 

Thomas C. Wilson, Inc., Long 
Island City, N. Y., manufacturer of 
mechanical rube cleaners is pleased 
to announce the appointment of the 
Harang Engineering Company, 840 
Lake Street. San Francisco, Califor- 
nia, as its representative in the 
Northern California area. 

Edward A. Harang, who heads the 
company bearing his name, is a 
graduate of the University of Mich- 
igan with a B. S. degree in chemical 
and mechanical engineering. For the 
past ten years he has been closely 
allied with the power industries. 

During the war Mr. Harang, as a 
Lieutenant in the USNR, was as- 
signed to the Bureau of Ships. His 
•,.ork entailed the handling and solu- 
tion of propulsion and associated de- 
sign problems. His experience and 
intimate knowledge of the problems 
encountered in the marine and sta- 
tionary power iield will prove help- 
ful to all concerned. 



NEW LOS ANGELES OFFICE 
FOR BABCOCK & WILCOX: The 
Babcock & Wilcox Tube Company 
announces that its Los Angeles Of- 
fice has moved from its headquar- 
ters in the Banks Huntley Building 
on South Spring Street to: Petro- 
leum Building, Rooms 750 and 751. 
714 West Olympic Blvd., Los An- 
geles 1 5, California. The telephone 
is Richmond 7-3849 and 3850. 



Shoreside Personalities 

COMMANDER D. B. Mc- 
MICHAEL, USMS, was transferred 
from his position as Officer-in- 
Charge, U. S. Maritime Service Cen- 
ter. 1000 Geary Street, San Fran- 
cisco to become executive officer at 
the U. S. Maritime Service Training 
Station, Sheepshead Bay, New York. 
« * * 

CARSWELL MARINE ASSO- 
CIATES: M. J. Gigy, Pacific Coast 
manager of Carswell Marine Asso- 
ciates. Division of Cargocaire En- 



gineering Corporation, announces 
that Harry W. Parsons, formerly 
president of Harry W. Parsons, Inc., 
is now associated with the firm. 
Pacific Coast headquarters of Cars- 
well Marine Associates is at 417 
Market street, San Francisco. 



UNITED ENGINEERING AP- 
POINTMENT: Jack Massenberg 
was recently appointed manager of 
Engineering. Estimating and Plan- 
ning, of the United Engineering 
Company, San Francisco. 




A familiar figure in the engine room 

These Atlas Imperial main propulsion Diesels are equipped with 
Alnor Exhaust Pyrometers — a fan\iliar item of equipment in 
motorship engine rooms throughout the world. Alnor Pyrom- 
eters provide for an eeisy, accurate 
check of exhaust temperatures — the 
dependable guide to efficient engine 
operation, maintenance and adjust- 
ment. Alnor Pyrometers are built in a 
complete range of types and sizes to 
meet the needs of any engine installa- 
tion, large or small. Write for bulletins 
with complete data. 

ILLINOIS TESTING LABCRATORIES.INC. 

TYPE BZ PYROMETER 420 N. LA SALLE STREET . CHICAGO 10, lU 




FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 89 



Pope & Talbot in Dew Home 

New headquarters and consoli- 
dated offices for all divisions of Pope 
& Talbot, Inc., pioneer West Coast 
shipping and lumber firm, were oc- 
cupied in mid-January at 320 Cali- 
fornia Street, San Francisco 4, where 
a large portion of the first floor and 
the entire second floor is devoted to 
the Lumber Division, Steamship 
Division and executive headquar- 
ters. Executive ofiices have hereto- 
fore been in the Russ Building, and 



general ofiices at 461 Market Street. 

Fifteen hundred square feet on 
the street floor of the new class A 
building just erected at this historic 
corner of California and Battery 
Streets is devoted to the Traffic and 
Claims Deparnnents of the Steam- 
ship Division. On the second floor 
are the offices of President George 
A. Pope, Jr., and other executives, 
all of which face on the California. 
Battery and Halleck Street sides of 
the structure. General offices and 
staff are in the large central working 




ANOTHER RECOKVERSIOI 

President Mm\ 

SOPRCSHIPmHinTHCECO. 

1168 Battery Street • Phone SU 5890 
SAN FRANCISCO 11, CALIFORNIA 

Specialists in boiler cleaning . . . tank cleaning and 
reconversion . . . sand blasting . . . interior and exterior 
painting . . . scaling and all types of chemical cleaning. 



George B. Plant, Ownei 
Bill Harris. %a\t% Mgr. 



Operoffons Mgr. 
!n, Cfiemicof Eng. 



area. A comfortable and well-ap- 
pointed reception room faces the 
elevators on the second floor. 

The most modern thought in of- 
fice arrangement, lighting, acoustic 
control and color planning has been 
employed throughout. Easy-on-the- 
eyes pastel shades of green and tan 
have been adopted for the color 
scheme. Lighting is of the shielded 
fluorescent type and ceilings are en- 
tirely covered with sound-absorbing 
material. 

Only personnel not affected by 
the move are those located at Pier 
40 is the company's Purchasing De- 
Pope & Talbot Line coastal and in- 
tercoastal vessels, and to be the 
terminal of the company's re-estab- 
lished Pacific Argentine Brazil Line 
which will resume direct service 
with the east coast of South America 
in February. Also remaining at Pier 
40 is the Company's Purchasing De- 
partment. 

Other Pacific Coast terminals and 
offices of Pope & Talbot, Inc., are 
maintained at Seattle. Tacoma, Port- 
land, Oakland, Stockton, Los Angeles 
and San Diego. 

The first Pope & Talbot office was 
the cabin of Capt. W. C. Talbot and 
his partner A. J. Pope on board the 
sailing vessel which brought them 
to San Francisco in 1849. Experi- 
enced in both shipping and lumber, 
the partners remained on the Pacific 
Coast to establish lumber mills in 
the Pacific Northwest and a ship- 
ping service that has carried the 
American flag and Pacific Coast 
products to all parts of the world. 



l\lordberg Acquires 
Busch-Sulzer 

Nordberg Manufacturing Company 
of Milwaukee, Wis. and Busch-Sul- 
zer Bros. Diesel Engine Company of 
St. Louis, Mo. announced that Nord- 
berg had acquired certain manufac- 
turing assets from Busch-Sulzer, and 
proposes to continue its diesel en- 
gine business as a division of the 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Nordberg is a nationally known 
manufacturer of heavy machinery 
including diesel engines, and Busch- 
Sulzer is engaged in the production 
of diesel engines. The Busch-Sulzer 
Bros.-Diesel Engine Co. was found- 
ed in 1901 by Adolphus Busch. 



Page 90 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Shippers tell us it is the "unlistefl values" . . . the things that never 
show on the sailing schedule or shipping documents . . . that make 
Pope & Talhot Lines" service more valualile. 

They mean such factors as dependajjility . . . experienced per- 
sonnel ... a wide-flung organization of men capable and anxious 
to assist shippers in solving marketing and transportation prob- 
lems. 

The "listed facts" are important too ... a fleet of fast, modern 
ships . . . regular schedules . . . improved dockside facilities . . . 
stowage and adaptability . . . safe handling. Put your problem up 
to Pope & Talbot men. Write for Sailing Schedule. 



POPE 8.TALBDT LINES fl£| 

PACIFIC COASTWISE SERVICE 

PUERTO RICO SERVICE FROM PACIFIC COAST PORTS 

INTERCOASTAL SERVICE BETWEEN ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC PORTS 




POPE & TALBOT, INC. 



Offices and Terminals 

SEATTLE ■♦ 

TACOMA 

PORTLAND 9 

SAN FRANCISCO 4 

OAKLAND 7 

STOCKTON 

LOS ANGELES 15 

SAN DIEGO 

NEW YORK 6 

PITTSBURGH 2 2 

DETROIT 2 

PHILADELPHIA 6 

BALTIMORE 2 

NORFOLK 

SAN JUAN, P. R. 18 



Rccident Prevention in Pacific Coast 
Ularine Operation 

(Continued from page 85 1 

ly in management. To keep it so is eminently desirable. 
But to insure its remaining so, will require that the in- 
dustry better its already enviable record. Federal and 
State governments and the unions are taking an in- 
creasingly greater interest in safety activities and where 
management lags in its efforts, they have shown an in- 
creasing willingness to move in and take over. 

If governmental agencies, or the unions, are permitted 
to have the controlling voice on safety matters, then 
it becomes exceedingly difficult to keep them out of other 
operating problems. The entering wedge, for control 
of the stevedoring industry by others than the manage- 
ment of the company, can well be the assumption of 
responsibility for enforcement of the safety program by 
agencies other than management. 

True safety is not something that can be enforced 
from the outside. It must come from within and must 
be an integral part of operations. Management and su- 
pervisors must realize this and must include it in their 



planning. Safety is one thing from which all parties bene- 
fit and they benefit just to the extent that they make it 
truly effective. 

With the end of the war and resumption of peace- 
time operations, the industry is entering upon a new 
phase and the resolve on the part of all to make water- 
front operations accident free, if followed sincerely, can 
make future progress much greater than the notable 
strides which the Marine Industry has made in the past. 



TWO NEW, UNUSED iOO HP AT 277 RPM 

WASHINGTON DIESEL ENGINES 

(With Attached .Accessories) 

PORT AND STARBOARD 

Built in 1944 

In OriEinal Crates 

IMMEOMTELT AVAILABLE 

Readily Convertible for Use in Power Plants, 

Pumping Stations and Auiiliory 

Field Units 

Marine Diesel engines as manufactured bv 
Washington Iron Works. Model 8-R-18. 600 
HP. 277 RPM. S-c>Tinder. 4-c>cle. U'/." 
bore X 18" stroke, prs. right- and left-hand 
rotation, direct reversible, air starting. 
Height (over-all). I20<,": width (over-all). 
67'.^": length (over-all). 295'/,". Net weight 
each (approx.), 80.000 lb. Price for the 
two SCO. 000. on. f.o.b. cars Jeffersonville. 
Indiana, .\ddress: P. O. Box .■>10, JefTerson- 
^ille. Indiana. 
A REAL FINE ENGINE READY TO SERVE YOU 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 91 



Hordberg Hnnounces Its 
flew Diesel Engine 

fORDBERG MANUFACTURING COMPANY takes 
pleasure in announcing the addition of a 9" x iV/z" 
series of marine and stationary diesel engines to its pres- 
ent line of engines. By this expansion, the Nordberg 
Manufacturing Company, well known as builders of qual- 
ity diesels for a period of 35 years, is now able to offer 
the same quality type engines in smaller sizes to serve the 
ever increasing diesel field. 

This advanced type diesel series is a four cycle, solid 
injection engine, having a 9" bore and llVi" stroke, 
and is available in 6, 7 and 8 cylinder models, super- 
charged or non-supercharged. It is a fully enclosed, heavy 
duty engine for operation at medium speeds and offers 
many outstanding design features. Its modern design, 
simplicity, sturdy construction and accessibility means 
dependability — the key note of all Nordberg diesel en- 
gines. 

The engines are available for marine propulsion, ma- 
rine auxiliary service and stationary installations. 

Standard marine engine rating is 50 hp per cylinder 
at 720 rpm for non-supercharged engines, and 75 hp 
per cylinder at 720 rpm for supercharged engines. All 
supercharged models employ the EUiott-Buchi system of 
turbo-charging. 

Marine Engines 

The marine diesel models are direct reversing and the 
entire series especially designed for application to a wide 
range of craft. All models are available in port or star- 
board arrangement and for direct or reduction gear drive. 
For marine propulsion, engine speeds of 600 or 720 rpm 
are recommended. In-line reduction gears are available 
in ratios from 2.71 to 4.0 to 1. The reduction gears used 
on Nordberg engines represent an outstanding develop- 



9"» tl ," MARINE DIESEL 




CROSS SiCnON 



ment in reduction gear design. They are the In-line plane- 
tary type resulting in a compact unit of maximum effi- 
ciency, and permitting a lower installation of the engine. 
A sailing clutch is available to permit operation of the 
engine for driving of auxiliary equipment through a for- 
ward power take-off when the propeller shaft is dis- 



AU of the marine models are designed with connec- 
tions for pilothouse control. The controls are designed 
to meet the varied requirements of the marine field. 

Marine Auxiliary Diesel Generator Sets 

For this class of service, the engine and generator are 
mounted on a common steel fabricated sub-base forming 
(Please turn to page 94) 



Approximate Overall Dimensions and Weights of Nordberg 9" x 111/2 Marine Engines 

Direct Drive Reduction Gear Dr. 

No. of Length Weight Length Weight 

Model Cycls. Height Width Lbs. Lbs. 

FMD-96 6 6' 8" 4' 3" H' UW 20,000 13' IOI/2" 20,500 

FMD-97 7 6' 8" 4' 3" 13' %" 23,000 15' 0" 23,500 

FMD-98 8 6' 8" 4' 3" 13' 2V4" 26,000 16' II/2" 26,500 

FMD-96-SC 6 6' 8" 4' 3" H' IUh" 21,000 13' IO1/2" 21,500 

FMD-97-SC 7 6' 8" 4' 3" 13' Va" 24,000 15' 0" 24,500 

FMD-98-SC 8 6' 8" 4' 3" 14' 2W 27,000 16' I'V' 27,500 

Many outstanding design features have been incorporated in the new series of engines and the Nordberg Manufacturing Company 
in adding this series of units to its present line is now in position to serve the smaller engine field and offer a unit of outstanding per- 
formance and dependability in keeping with its present line of quality engines. 

Page 92 PACIFICMARINEREVIEW 




tjlleHte^ Xea^et^hip 

Quality material, superior workmanship and over 30 years 
experience are the components of every Chief Sandusky 
Centrifugal Casting. 

Ship owners and operators realize the added value of 
years of experience and specify "Sandusky" on their new 
construction and repair contracts. 

Sandusky has a complete nonferrous centrifugal foundry 
and machine shop for producing propeller shaft sleeves, 
stern tube bushings, rudder stock sleeves and pump liners 
from 3" to 46" In diameter and in lengths up to 347". 

Specify Chief Sandusky Centrifugal Castings on 
your next application. 



~JOSAM 

MARINE PRODUCT... 

INVERTED VENT 
CHECK VALVE! 




lor venting supply tanks of 
gasoline or other expanding 
type fluids. 

Float bail prevents water 
from entering line. Internal 
screen of fine mesh and heavy 
external screen, provide 
protection against flame 
and clogging by paint 
or debris. 

Stocked regularly, 
semi-steel galvanized, 
threaded. Can also fur- 
nish block finish. Flanged 
or welded connections 
on order. 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 93 



Dordberg Announces Its 
Hew Diesel Engine 



{Continued from page 92 1 

a compact unit readily adaptable to a wide range of 
applications for both ac and dc power generation. 

Construction and Design Features 

The engine bedplate is a one-piece casting of fine grain 
high tensile iron extending the length of the engine and 
serves as the lower half of the crankcase. Heavily ribbed 
and transverse sections provide rigid support for the 
crankshaft and bearings. Broad flanges and bosses along 
the sides provide a rigid means for bolting and securing 
engine to foundation. 

The engine frame is a single casting of alloy iron serv- 
ing as the upper crankcase and enblock cylinder housing 
combined, forming a sturdy structure for the mounting 
of accessories and assuring permanent alignment — the 
key to dependability. The engine frame is held securely 
to the bedplate by means of tie rods anchored in the base 
on either side and below each main bearing and extend- 
ing to the upper portion of the frame. The tie rods 
relieve the frame and bedplate of tension stresses set up 
during the operation of the engine. Large cored areas in 
the engine frame provide for efficient jacketing and cir- 
culation of cooling water. Removable wet type cylinder 
liners of fine grain cast iron, precision finished, are pro- 
vided. Neoprene seal rings insure water tight fitting in 
the engine frame. 

Individual cylinder heads cast from heat resisting gray 
iron alloy are secured to the engine frame with four 
studs. Combustion chamber is of the open type resulting 
in efficient combustion and smooth operation. Each cyl- 
inder has one intake and one exhaust valve which seat 
directly in the cylinder head without inserts or cages with 
resultant improved cooling of the valve seat area. The 
intake and exhaust valves are of heat resisting and non- 
corrosive steel with stems chrome plated to provide long 




life and the top of the valve stem faced with stellite to 
resist wear. Intake and exhaust valves are identical and 
interchangeable. 

Individual valve lever housings cast from fine grain 
iron are secured to the cylinder heads by means of studs, 
and contain the valve lever shaft and rocker arm assem- 
blies. Cast aluminum covers are provided fully enclosing 
the valve lever mechanism and permitting ready access. 

Crankshaft is forged from high grade carbon steel with 
bearing surfaces precision finished and polished and 
drilled for pressure lubrication from the main to the 
crankpin journals. Oil holes are located in the minimum 
pressure zone of the crankpin circumference. 

The camshaft is of high carbon steel precision ground 
and polished with valve and fuel operating cams secured 
to the shaft and located by keys. Cams are case hardened 
to provide long life. All timing gears are located at the 
flywheel end of the engine eliminating undue torsional 
stress and wear of the camshaft. The camshaft is sup- 
ported in bearings of cast aluminum alloy secured to the 
engine frame and pressure lubricated by means of drilled 
passages from the oil header within the engine frame. 
The push rods actuating the valve levers are enclosed in 
a tubular steel casing which fit into the cylinder block. 
One push rod guide is provided each cylinder and is 
bolted to the engine frame and so arranged as to serve as 
a guide for the three individual cam roller crossheads 
actuating the fuel injection pumps inlet and exhaust 
valves, respectively. The crosshead assemblies are pres- 
sure lubricated through drilled passages from the main 
engine system. 

Individual fuel injection pumps are provided each 
cylinder. Fuel lines leading to the fuel injectors are 
short and of uniform length. 

The engine is started by compressed air and each cyl- 
inder provided with an air starting valve pneumatically 
opened and closed by an air starting distributor driven 
from the camshaft. A header connection supplies com- 
pressed air to each starting, valve. An air starting valve 
cage is bolted to the side of each cylinder head. 

The marine engines, being direct reversing, are 
equipped with a double set of cams for ahead and astern 
rotation. During the maneuvering q'cle, the cam rollers 
are automatically lifted from the cams and the camshaft 
shifted into operating position corresponding to the de- 
sired ahead and astern rotation. 

Lubrication System 

Two lubricating oil pumps of the Tuthill internal gear 
type are mounted at the forward end of the engine and 
direct gear driven from the crankshaft. The pumps oper- 
ate with equal efficiency in either direction. Lubricating 
oil from the pressure pump is delivered to a lube oil 
manifold and then to an internal lube oil header which 
supplies oil to the various parts of the pressure lubrica- 
tion system. The use of drilled passages from the internal 
lube oil header reduces the number of oil lines and fit- 
tings to a minimum. A special system of rifle drilling of 
the crankshaft permits continuous lubrication of the main 
and crankpin bearings without oil grooves in the high 
pressure area. The reduction gear assembly is also lubri- 
( Please turn to page 96) 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Seventeen lllore Vessels Chartered 
To Philippines 



Chartering of additional vessels as an aid to the Philip- 
pine Islands' rehabilitation and re-establishment of the 
interisland trades has been given final approval by the 
Maritime Commission December 16. Action was taken 
under the provisions of the Philippine Rehabilitation 
Act. 

Seventeen vessels are included in the present plan. 
Five Cl-M-AVl and three N3-S-AI type coastal vessels 
already under Philippine registry were included as well 
as three additional N3 s not yet transferred. These war- 
built vessels are to be chartered at 10 per cent per an- 
num of the unadjusted statutory sales price or floor price, 
whichever is the higher. 

The SS Esther Johnson, a prewar vessel, will be 
chartered at the same rate, based on an estimated value 
established by the Maritime Commission. 

To facilitate bunker fuel oil operations in Manila, the 
Commission approved the chartering and transferring to 
Philippine registry of a motor barge and four tankers, 

all non-war built. The tankers are now laid up in the 
Islands and will be used only for storage purposes in 
Manila Bay. This action is expected to speed up the 
turn-around tankers serving the Bay to expedite the 



servicing of ships requiring fuel oil, and to aid in the 
distribution of commercial fuel oil to island industries. 
It will also reduce the cost of the Navy-maintained serv- 
ice now in effect and relieve the Commission of the ex- 
pense of caretaking and maintenance of the tankers. The 
charter rate will be 10 per cent per annum based on an 
established value. 



BILGE CLUB 
>)nnounces . . . 

THE NINETEENTH ANNUAL 

BILGE CLUB BANQUET 

Saturday Evening • From 6:30 P. M. 

FEBRUARY 22, 1947 

at 
Biitmore Hotel * Los Angeles 

Dinner af Seven-Thirfy 

Followed by Sfage Show 

Liquid Refreshments Before and After 

Admission $7.00 Formal 

A. F. BORO 
President 



Raytheon "Pathfinder' 
On $.8. Bmerica 



Representing the most modern commercial electronic 
radar equipment aboard ship, this equipment supplied 
and installed by the Marine Division of the Mackay 
Radio and Telegraph Company provides the S. S. 




America, Queen of the American Merchant Marine, with 
instantaneous navigational information. Known as "Mar- 
iners Pathfinder Radar," this radar installation incorpo- 
rates all the features of the famous surface-search gear 
which proved invaluable to the United States Navy dur- 
ing the war. The equipment is designed for minimum 
range, simplicity of operation and low maintenance es- 
sential to merchant marine service. From the scope in 
the indicator regardless of weather conditions, day or 
night, objects may be delineated at a range from fifty 
miles down to a minimum effective range of one hundred 
yards from the antenna. Arrangement is made within 
the radar equipment to utilize a feed from the gyro 
compass system which enables instantaneous position of 
all objects on the scope to be determined, thereby elimi- 
nating the necessity for converting from relative to true 
bearing. Mackay Radio, an operating subsidiary of the 
American Cable & Radio Corporation, acts as an author- 
ized sales and service organization within the United 
States for "Mariners Pathfinder Radar," which is manu- 
factured by the Raytheon Manufacturing Company. 



SALES REPRESENTATIVE WANTED: Thirty-five 
year old manufacturer of marine and industrial equip- 
ment wants to secure services of established individual 
or tirm as sales agent for Pacific Coast. Profitable line 
for anyone familiar with marine trade. Please write to 
Box 210, Pacific Marine Review. 500 Sansome Street, 
San Francisco 11, California. 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 95 



Hordberg Hew Diesel Engine 

cated by a branch line from the engine pressure lubrica- 
tion system. 

The piston is cast from heat and wear resisting alloy 
iron and provided with three compression and two oil 
control rings. The connecting rod is a high carbon heat 
treated steel forging designed as an "H" section for uni- 
form column stress in both planes. Rifle drilling provides 
pressure lubrication to the piston pin of heat treated 
alloy steel and supplies oil to the jet for oil cooling of 
the piston. 

Cooling Water System 

Either reciprocating or centrifugal type sea and fresh 
water pumps can be provided. The pumps are mounted 
at the forward end of the engine. 



fldjustabJe Vane 
Dry Dock Pumps 



(Continued from page 43) 

was 147 minutes on test, or 8 per cent less time than the 
160 minutes called for by the contract. 

During a pumping period, as a ship settles on the keel 
blocks, the discharge may be reduced to as low a rate as 
desired with all pumps in operation, by using the manual 
vane control. After the ship is seated on the chocks, 
changing to automatic control increases the pumping 
rate to full capacity again. 

When the water is lowered to about two feet above 
the dock floor, all pumps are kept in operation, but the 
rate is automatically reduced, so as not to draw the water 
into the intake faster than it can flow from the upper end 
of the dock. Toward the last, the vane position is main- 
tained so that the level in the suction pits is about two 
feet below the floor of the dock. This level can be held 
with ease and the water is fed to the pumps by the sub- 
surface drainage system. The pumps can be kept in oper- 



ation long enough to pump the floor practically dry, 
without drawing air into them intermittently and causing 
excessive vibration. 

These two installations present a new approach to the 
proolem of pumping large quantities of water under 
extreme variation of head. The adjustable vane pump 
can benefit from the large submergence at the start of 
the pumping period and discharge more water when the 
head is low by opening the impeller vanes. It can over- 
come the cavitation difficulty at the end of the pumping 
period when the head is high by reducing the vane pitch. 
By changing the vane position, the further advantage is 
realized of maintaining a constant load on the motor and 
therefore using it to full capacity over the entire range. 

While this was not the first adjustable vane pump and 
many more have been built since this installation was 
made, there were new problems involved in connection 
with the design of the motors and their controls, the solu- 
tion of which was successfully accomplished by the Engi- 
neers of the General Electric Company working in close 
cooperation with the S. Morgan Smith Company. 



Book Review 



AMERICAN MERCHANT SEAMAN'S MANUAL, 
by Felix M. Cornell and Allan C. Hoffman, 834 pages 
with numerous tables, diagrams, drawings and illustra- 
tions, bound in navy blue buckram with gold stampings. 
Published by Cornell Maritime Press, New York. Price 
$4.50 net. 

This is a fourth revised and enlarged edition of the 
hand-book that is used as a standard text in all Maritime 
Service Training Schools. 

By the use of this book, the sailor can prepare himself 
for his A. B. and Lifeboat certificates, and continue his 
studies in navigation stability, first aid and other sub- 
jects until he is ready for his mate's license. 




Main pump motor room 

at Hunter's Point Dry 

Dock No. 4. 



Page 96 



PAC IFIC MARINE REVIEW 



MARINE DEPARTMENT 
AETNA INSURANCE CO. 
QUEEN INSURANCE CO. 
MARITIME INSURANCE CO., LTD. 
FIDELITY PHENIX FIRE INS. CO. 
AUTOMOBILE INS. CO. 



MATHEWS & LIVINGSTON 

MARINE UNDERWRITERS 

200 BUSH STREET SAN FRANCISCO 

OHices at: Colman BIdg., Seattle '111 West 7th St., Los Angeles 



The IDarine Boiler 

[Continued from page 66* 

from clean metal surface to water, 166; from scale coat- 
ing No. 2 to water, 67; and from scale coating No. 3 to 
water, 31. 

To keep tubes clean the principal cure is treatment of 
feed water to remove or alter scale forming dissolved 
solids or suspended matter. This treatment will be given 
thorough overhaul in future installments in this series. 
To remove scale coatings already formed, any one of 
several commercial tube cleaners should be used and the 
best practice is to completely clean all the inner surfaces 
of the boiler, economizer, and superheater tubes, at least 
twice in the first year of service and once a year there- 
after. Tube cleaners are of two types ( 1 ) hammer and 
( 2 ) cutter. The former works by a series of rapid blows 
on the scale, the latter cuts or wire brushes the scale off 
the tube surface. Commercial types are available with 
compressed air, steam or water drives. A rise in stack 
gas temperatures is usually an indication of scale or soot 
deposits. 



in service. This is a prime necessity even when there is 
perfect combustion. 

Tests on a new and perfectly clean boiler installation 
at a large electric plant show the uptake temperatures on 
the first day of operation averaging 550 'F. and on the 
fifth day rising to an average of 650°F. all due to soot 
deposit. This meant an increase of 5 per cent in fuel 
consumption. Other experiments have shown that a 




Effect of interval between soot blowings. 



Soot 

The term soot as used in reference to boiler room 
practice is not confined to "lamp black" or carbon de- 
posits. In a modern water tube boiler almost any deposit 
of fine material on the outside of the tubes is known as 
soot. Hence tubes do not have to be black to be sooty. 
The deposit may range from gray, green, red, and brown 
to white. 

Soot deposits are formed in all boiler installations no 
matter what fuel is used and the majority of marine 
boilers are now installed with soot blowers built in and 
connected to the steam lines so that a very simple adjust- 
ment and a few minutes operation of the blowers cleans 
the deposit off the tubes and sends it up the stack. This 
operation should be done at least once daily on a boiler 



change from blowing once in 24 hours to blowing every 
six hours resulted in lowering fuel consumption by 4 per 
cent. 

A very important point to keep in mind when using 
the mechanical soot blowers installed in the boiler is that 
the steam line to each blower should be thoroughly 
drained before using the blower. Moisture cakes the soot 
deposits and makes them cling to the tubes to be baked 
on and thus form a very efficient and hard to remove 
insulator. 

Failure to properly use soot blowers will rapidly bring 
the boiler tubes to a condition where complete break- 
down may be expected. 

iTo be continued) 



hille: 



315 N. Avalon Blvd. • Phone Terminal 4-4538 • Wilminqton. Calif. 

KIDDE FIRE EQUIPMENT CO, REFILLS 

PITOMETER LOG ELLINWOOD CONTROLS 

PILOT MARINE CORP. EQUIPMENT 

WASHINGTON & INGLE RANGES 



RAILWAY DRY DOCKS FLOATING DRY DOCKS 

BASIN DRY DOCKS 
Investigations Reports Design Supervision 



CRANDALL DRY DOCK ENGINEERS, INC. 

238 Main Street. Cambridge, Massachusetts 



HOUGH & EGBERT €0. 

Ill West Seventh Street, San Pedro, California 
■Eacoa 03(1 

Consulfing Engineers and Marine Surveyors 

Surveys, Valuations and Specificafions for All Classes 

of Marine Repairs. 



Herb 


L. 


Soiithu'orth 

Repreiemi'ing 


Co. 


KINGSBURY MACHINE WORKS THRUST AND JOURNAL | 


BEARINGS 


• 


Q.P TELEMOTOR PACKING 


225 Steuort St. 


Son 


Francisco Phone DO 


uglas 2443 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 97 



mineral Fiber Insulation and 
Textiles for IDarine Service 

[Cotititiued from page 50) 

reason of the light weight of the insulation plus the fact 
that the fibrous nature of the insulation allows it to be 
punctured — the result provides a satisfactory installation 
at low cost; the flexibility of the bat assures close fitting 
to the plate surface. 

For machinery space and quarters insulation without 
a metal sheathing finish, present practice is as follows: 
Studs are welded to the ship plates in patterns to coincide 
with the size of the insulation sheets. Next, rustproofing 
coating is applied over welded surfaces and then, with 
back cemented and edges buttered, the rigid fibrous glass 
sheet with hardened cloth facing is impaled over the 
studs and then fastening clips or washers are set in place. 
Seams, when necessary, are caulked with fireproof cement 
and the joints are taped with fibrous glass tape prior to 
any finish paint coat. 

The specification described last above eliminates most 
of the difficulties previously encountered in the applica- 
tion and service life of a glass cloth-faced marine insulat- 
ing board. Previous difficulties with shoring of cemented 
sheets are eliminated; chances of rusting of stud welds 
and of poor welds are practically eliminated; puncture of 
the exposed cloth facing is minimized; denting of the 
insulation sheet with subsequent exposed surface defor- 
mation is minimized; vibration of and sifting of particles 
from sheets in service are practically eliminated. 

In the case of refrigerated spaces, the desirability of 
the extensive use of wood framing in connection with 
the installation of light weight mineral fiber sheets has 
been questioned. Many satisfactory installations have 
been made with metal framing and using laminated 
plastic spacers and blocks between steel members. 

Installations at reasonable costs using rigid mineral 
fiber sheets, V-notched and hinged by the facing cloth, 
for wrap-around installation on ducts appear practical 
against other types of insulating material. 

Application methods for sound absorbing materials 
have been in many cases those already used in building 
construction, though the confined spaces and irregular 
surfaces common aboard ship and which are to be 
treated call for considerable experience and mechanical 
ability to have these products installed to give maximum 
treatment and neat finished appearance. 

Satisfactory installation procedure for working with 
amosite felt has been worked out. In general, the mate- 
rial is wet down and compressed to about twice its 
natural densit)' prior to insertion in a pre- fabricated 
insulating pad. Cutting of the material and electrically- 
driven cutting knives is standard practice. 

Application of asbestos cloth about pipe lagging and 
fittings has presented no difficulties. In some cases wet- 
ting the cloth has resulted in a slight shrinkage on drying 
so that the cloth has a very tight fit over the lagging. 
Sewing of the cloth with fine copper wire, or asbestos 
cord, or treated fibrous glass cordage is satisfactory. 

Application of fibrous glass cloths and tapes has been 
satisfactory in some cases; in others, difficulties have been 
encountered. Tape is generally applied by spiralling same 



about the pipe, securing the ends with a fireproof adhe- 
sive cement or with staples; subsequent painting strikes 
through the fabric and produces a good set. Savings in 
man-hours by spiralling lagging tape in lieu of sewing 
over fitting cloth have been very considerable. Sewing 
of the plain untreated cloth with large threads and con- 
siderable tension applied has caused threads in the warp 
or fill to puU out of position. A light vinyl treatment to 
the cloth has minimized this condition and has likewise 
imparted additional abrasion resistance to the cloth. The 
fibrous glass cloth has no shrinkage and for this reason 
will not draw up drum tight after wetting or after 
painting. 

Plain and varnished Fiberglas tubing, tapes, cloths, and 
cords have been used by all shipyards and by "E" Divi- 
sion, or its equivalent, aboard ship. Reports of applica- 
tion and service results for the materials indicate a high 
degree of satisfaction. 

The use of Fiberglas-melamine panelboard aboard ship 
has resulted in very few installation difficulties. This 
material is apparently best cut by carbide-tipped tools, 
and in cases where considerable dust is found, cutting 
under water or with a good fan exhausting kerfed mate- 
rial is desirable. 

The use of fibrous glass portieres has brought about 
improvements in the products. Under extreme humidit)- 
conditions, it has been found that cloths have exhibited 
broken threads at points of flexure. Special coatings (in 
extremely thin layers) have been applied to the yarns 
and cloths for eliminating this difficulty. 

From the foregoing it is evident that mineral fibers 
have been relatively important materials in the construc- 
tion of ships in the past ten years. Also, it is apparent 
that, from basic characteristics possessed, various styles 
and t)'pes and modifications of these products will con- 
tinue to be used as worthwhile additions to the materials 
available for building ships in the future. It is also de- 
sirable to survey how these recently developed products 
are measuring up at present. 

Since a mineral fiber lightweight bat quarters insula- 
tion two inches thick is now available at an installed cost 
approximately half that of one inch of vegetable fiber 
board used previously, and since the materials are fire- 
proof, and are not damaged by moisture or fungus, this 
material should remain as a standard material for this 
purpose. Also, since greater emphasis must be placed on 
comfort of hired personnel aboard ship, as well as of 
passengers (who are also potential airline passengers) 
the continued effective use of this material is indicated. 

Possibilities of considerable savings in weight and thus 
the gaining of worthwhile revenues on the part of mer- 
chant ships has been recently emphasized by Mr. Heaney, 
in w hich he points out that the use of lightweight insula- 
tion for refrigerated, machinery, and galley spaces and 
sound deadening areas could result in increasing the 
revenue earning ability of a 500-foot cargo-passenger 
vessel $500,000 in twenty years. 

On fighting craft the use of a hardened-cloth faced 
material which bears an estimated installed cost of less 
than half that of lightweight bats plus metal sheathing 
while at the same time allowing access to pipes, cables, 
etc., has the appearance of a continuing program. It is 
I Please turn to page 100) 



Page 98 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



GENERAL MACHINE 

and REPAIR WORK 

Representatives for 

TODD COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT, INC. 

(TODD OIL BURNERS) 



COlUIDBIfl 

mncHioE 
moRii!; 



L K. Siversen, Ov. 



rH.,,w.ii BERKELEY, CALIF, cj;,'."!.. 




/. 



e Know 



MARINE 
DECKING 



• MAGNESITE 

• GRIP DECK 

• TRIMITE 

• KOROSEALTILE 



• RUBBER TILE 

• ASPHALT TILE 

• LINOLEUM 

• CARPETS 



• APPROVED UNDERLAYMENTS 

RECONVERSION SPECIALISTS 

Experienced estimators to give complete quotations 
from cleanings of the deck to finished deck coverings 

Completely Equipped Trained Workmen 

LORENTZEN CO. 
2207 MARKET ST. OAKLAND 12 

TEmpiebor 5613 

ALLIED FLOORS CO. 

56 HAWTHORNE SAN FRANCISCO 

YUkon 0316 



GRACE LINE 



<,(, 



SANTA FLEET" 



RETURNS TO THE 
PACIFIC COAST 
S. S. SANTA RITA 
S. S. SANTA ADELA 
S. S. SANTA FLAVIA 
S. S. SANTA JUANA 
S. S. SANTA ELIANA 

These C-2 fast freight vessels, three equipped with re. 
frigerator space, and limited passenger aroommodations, 
together with modern chartered tonnage, will supply 
frequent service between — 

BRITISH COLUMBIA WASHINGTON 

OREGON CALIFORNIA 

and 

Mexico Central America Panama Colombia 

Ecuador Peru Bolivia Chile 

SEATTLE SAN FRANCISCO LOS ANGELES 
White Building 2 Pine Street 523 W. Sixth 

SEneca4300 SUtter 3800 Michigan 7811 

VANCOUVER PORTLAND 

991 Hastings St.. W. Board of Trade Bldg. 

PAcific 7271 ATwater 8508 




FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 99 



mineral Fiber Insulation 

(Continued from page 98) 
to be noted that under most conditions the impact 
strength of the hardened cloth is such that, after being 
struck a blow, no evidence of a blow is shown, whereas 
the same type of blow on light gage metal would cause a 
permanent dent. 

It is hoped that advances made in the aircraft field in- 
dicating the advantages of septum cloths will improve the 
sound deadening efficiencies of future installations of 
sound absorbing materials in marine service. 

The use of mineral fiber sheets as duct insulation 
aboard ship in place of such products as asbestos corru- 
gated paper forms has been apparently satisfactory. Light- 
ness in weight and lower thermal loss even when using 
lesser thicknesses indicate the material is worthwhile 
from deadweight standpoint. 

From a fiureproof standpoint it is believed that some 
form of fibrous glass or combination fibrous glass and 
asbestos textile will be used as fireproof portieres on fight- 
ing ships and as fireproof curtains and drapes aboard 
merchant ships. Many colors and patterns of these prod- 
ucts are now available. 

Asbestos textiles and amosite asbestos fiber filler in 
removable pipe fitting pads will undoubtedly continue to 
be used for pipe lagging work. In some cases combina- 
tion fibrous glass and asbestos textiles have proven to be 
more advantageous than either of the single type yarn 
textiles. 

Fibrous glass used in electrical equipment give every 
indication of being the standard fabric for marine equip- 
ment by reason of its high strength vs. weight ratio and 
its resistance, especially when combined with the newer 
silicone resins, to moisture penetration. 

The fibrous glass cloth-melamine resin laminates give 
every indication of providing an extremely strong board 
for panels which will possess high arc-resistance and can, 
on new installations, save up to 75 per cent of the weight 
over previously used boards — the average tensile, com- 
pressive, and impact strengths being over three times 
that of the best cloth-base phenolics. In addition, of 
course, a minimum of toxic fumes is given off should 
the surrounding area be ignited. 

Around The Yard With Kolb 




Dew Speedy fluto-Passenger Liner 

iCotitinijeii jroru page 64) 

morning, largely as an auto-ferry, and then run back to 
Seattle, arriving in plenty of time to make ready for that 
night's trip. The run is a little over 100 miles each way. 
It is the favorite route for touring and business cars to 
Victoria and Vancouver Island. 

The Puget Sound Navigation Company has consis- 
tently improved its service to the key cities of northwest 
Washington and is today the dominant factor in marine 
transportation on the great stretches of inland waters 
composing Puget Sound and its tributaries. As now 
organized this firm is managed by the following execu- 



Lawrence Bogle, chairman of the board; Captain Alex 
M. Peabody, president; Captain Harry I. Anderson, vice 
president and operation manager; C. R. Lonergan, vice 
president and traffic manager; I. D. Birse, general freight 
and passenger agent; H. C. Strassburger, secretary-treas- 
urer; E. W. Peabody, marine superintendent; and Neil 
McCullough, port engineer. 

These men are all veterans in Puget Sound traffic and 
are operating the many vessels under their care with 
efficiency and with great satisfaction to their many pa- 
trons. 



Transport Building, Foot of Mission Street, Son Francisco S, Calif. 
Office Phone: DOuqIas 0343 — Residence Phone: LAndscape 5-1328 

MARINE SURVEYOR - NAVAL ARCHITECT 
MARINE ENGINEER 



Foreign IHarket is Vital 



faster than the torch. You m 
the steel so ragged!" 

gh the courtesy of IngaHs Ne 



(Continued from page 58) 

firms to take advantage of foreign trade possibilities "far 
in excess of prewar markets. " 

Mr. Giflord first became associated with the Borg- 
Warner Corp. in 19.31 as assistant to the president. Mr. 
Giflord organized the Norge export department in 1933 
and the Borg- Warner International Corp. in 1934. In 
1940 he became vice president of Norge and Detroit 
Gear, both divisions of Borg-Warner. An outstanding 
authority on international trade, Mr. Gifford is a world 
traveler who has crossed the Atlantic Ocean more than 
40 times. He estimates he has spent a total of more than 
a year and a third on ocean liners. 



Page 100 



PACI FIG MARINE REVIEW 



MARINE MARKETING CO. 

S. L. (Roy) KUYKENDALL 
J. H. (Jack) SEDERLUND 

Wholesale 

Ship Provisions 

and Supplies 



Cable Address — Marinmart (Marinmarf) 
Office Phone — Terminal 2-5606 
Night Phones — Terminal 2-2692 
Terminal 3-1585 

12th and Grand Avenues 
SAN PEDRO :: CALIFORNIA 



POSITIVE • SAFE 
}%jm\il TRANSMISSION 



THROUGH 135 




B£Vll GEAR 

UNIVERSAL 
JOINTS 



SEND TODAY 

lor our Bulletin CS-IO. qiv- 
irtq complete details about 
Conseco Bevel Gear Uni- 
versal Joints. 



C©M©1MS1I] 



Avoid accidents to your men by making it unnecessary 
to climb ladders or work in hazardous locations to 
operate valves, ventilators and other inaccessible units. 
Conseco Bevel Gear Universal Joints offer a simple, 
flexible solution to the problem of remote control ot 
inaccessible units and lor centralized control of widely 
separated units. They provide safe, positive torque 
transmission throuQh 133° on vertical centers, and 
through 360° on horizontal centers, without additional 
or special gears. 

A wide range of standard sizeit. from '^ *o I'; in., 
with capacities from 1560 to 4938 inch pounds at 49 
ram. are available. Conseco Bevel Gear Universal 
Joints are simple to install. Precision construction 
and quality materials assure long, sate, trouble-free 
service without maintenance. Thousands of Conseco 
Bevel Gear Universal Joints are saving time and labor 
ashore and afloat. More ot them are in use than any 
other gear. 



i^msjj^iii]]^^ 



TERCO PRODUCTS CO. — Wesf Coosf Represenfatlves 
941 Howord Street, San Francisco 3, Calif. 



MOORE-McCORMACR 



AMERICAN REPIIRLIC'S LINE 

Frei<^hl and Passenger Service between the East 
Coast of United States and the countries of 
BRAZIL . URUGUAY . ARGENTINA 

PACIFIC REPLTBLIC^ LII^E 

Freight an«l Passenjrer Service between the West 
Coast of United States anil the countries of 
BRAZIL . URUGUAY • ARGENTIINA 

AMERICAN SCANTIC LINE 

Freight and Passenger Service between the East 
Coast of United States and the countries of 

>ORWAY POLAND 

DENMARK FINLAND 
SWEDEN RUSSIA 



^rom I'rarl Harbor U. 

y-J Day. Moure-McCrmack 

Lines u[if rated mitre 

than ISO shifts, lost 1 1 

I'essetsy transported 

75 t,239 troops and 

carried 3i,410,Ul tons 

oj tear earfiu. Tti disrhar/^ 

such resfionsibifities 

in lime oJ crisis, -tmerica's 

Merchant Marine must be 

kept strong in peace 



Fur complete information apply 

MOORE-McCORMACK 
LINES 

3 Broaiiicny. Aeic \ork 4, A'. 1. 

Offices in Principal Cities 

of the World 




"We Have Used All Makes . . 
FIND VIKINGS THE BEST" 

recent nation-wide survey, users v<erc asked to 
ent on rotary pumps in use. Many fine compli- 
concerninq the simplicity, ruqqedness and de- 
ability of Vikinq Rotary Pumps v^ere received, 
nqs extremely satisfactory on heavy work." one 
reported. "Of all the pumps we have (and there 
. qreat many) we like Vikinqs best" another said, 
nq is the best pump for our service. Buy nothing 
' still another said. "Vikings do a wonderful job. 
uld do without them." another 



>r complete 


infor 


nation 


1 Viking Rotary 


umps 


ite today 


for B 


ulletin 


irles 4«SU. 


It w 


II be 


nt free by 


return 


mail 




VIKING PUMP COMPANY 

CEDAR FALLS, IOWA 



PACIFIC COAST DISTRIBUTORS 



Export managers' flew 
Officers for 1947 

At the last regular meeting of the Export Managers 
Association of San Francisco held January 10, 1947, the 
following officers were elected to serve during the current 
calendar year: 

President — Joe Marias, president Associated Commer- 
cial Co., 24 California Street, San Francisco; vice presi- 
dent — Victor A. Indig, export manager. American Rub- 
ber Manufacturing Co., 210 Post Street, San Francisco; 
secretary — A. F. Ojeda, special representative. Foreign 
Trade Department, Standard Oil Co. of California, 225 




Bush Street, San Francisco; treasurer — D. M. Mari, ex- 
port manager, Fibreboard Products, Inc., Russ Building, 
San Francisco. 



HPL [Dan Heads Chinese C of C 

P. C. Quock, General Chinese Agent for American 
President Lines with headquarters in San Francisco, has 
been elected President of the San Francisco Chinese 
Chamber of Commerce for the year 1947. 

Mr. Quocic. who was reared and educated in San Fran- 
cisco, succeeds K. L. Kwong, manager of the Bank of 
Canton, who was the Chamber's President during 1946. 

Mr. Quock was only recently appointed by President 
Henry F. Grady as President Line's General Chinese 
Agent in charge of both Chinese freight and passenger 
traffic throughout the United States. 



Fidelity Gets George Davis 

E. George Davis, for years manager of the Argentine 
Trade Promotion Corporation, has been appointed mana- 
ger of the Latin American Department of the Fidelity 
Trading Co., Inc., San Francisco. Davis is a leading mem- 
ber of the foreign trade fraternity on the West Coast 
and has participated in the planning of many forward- 
looking projects. He will be leaving shortly on a tour 
of the countries to the South. 



Gateway to Victory 



By Captain James W. Hamilton and 

First Lieutenant 'William J. Bolce, Jr. 

WITH Foreword 
BY General Douglas MacArthur 

The complete, authentic, behind-the-scenes story of 
the San Francisco Port of Embarkation in World War II 
is told by two officers who served at the port for many 
of its eventful months. 

Prefaced with a history of the port from Spanish days, 
Gateway to Victory details the spectacular growth of the 
port after Pearl Harbor, its quickening activity and gear- 
ing to full speed for the height of the war. It takes you 
through the war's end, the return of soldiers through the 
Golden Gate, and the slowing down of activity in ad- 
justment to peacetime service to nation and community. 

Interwoven with chapters describing the key activities 
of the port are the background chapters telling about 
other equally facinating activities. The suspense and 
drama of Intelligence work, the work of the morale- 
building units, the story played by civilian and private 
industry, including such key San Franciscans as John E. 
Cushing, Lewis A. Lapham, Frazer Bailey; and biogra- 
phies of commanding officers. 

More than 40 full page pictures provided by the U. S. 
Signal Corps are featured showing many phases of the 
dramatic battle of supply, revealed in book form by two 
men who have been intimately connected with what 
went on in San Francisco. 



5?,?^ 
71U0111 



TRflDt 



Page 102 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Ike. AfifiAeuied /111- Pu^fioie ^UtteAA. Suf*ieU 



HP 



NITI 



Patents ApDiied Fo 



DISTRESS 
SIGNAL 



1,500,000 NOW BEING MADE FOR ARMED FORCES 




•k STANDARD — U.S. Navy onil 

U. S. Naval Air Forie. 
i( STANDARD — U. S. Marine Carps. 
if APPROVED by the U. S. Caait Guard 

far ships lifeboals-and life rafts. 
-A- APPROVED by the Civil teranautiis 

tdministrotian os replacement for 

Very pistol ond cortridges. 
if SPECIFIED by Air Tronsparl Asiacio- 

lion for all inHotable life roitt 
if OBSERVED from aircroft in OlFiciol 

U.S. Coast Guard lest— 33 milei. 
ic OBSOIETES pistol-projetted, llooliog 

ond rofflon-condle type signols. 



Hand held. Sofe.Dependoble. 

,nqe day smake in opposite ends of steel 

^ / -r oioht when overcosl would 

container. Can oe seen ^'^^'^^X^: ,,^,^^,. K..^M. .» 



(lERiflL Peooucis, inc., merro. l.i.n. 



UQHUNi VITAE 

PL YWOOD 

SOFTWOOD 

IRONBARK 

HARDWOOD 



Davis Hardwood 
Company 

Bay at Mason Street 
San Francisco 6 
EX brook 4322 



^OJi Sale 

VESSELS 

^fl/tCa-Displacement from 400 to 4100 fons 

225, 900, 1800 Horsepower 

Diesel powered 20, 30, 100. 200 lew 

Forging Quality 18" OD x 19' 4I/2" Long 

A jUmMka^U-f^ew. 

Forging Quality 16" OD x 22'2" Long 
ATTRACTIVE PRICES 

]% ATIOi% AL METAL & 
STEEL CORPORATION 

200 So. Seaside Ave.. Terminal Island, Calif. 
Phones: Los Angeles: NEvada 625-71 

San Pedro Harbor: TErminal 245-87 




Industrial Division 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 103 















Plane after 
leaving cata- 
pult on the 




aling De Luxe 



THE ANCIENT ART of whaling as practiced in sail- 
ing ship days has long disappeared from the sea. In 
its place, there has emerged a modern application of 
engineering and scientific techniques that give the poor 
cetacean no sporting chance. 

Latest and among the largest whale factory ships to 
join the whale destruction parade is Balaena, built and 
recently delivered by Harland and Wolff, Ltd., of Belfast, 
for United Whalers, Ltd. This vessel will act as a mother 
ship for ten whalecatchers, and carries three amphibian 
planes (Naval Walruses) in a special hangar arranged 
so that each of these planes can be run out onto a catapult 
and driven off the ship at sufficient speed to become air- 
borne immediately. These planes are used for spotting 
whales and for scouting weather and ice conditions. 

She is a very large hull, with the following charac- 
teristics: 

Page 104 



Characteristics 

Length B. P 535' O" 

Beam Mid. tank Dk. 74' 0" 

Beam Mid. above tank Dk 77' " 

Depth Mid. tank Dk 35' " 

Depth Mid. Flensing Dk 57' " 

Displacement approx 32,000 tons 

Gross measurement 15,000 tons 

Net measurement 7,200 tons 

Deadweight capacity 21,000 tons 

She was built under Lloyd's special survey for highest 
class for vessels carrying bulk oil of flash point above 
150° F. Her hull is of the two deck type with open 
bridge, forecastle, and poop erections. 

The upper, or flensing deck, has a clear area for 
handling whale carcasses, of \2l' 6" length and 77' 
width. On this deck, for handling the whales, are in- 
stalled: 9 ten-ton derricks; 4 five-ton derricks; 16 steam 

I Please turn to page 1 06 ) 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



CoRDES Bros. 



200 DAVIS STREET 



GARFIELD 8355 



SAN FRANCISCO 11, CALIF. 

MARINE SPECIALTIES 

ALLENITE SOOT ERADICATOR 

ALLENCOTE REFRACTORY COATING 

BUHERWORTH TANK CLEANING SYSTEM 

COFFIN PUMPS 

CONTRA-RUDDERS 

FRANCE METALLIC PACKING 

KOMUL ANTI-CORROSIVE COATING 

LESLIE REGULATORS & TYFON WHISTLES 

SANDUSKY CENTRIFUGAL CAST LINERS 

SEA-RO PACKING 




BIRD-ARCHER CO. 

OF CALIFORNIA 

BOILER WATER TREATMENT ENGINEERS 

Established 40 Years on Pacific Coast 



MAIN OFFICE 

19 FREMONT STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

Phone SUt+er 6310 



SEAHLE PORTLAND LOS ANGELES 

HONOLULU WILMINGTON 



CHAS. E. LOWE CO. 

MARINE SPECIALISTS IN 

PUMP & CONDENSER 
PACKINGS 

OFFERING 

U. S. AJAX - UGASCO - Boiler and Flange Gaskets 

Celeron Pump Rings - Celeron Punnp Valves - Sure-Tite 

Condenser Packing - Bestollfe Lead Seal Compound 

Experts on Gasket Repairs. 

185 STEUART STREET SAN FRANCISCO 5, CALIF. 

Telephones DOuglas 8477 and DOuglas 8479 




Exclusive Features 

— at no extra cost! 



STELIITED SEAT RINGS 

STAINLESS STEEL 800 BRINELL MAIN VALVES 

CORROSION RESISTANT SPRINGS 

HARDENED STAINLESS 

STEEL CYLINDER 

LINERS ' ^ 



Supplied as standard 
equipment in LESLIE 
Pressure Reducing Valves, 
Pressure Controllers, 
Pump Governors, 
Temperature Regulators 
for Steam services. 

Write for Bulletin 461, 




271 GRANT AVE., LYNDHURST, N. J. 



PRESSURE REDUCING VALVES 
PUMP GOVERNORS 



SELF CLEANING STRAINERS 



TEMPERATURE REGULATORS 
LESLIt-TYFON WHISTLES 



Morrison & Beviiockway 

ESTAILISHED IN \tW 

MARINE PLUMBING 
STEAM FiniNS and ShlEET METAL WORK 

Sole Agents and Manufacturers of the New M & B 

Automatic Lifeboat Drain Plug * Expert Lifeboat 

Repairs and all kinds of Air Duct Work • Galley 

Ranges Repaired • Monel and Stainless Steel 

Dressers Manufactured 

Day & Night Service 166 Fremont St. 

Telephone DO-2708-09 San Francisco 

At Night Call Jordan 7-2252— Bur/Jngame 3-8712 



FEBRUARY • 1947 



Page 105 



winches; 9 electric winches; 10 warping capstans; 2 
forty-ton winches for hauling whales up the slipway; 
and 4 steam saws for cutting up whale bones. 

The Factory Plant 

On the tank deck is the factory space, 375' long, 77' 
wide and 22' high, with an intermediate flat 7 feet above 
the tank deck extending over a large part of the space. 
Most of the machinery is located on this flat and com- 
prises: 22 pressure boilers for treating bone; 10 pressure 
boilers for treating blubber; 8 Kraerner type rotating 
digesters: a liver extraction plant; a meat meal plant; 
and a separator plant. 

A conveyor belt runs the full length of the factory 
space and connects with an elevator forward and aft, for 
discharging finished products to ships alongside. A 
quick freezing plant is installed to freeze the choicest 
parts of the whale meat which are then stored in refrig- 
erated chambers aboard, or transferred to a refrigerated 
vessel. Quite a market has been developed for whale 
fillet among European gourmets. 

Consumption of fresh water in the processing is very 
large and three triple effect evaporating and distilling 
plants are installed with a combined capacity of 750 tons 
fresh water per day. In addition, 2240 tons of fresh 
water can be carried in deep tanks forward. 

The main cargo tanks have a capacity of about 19,150 
tons of oil. On the outward voyage these are filled with 
fuel oil. As this oil is gradually consumed by the ship's 
boilers and the whale catchers' engines, these tanks are 
steamed out clean and filled with whale oil. 

Propulsion Machinery 

Propulsion machinery is fitted aft. Seven multi-tubular 
single-ended scotch marine boilers, fitted with combus- 



tion chamber superheaters, and burning fuel oil, supply 
steam at 220 psi to two direct acting triple expansion 
reciprocating steam engines of the re-heat type, each of 
which generates 4000 ihp. All the usual auxiliaries for 
such a plant are fitted, most of them electric drive. The 
uptakes from the boilers are led into two stacks, one port, 
one starboard, to allow a clear runway for hauling whales 
onto flensing deck. Auxiliary power is provided by a 
group of generating sets all delivering power to the main 
switchboard at 220 volts dc. There are four sets: one a 
steam turbine unit of 1500 kw capacity; two diesel engine 
sets, each of 300 kw capacity; and a steam driven set of 
72 kw rating. Since practically every moving part in the 
factory is driven by electricity, there are 300 motors con- 
nected to the switchboard ranging in capacity from VS to 
130 hp. 

Three engineer's work shops, an electrical shop, a 
blacksmith shop, and a carpenter's shop are fully 
equipped with all necessary tools and are located to 
best serve the maintenance of the factory, the propulsion 
machinery, the sea planes, and the whale catchers. 

. Navigation 

The bridge is equipped with all the latest devices that 
have proven themselves in navigation. These include: 
gyro compass, short and long wave wireless, two systems 
of wireless telephony, direction indicator, electric log 
and two systems of radar. Inter-communicating tele- 
phones, alarm and call bells, staff locating system, electric 
clocks and loud hailers are also fitted. 

Accommodations 

This vessel has to take care not only of her crew, but 
also of the crews of whale catchers and the factory per- 
sonnel, including manager, chemists, and bookkeepers. 

(Please turn to page 108) 



Hatchway through which whales are transported to the flensing 
.^ deck. 




Page 106 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



TOUMEY 

Representing BENDIX MARINE PRODUCTS CO. 

Successors to CHAS. CORY CORPORATION 

PaOT MARINE CORPORATION. New York, N. Y. 

Signaling. Communicating and Lighting Equipment 

PNEUMATIC CORPORATION (New York) 

Gauges: Liquid Level, Ships Draft, Pressure, 

Boiler Water Level 

PLANT MILLS DIRECTION INDICATOR 
AND ENGINEERS ALARM 



ELECTRIC & 
ENGINEERING CO. 

MARINE AND INDUSTRIAL ELECTRIC INSTALLA- 
TIONS . . MARINE ELECTRIC FIXTURES . . SUPPLIES 
AND REPAIRS . . ARMATURE WINDING . . SEARCH- 
LIGHT PROJECTORS . . . SOUND POWERED TELE- 
PHONES . . . FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS 



GArfieid 8103 



SAN FRANCISCO 



115-117 Steuart St. 



$657,276 

SALE 

U. S. GOVERNMENT SURPLUS 

Wire Rope Hooks, Clamps, Clips, Thimbles, 

Sockets. Shackles, Terminals and 

Towing Spiders 



This is unused material in good condition, priced far below 
cost to the Government for immediate disposal! Write, wire 
or telephone for catalog and order blanks. 



Sale closes Feb. 11, 1947 

War Assets 
Administration 

Customer Service Sectioti 
33 Berry Street, San Francisco 7, Calif. 
Yukon 6-2525, Locals 260, 261 and 267 




APc 38 servetd in Pacific, Philip- 
pines and Okinawa campaigns. 
Built by Anderson & Christofani, 
San Francisco. 

Hardwood supplied by — 

JbnlWoodlleadquartecr 

75 Years of Confinuous Service 

5th and Brannan Streets 500 High Street 
SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND I 

SUtter 1365 ANdover 1600 



j^^m Maritime 

Authorities 

say 4 to 12 months 



^Shipping Copper Assures 
BiiV 18 to 24 months 

It's the Leaching Rate that Tells the Story 

"All onti-fouling compositions hove a limited 'life' which vories from 4 to 1 2 months," soid 
British outhorities in 1945. Before thot yeor ended, U. S. government research developed 
new principles of formulation for onti-fouling point whicti enabled American fighting ships 
to remain in prolific fouling waters of the Pacific from 18 to 36 months. 

SHIPPING COPPER formuloled on these same principles by Manning-Mitchell staff mem- 
bers who were key men in the government research program, withstands the some severe 
test. This is proved by actual use ol seo as well as by loboratory tests which certify a 
constant leochlng rote in excess of 10. And operators who use SHIPPIt^lG COPPER save 
$5,000 to $40,000 per ship. 



MANN-ING-MITCHELL, INC. • 500 2'^" ST., SAN FRANCISCO 7, CALIF. 






lUhaling De Luxe 

iCoiiihiued from page 106) 

This adds up to a total of over 400 persons and the total 

accommodation provided is: 

In single berth cabins 24 

In double berth cabins 198 

In three berth cabins 6 

In four berth cabins 204 

In six berth cabins 12 

Total 444 

These cabins are arranged in the deck houses, along 
the outboard sides of the factor)' flats, and below the 
flensing deck forward of the factory space. Fifty-one 
bath rooms are provided. 

Large capacity for refrigerated galley stores, extensive 
galley equipment, and spacious mess rooms are provided 
to take care of this large complement. 

With this equipment after him, Moby Dick has only 
one chance of escaping the bomb harpoon, the flensing 
knives and the pressure cookers — he can sound and stay 
sounded — but before doing so we are sure if he were 
endowed with speech his last words would be, "This is 
not cricket." 



Hew G-E Electro-Hydraulic Control 
System for Diesel-Electric Drives 

A new electro-hydraulic governing system for diesel- 
electric drives, readily adaptable for ship propulsion, 
locomotives, mobile and stationar)' power plants, oil well 
drilling rigs, and industrial uses where diesel-electric 
drives are employed, has been developed by the General 
Electric Company. 

Speed measurement is performed by an engine-driven 
ac tachometer generator whose output voltage is pro- 
portional to speed. Speed is maintained at pre-set values, 
by feeding the speed indication to a hydraulic servo- 
mechanism which controls the engine fuel and generator 
excitation, and makes possible full utilization of the en- 
gine without danger of overloading. 

Engine protection safet)' features are built in this new 



FAST-SELLING. PROFIT-MAKING LINE for Pacnic 
Coast marine equipment salesman or agent. 

Here is your opportunity to sell a line of patented main- 
tenance and repair products that are absolutely essential in 
all tugs, workboats, yachts, motorships and steam vessels. 

Substantial commission rate. 

You sell on regular open account terms, no deposits or 
down payment. No investment required. No stocks or 
inventory to carry. Orders shipped promptly direct from 
factory located on West Coast. 

Manufacturer assumes all credit risk. You take the 
orders and we pay you commissions on all business from 
accounts you open. 

One of our east coast represcntatatives with us over 16 
years earned commissions totaling $20,109.73 in 1945. 
Another received $14, 455.19. We don't imply there is 
this kind of money for a new man. but substantial earnings 
arc almost certain right from the start for any individual 
or firm now serving the marine trade. 

Please send full information outlining your sales experi- 
ence and the area yi>u would expect to serve. Division 
Manager will arrange for interview in your city. Box 123. 
Pacific Marine Review. 5(10 Sansome Street. San Francisco 
1 1. California. 




A ENGINE CONTROL PANEL 
■ B TACHOMETER GENERATOR 
C. POWER PLANT REGULATOR 



a\ Electric power plant regulating syste 



governing system. Overspeed protection is provided by 
an overspeed trip switch which automatically cuts off 
the fuel supply when the engine overspeeds. If the 
engine lubricating oil pressure drops to the danger level, 
a short-circuiting switch drops the engine speed auto- 
matically to idle. Similar type switches, functioning with 
the same end result, operate at dangerously high tempera- 
tures or on occurrence of a ground in the main power 
circuit. 

Remote control in this system is readily achieved. 
The manual and automatic controls may be located at 
any desired distance from the prime mover. Speed modu- 
lation can be infinite or by definite steps as in throttle 
notches. The engine-speed indicator is remote from the 
fuel control. Multiple-unit operation, as in the case of 
diesel-electric locomotives, is readily accomplished. 



national DIarine Exposition Attracts 
nationwide Interest 

Roger E. Montgomery, general manager of the annual 
National Marine Exposition, announces that, to date, over 
fifty nationally prominent manufacturers and outstanding 
distributors from ten states have contracted for space in 
which to exhibit their marine products and services to 
the thousands of buyers and other interested persons who 
will throng the San Francisco Civic Auditorium next 
May 12 to 17. The second annual National Marme Ex- 
position, sponsored by the Propeller Club of the United 
States, brings to the Pacific Coast its first National Marine 
Exposition on that date. 



Page 108 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



MARCH 1947 



/^mn^ }iz{/t^ Aincde ^zad 



Flying above ships which have their home 
ports on the Pacific Coast are the house flags 
of some of America's leading steamship 
companies. This is the first of a series giving 
brief histories of the flags and their owners. 
General Petroleum Corporation and other 






Socony-Vacuum companies supply Gargoyle 
marine oils, and lubrication engineering 
service, to these outstanding shipping firms 
. . . and to most of America's maritime com- 
panies ... in more than three hundred ports 
throughout the world. 



^ 



OLIVER J. OLSON & CO. 

For sixty years the white 
"O " has been the symbol of 
the Olson interests. The 
background was formerly 
green, but blue was adopted 
in 1923 because Olson felt 
it was the color most typi- 
cal of strong maritime na- 



WEYERHAEUSER 

STEAMSHIP COMPANY 

Founded in 1935, the com- 
pany used an ornamental 
"W on Its original flag. 
Ten years later the emblem 
was modified to the simpler 
and more attractive design 
which now appears on the 
'Weyerhaeuser flags and 
stacks. 





AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES 

Four stars were added to 
their house flag in 1916, 
when they were made a part 
of President Wilson's flag. 
This was in keeping with 
naming of their ships for 
the Presidents of the U.S. 
The eagle symbolizes 
power. 



POPE & TALBOT LINES 

For 96 years the circle "M " 
symbolized the McCormick 
Steamship Company. In 
1943, the name of the firm 
was changed and at the 
same time the "M" was re- 
placed by the "PT!' 



SOCONY-VACUUM OIL CO., INC. 

According to mythology, Pegasus was born when 
Perseus killed the snake-haired goddess Medusa, 
and her blood united with the spirit of the sea. 
The fabulous winged horse was later tamed by 
Bellerophon and they performed prodigious feats 
together. As a trade mark, the Flying Red Horse 
was first introduced in the Orient, where symbols 
are often used instead of trade names, and later be- 
came the feature of the house flag. The Gargoyle, 
too, was first used abroad, and is now known all 
over the world as the symbol ot outstanding 
petroleum products and lubrication service. 



GENERAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION 

(A Socony-Vacuum Company) 



GARGOYLE 

MARINE OILS AND ENGINEERING SERVICE 





Good rope starts with the very growing, Tony comiiieri 3 4 yeors wi»h 

selection and grading of the fiber. Then the rope Jhe';o°d^^TG*i?^?^b"'eV^';^„e" 

making job is taken over by modern, precision 
machines that convert, step by step, the raw fiber into the finished rope product. 

But in every stage of manufacture, there must be MEN — men skilled in the art of fine 
rope making to operate these machines, continually check each step, to assure a finished 
rope product that will deliver the maximum in wear and dependability. 

With a background of nearly a century of fine rope making, it is this combination of 
MEN and ROPE that has kept the Tubbs rope trademarks the leaders in their field, that 
assures you EXTRA rope value when you specify TUBBS to your supplier. 



MANILA ROPE IS BACK! 

Manila rope h now available in ALL SIZES. FOR ALL END USES. However, 
Tubbs Extra Superior Manila will not be available until the required quantities 
and grades of Manila fiber are once more available. 



TUBBS CORDAGE COMPANY 




SAN FRANCISCO 

LOS ANGELES • CHICAGO 



PORTLAND 



SEATTLE 
NEW YORK 



M 




OFFICIAL ORGAN 
Pacific American 
Steamship Association 



Shipowners Association 
of the Pacific Coast 



IINES 

Piibllsfier 

[beROCHIE 

Attlitatii 
P>bN>ker 

lUGLAS MacMULLEN 

Exeeiiflve 
fdlior 

ilEXANDER J. DICKIE 

Edifer 

ANDREW P. HALL 

Edlfor 

I. N. DeROCHIE. Jr. 

Aiiltiant 
Manager 

B. H. BOYNTON 

froduefloK 
EdHor 



PAUL FAULKNER 

Pacific Coatf 
Advertlting Mgr. 
Lei Angelet Office 

DAVID J. DeROCHIE 

Aiiltfant 
Lot Angelet 

•EORGE W. FREIBERGER 

>ldverflilng Mgr, 
Son Francfico 



iubicription rates: 

}ne year, $2.00; two years, 
i3.50: three years, $5.00; tor- 
\qn, $1.00 additional per year; 
ingle copies, 25c. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



MARCH, 1947 



-American President Lines' Plans Ready 



1946 




Our Defenses Are Threatened 

By T. Douglas MacMuUen 
E Pluribus Unum .... 

By A. J. Dickie 
Ships Needed for Round-the-World- 

The Corsair Conversion 

The New House Merchant Marine Committee — and Chairman Fred Bradley 
With the Port Engineers 

The Economical Maintenance of Turbine Geared Prime Movers 

By George Barr, General Electric Co. 
Alloy Steels in the Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Industry 

By George M. Huck 

The Army's Ship Conversion Program 

Pacific Merchant Marine Gave Edison His First Lighting Installation 

Reblading Turbines at San Francisco 

A New Bulk Cement Carrier 

Five Million Tons Salvaged 

Electric Power from Salvaged Ship . 

Merchant Fleets of the World as of June 30, 

Aluminum Ships Proposed by Alcoa 

Port of Long Beach from the Air 

Condenser Repairing Equipment 

Pacific World Trade — 

By T. Douglas MacMullen 
Business Leaders' First Postwar visit to Honolulu 
U. S. Replaces Germany in Turkish Market 
Time and Motion Analysis for Materials Handling . 
An Insurance Analysis for the Shipper 
By Donald Tormey 
Marine Insurance — 

The London Letter 

By our U. K. Correspondent 

Admiralty Decisions 

By Harold S. Dobhs 
Coast Commercial Craft — 

Controllable Pitch Propeller on New River Craft 
War Techniques Used in New Shallow Draft Tanker: 

Your Problems Answered 

By "The Chief" 

Steady As You Go 

By "The Skipper" 

On the Ways 

Intercoastal Yacht Trip 

Running Lights — 

By B. H. Boynton 

Westinghouse Gets Joshua Hendy Plant 

World Trade Committee of Junior Chamber Welcomes General Wylie 

Propellers of Southern California See Training Film 

News Flashes 

Keep Posted 




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PUBLISHED AT 500 SANSOME STREET • SAN FRANCISCO 11. CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES OFFICE 816 West 5th Street. Zone 13. Telephone Michigan 3129 




I#^- 





IT'S ALWAYS SAFE TO GO OVERBOARD ON 

^^olumbian Tape-Marked, Pure Manila 
Rope is manufactured from the choicest manila 
fibre selected and graded by the Columbian 
Organization in the Philippines. For constant 
safety, it is the best rope we know how to make 
and the finest rope you can buy. It is easily 
identified by the Red, White and Blue surface 
markers — your assurance of quality, proved per- 
formance and complete dependability under all 
conditions. 

COLUMBIAN ROPE COMPANY 

400-90 GENESEE ST., AUBURN, N. Y. 



;O^^BIAN 




i 




TAPE 
MARKED 

PURE MANILA ROPE 



Page 42 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Our Defenses Are Threatened 

THE HEROIC ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE 
WAR are but faint memories to a great many peo- 
ple. We wish they could be preserved in the hearts and 
minds of all, and if a way can be found to effect this 
result it will be worth all it costs in dollars for there are 
those who would cultivate forgetfulness. Warnings 
should constantly be flown against the undermining 
critics and influences which strike at the countr>''s de- 
fenses in one way or another, and included in those 
forces is merchant shipping. 

The economizers who say give them sixty cents when 
they need a dollar; the commentators who blast reputa- 
tions to win personal prominence or to further a selfish 
cause; the self-styled intelligencia that would place world 
theory above national securit)'; the interests which would, 
as in San Francisco, displace the Presidio big gun em- 
placements and the Army hospital expansion to further 
a real estate project; and those who fail to remember the 
importance of the Merchant Marine in war and peace — 
the intent may vary but the result is the same. 

The Merchant Marine! All its ships were taken and 
but few returned, and there are times when on all the 
million miles of the Atlantic and Pacific there is scarcely 
an American passenger ship at sea. Our shipyards are 
closing up. 

Gentlemen of the Commissions and the Congress and 
the Unions, what are you thinking of? Is peace so sweet 
that war's havoc cannot be remembered? Is the wide 
blue ocean so beautiful that you would not dot it with 
American ships — even as a safety measure? Are our 
shipyards to lose their skill and our seamen their ships 
for economy's sake? Have we been infected with inter- 
nationalism to the extent that we prefer to see our foreign 
friends divert our business, our employment, and our 
security? Let us find a way and a loud voice to teO our 
people that we can only feel safe when we have the best 
in all defensive fields. Old Libert)- hulls up the creek do 
not constitute the world's best Merchant Marine. 



[ Pluribus Unum 



OUR NATIONAL MOTTO of union is a slogan much 
needed today in American Merchant Marine circles. 
It is becoming more apparent daily that we are drifting 
into the same national polic)' with regard to shipping 
that has made us a very third rate seagoing power in 
peacetime commercial maritime business, during a very 
large proportion of our history. 

Today we have the largest merchant fleet ever assem- 
bled under one flag. Today as ever before we have that 
fleet shackled in its conversion to peacetime use by 
government red tape. Overlapping Federal regulatory 
bureaus, lack of agreement among shipping executives, 
lack of cooperation from union maritime labor and lack 
of understanding among our legislators. 

Many drastic laws and regulations have been imposed 
on the American Merchant Marine to protect the Ameri- 
can seafaring passenger. These laws make it imperative 
to raise passenger fares in order to meet the extra costs 
imposed by the law. This drives more American passen- 
gers to foreign flag ships where the protective law does 
not apply. Hence the law becomes simply a handicap on 
the American Merchant Marine. 

W. E. Spofford of the U. S. Maritime Commission in 
a recent address before the New York Metropolitan sec- 
tion of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine 
Engineers, after analyzing this situation declared as his 
conclusion: 

"It is my candid opinion that our merchant ma- 
rine will never be on an efficient, effective or per- 
manent basis until the following conditions have 
been met: 

( 1 ) Unity of purpose and effort by steamship op- 
erators, shipbuilders and vendors. 

( 2 ) Consolidation of all Governmental agencies 
regulating shipbuilding and ship operation. 

( 3 ) Simplification and codification of all U. S. 
Governmental maritime laws and regulations. " 

We thoroughly agree with the addition of marine 
labor as one of the principal factors that must achieve 
"unity of purpose and effort." As Mr. Spofford says very 
eloquently in his final paragraph: 

"Maritime laws and regulations are made not 
alone to safeguard human life and property. They 
should be framed to provide freedom of internation- 
al commerce, and at the same time, preserve our 
national integrity and security." 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 43 




SHIPS OEEDED 

Bmerican President 



CERTAINLY ONE OF THE MOST FAMED SHIPPING SERVICES ON THE PACIFIC IS THE 
ROUND-THE-WORLD SERVICE OF THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES. DURING THE 
16 YEARS OF OPERATION PRIOR TO THE WAR, IT TRANSPORTED MORE THAN 110,000 
PASSENGERS AND 5,500,000 TONS OF REVENUE CARGO. THESE FIGURES, JUST AS FIG- 
URES, REPRESENT A NOTABLE PROPORTION OF AMERICAN TRADE AND TRAVEL DUR- 
ING THE PERIOD. TRADE AND TRAVEL ON THIS ROUTE IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN 
A SIMILAR VOLUME ON MOST OTHER ROUTES, FOR SEVERAL VITAL REASONS; BUT LACK 
OF SHIPS HAS HALTED PROGRESS HERE. 

BEFORE THE WAR, THE ROUND-THE-WORLD FLEET CONSISTED OF 14 AVAILABLE 
SHIPS, WITH SEVEN IN CONSTANT SERVICE. 

ALL OF THE SHIPS WERE TAKEN OVER FOR USE BY THE ARMED FORCES, AND 
THE CONTRIBUTION THEY MADE TO SUCCESS IS WELL KNOWN. THE EFFECT ON THE 
ROUND-THE-WORLD FLEET IS NOT SO WELL KNOWN. ONLY TWO SHIPS ARE LEFT. 

PREWAR— 14 SHIPS WERE AVAILABLE 




Page 44 



PACIFIC MARINE R'EVI'EW 



FOR ROUND-TH[ 

Line's Plans Heady 




POSTWAR— TWO SHIPS WERE LEFT 



OBVIOUSLY THIS NUMBER OF SHIPS IS 
WHOLLY INADEQUATE to maintain even prewai 
service, and the postwar demand is far beyond the pre- 
war figures for both passenger and freight. The Com- 
pany's government contract covering this essential Round- 
the-World Service specified employment of the minimum 
of seven ships. However, in the prewar process of mod- 
ernizing the fleet, the replaced older liners were diverted 
to other trades but still remained available to Round-the- 
World service if and when needed. With a passenger 
backlog of 14,000 for Orient points and upwards of 1000 
for the Round-the- World run prior to any scheduled 
sailings, and with Matson using an unconverted C-4 
troop transport to carry maximum loads to Australia, 
travel across the Pacific is a long way from normal. 

The public is exceedingly anxious to travel the Pacific 
and the operators are exceedingly anxious to provide 



the vessels. There are so many thousands of casual tour- 
ists who wish to visit the war zones — some of them for 
terribly important reasons — and so many thousands of 
business people who have plans for expanding our 
foreign trade, that many ships operating for years to 
come will be taxed to the utmost. New horizons have 
spread themselves before us since the war. Myriad place- 
names on the Round-the-World route have assumed 
reality and it is safe to predict that a goodly percentage 
of the 858,000 public school teachers and 213,000 col- 
lege and private school teachers are yearning to visit 
them. 

Tourist travel has a doUar-and-cents significance in our 
national economy. It is an important means for the de- 
velopment of trade. We like to sell our goods abroad — 
and in fact we must do so to support one half of the 




SAN FRANCISCO PIER AT 
DEPARTURE TIME. 
AT RIGHT: WAIKIKI BEACH, 
HONOLULU. 

MARCH • 1947 




-^fxtm 



Page 45 





people in our cotton South, a third of those in our indus- 
trial East, and a fourth of our agricultural families and 
the industries that cater to them. Passenger travel 
creates much of the money exchange that pays for 
our exports, for our imports from other lands fall far 
short of our export values — values that we must increase 
in the future. So we need travel — and cargoes, cargoes 
and travel. We need world-wide travel and cargoes and 
the Round-the-World service of American President 
Lines gives just that. 

In vast, overseas areas from Manila to the Red Sea 



this is the only passenger-carrying service under the 
American Flag. Thousands of American shippers and 
importers relied on its clock-like regularity over a 25,000 
mile route, carrying the American Flag and American 
commerce to 23 ports in 14 countries. In addition to 
San Francisco and Los Angeles, New York and Boston, 
the regular route includes Havana, Cristobal, Balboa, 
Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, Shanghai, Hong Kong, 
Manila, Singapore, Penang, Colombo, Bombay, Suez, 
Port Said, Alexandria, Naples, Genoa and Marseille. 
It is not easy to estimate the value of this great service 




AT TOP, LEFT: THE OVER- 
HANGING SIDEWALKS IN 
SHANGHAI. 

CENTER: COOLIE RAIN- 
COATS. 

AT RIGHT: SCENE SO FA- 
MILIAR IN SHANGHAI. 



AT LEFT; DEPARTMENT 
STORE IN TOKYO. 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




ABOVE: FLOWER VENDOR 
HONG KONG. 

AT RIGHT; HONG KONG 

HARBOR AND VICTORIA 

PARK. 



to the United States. The goodwill engendered in world 
ports and the examples of American living which it of- 
fers have an uplifting effect on other peoples; and the 
acquaintance with world conditions which our tourists 
and crew members acquire wiU also be beneficial. But the 
dollar values of the service to American industry is some- 
thing that can be calculated. For instance, in the 16 years 
preceding 1940 the Round-the-World service earned 
and distributed to American suppliers, shipyards, and 
personnel, some $66,000,000 in freight revenues and 
$22,000,000 in passenger revenue. 

One item alone among the expenditures on this route 
is fuel oil— $14,000,000. 

That hundreds of millions of dollars worth of the 
products of American farms and factories have bene- 
fited in no small way from the developments of our 
trade abroad, while the employment of thousands of sea- 
men, stevedores, shipyard workers, dock employees, 
warehousemen, truckers, office staffs, and ships' officers 
has contributed to the growth of the Merchant Marine, 
as has the training of officers and crews. 

The American President Lines is a well-managed com- 
pany — one of the best in the world — and its sights have 
been trained on both the current scene and the long way 
ahead. No dividends have been paid on its common stock, 
all profits having been plowed back into its preparation 
for a future of service to the shipping public and com- 
pliance with its contract obligations to the Maritime 
Commission. 

But its Round-the-World ships went to war and only 
two of the 14 are left. A minimum of seven modern fast 
ships is necessary for this route. The plans are completed 



and the Company is ready and anxious to make the pur- 
chase. The Commission can order the construction at any 
time now and a long step will have been taken in behalf 
of American commerce and industry — and national de- 
fense. 

TYPICAL NATIVE STREET SCENE IN CHINA. 




MARCH • I 947 



Page 47 



The Proposed Ship 



FOR SOME MONTHS the technical staffs of the 
American President Lines, San Francisco, and of 
George G. Sharp, naval architect. New York, have been 
working on a design for a Round-the-World passenger 
and cargo liner that would ultimately take the place of 
the modified C-3 type liners now in operation. This de- 
sign, now complete, has several rather unique features 
which should add greatly to the comfort and convenience 
of passengers and to the facility of loading and discharg- 
ing cargo. American President Lines executives regard 
this design as representing an ideal vessel for their 
Round-the-World service. The official designation of this 
design is P2-S1-DN1-V-2000. 

In comparison with the C-3 Round-the-World liners, 
these new ships will be larger, faster, more streamlined 
and more beautiful. Characteristics are shown in a table 
herewith and some corresponding figures for the C-3 
type are given as an interesting comparison. 

The hull is of mild ship steel mostly welded and 
having a stem with a curved forward rake and a modified 
cruiser stern. As wiU be noted in the artist's sketch of 
the profile she has: a flush weather deck with very grace- 
ful sheer forward and aft; a progressive rake in masts and 
stack but vertical king posts; and a superstructure occupy- 
ing a little more than one third of the overall length and 
located almost at mid-length of the hull. This arrange- 
ment as a whole gives a very trim, business-like appear- 
ance and produces a sense of ability and power that 
should be very reassuring to any Round-the-World sea- 
farer. 

Nine watertight bulkheads divide the hull into ten 
main watertight compartments. First, starting from the 
bow is the conventional forepeak; then in order,, holds 
No. I, 2, 3 and 4; then the machinery space, holds 5, 6 

Page 48 



and 7, and last the afterpeak. Watertight bulkheads No. 
1 and No. 2 forward are complete from the tank top to 
the upper or weather deck. Bulkheads 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 
are complete from tank tops to A deck. Bulkheads 8 
and 9 extend from tank top to upper deck. 

The compartments thus formed are in turn divided 
into many spaces for various uses. The fore peak houses 
the bos'n's stores, the anchor chain locker, a salt-water 
ballast tank; and a room on the first flat accommodating 
the motors for two vertical capstans on the upper deck 
and the resistors for the controls of these capstans and 
of the anchor windlass. 

Hold No. 1 

Next aft is Hold No. 1 which is 73 feet long fore and 
aft and is served by two hatches through each of four 
decks: the upper or weather deck, A deck, saloon deck, 
and a flat. The weather deck hatches are fitted with 
lift-off pontoon covers and on all the other decks the 
covers are metal hatchboards. The forward hatch of this 
hold is 16 feet thwartships and 20'3" fore and aft. The 
after hatch is 32 feet thwartships and 17'6" fore and 
aft. 

Heavy king posts are located between these hatches 
with a small deck house between the posts for cargo air 
conditioning equipment. Each of these posts carries a 
10-ton 55-foot boom on its after side and a 5-ton 55-foot 
boom on its forward side. Each boom is served by a 
winch. The reason given for this unusual arrangement of 
hatches is that a much greater space on the decks can be 
reached spotting cargo loads off the hook than with the 
conventional single hatch. All the usual Maritime Com- 
mission standard equipment for cargo holds is fitted, 
such as connections for smoke detection tubing; connec- 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



iHI 






., 15 




'1' t'-* 


1 


mm 


^"f^ 






- J-;^ 




^"- 

r.-,-^.-;-.-.-.-.-.-.4-rr*t-,-.-.-.-,-l 



Princifjal Characteristics 

Length — over all, about 536' — 0" 

Length— B. P 500'— 0" 

Breadth— Molded 73'— 0" 

Draft, — Maximum Molded.... 29' — 6" 
Depth — Molded to Upper 

Deck at side 49'— 0" 

No. of Crew (Exclusive of 

Spare Berths) 158 

Passengers — Floor Beds and 

Sofas 122 

Upper Berths 67 

Total 189 

Cargo Capacities (Estimated) 

General Cargo 

Capacity 424,000 bale cu. ft. 

Refrigerated Cargo 

Capacity 60.000 net cu. ft. 

Cargo Deep 

Tank Capacity 48,000 net cu. ft. 



Total Capacity.... 532,000 cu. ft. 

Tank Capacities (Estimated) 

Fresh Water 206 tons 

Fuel oil (98% full) 2,429 

Clean Salt Water Ballast 194 

Total Capacity of Tanks.. ..2,829 tons 




tions for CO:; fire extinguishing; ventilating ducts and 
outlets for cargo conditioning air; access ladders; and 
cargo battens. Cargo battens on this ship except where 
excessive curvature of the vessel's form indicates hori- 
zontal battens will all be vertical. This type of batten 
fitted between frames offers better protection to the 
cargo and increases the cubic capacity of a hold about 
1 per cent. 

Hold No. 2 
Hold No. 2 is 62 feet 6 inches fore and aft and is 
arranged and equipped similarly to No. 1 from the A 



deck level down, except that both hatches for this hold 
are 32 feet athwartship and 17 feet 6 inches fore and aft. 
On the A deck level there are large compartrnents port 
and starboard for special cargo, a strongroom, and a 
room for cargo air conditioning machinery. The after 
hatch is trunked passing through a large baggage room 
from A deck to the upper deck. Between the hatches on 
the upper deck is a heavy steel mast serving as a king 
post and set on the centerline of the ship. Surrounding 
this mast is a T-shaped house enclosing lockers for deck 
gear, companionway to saloon deck and a room for cargo 




ABOVE: SCENE ALONG THE 
SHANGHAI BUND. 



AT LEFT: SCENE OF THE 
HARBOR IN SHANGHAI. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 49 




BIKANER STATE. 


RAJPUTANA, 




INDIA 


Ins! 


de a court at 


Lallgarh Fal- 


ace 


Behind the 


se exquisitely 


car\ 


ed windows 




ters 


of the ladi 


3S,° and Ir^om 


hall 


way and bale 


3ny they have 
all that goes 


a c 


ear view of 


on 


below witho 


t the visitor 


gai 


ing even a 


ginnpse of 


the 


n. The custorr 


of "purdah" 


is still practiced 


n many of the 


nat 


ve states. Nc 


where else in 


the 


entire world 


«ill a traveler 


f 


nd better sto 


ne carving. 




air conditioning. This house supports pads for the lower 
ends of four cargo booms, two 10-ton 60 feet 5 inches 
long, and two 5-ton 52 feet 6 inches long. In the trunked 
portion of the after hatch is fitted a hinged platform, 
with a portable rail, about 8 feet by 17 feet, that offers an 
excellent plan for handling heavy baggage. A four foot 
wide watertight door through the after bulkhead of the 
hatch trunk gives access from this platform directly into 
a large baggage room fitted with ample racks and shelves 
to make baggage accessible to the passengers, an idea that 
will undoubtedly find great favor with passengers on the 
long Round-the- World trip with its wide variations in 
climate. 

Hold No. 3 
Hold No. 3 is a cargo hold only below the saloon deck 



level. From the tank tops to the saloon deck level it is 
filled with cargo oil tanks which are loaded through side 
ports, and a 5 feet by 7 feet hatch in the saloon deck. 
The six cargo oil tanks will accommodate approximately 
1200 tons of oil. They are so designed that the interiors 
are entirely free of stiffeners and all corners are rounded. 
The design is based on former experience of American 
President Lines with tank cargoes. Just aft of this pas- 
sage is the passengers' dining room, roughly 44 feet fore 
and aft and 70 feet athwartships with an inset 12 feet by 
35 feet taken for stairways, elevator and lockers. On A 
deck level this vertical division includes; seven passenger 
rooms; chief purser, and chief steward's room, a room 
for 2 stewardesses and 1 child's nurse; the barber shop, 
automatic telephone exchange; music broadcast room; 




ISLAND OF CEYLON 



of thii 
. The 
er the 



signs dis. 
shops tell 



ing pla. 
played 
a story 

tuguese and Dutch, English 
and Singalese — all cry for 
attention; and why not— for 
the Dutch and Portuguese 
contributed many things to 
Ceylon. Thousands of loyal 
subjects of mixed blood, 
especially from the Portu- 
guese occupation, are a 
useful and intelligent part 
of the population. 



Page 50 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



the passenger elevator; main staircase; pantr)' and various 
lockers. No. 3 hold is 50 feet fore and aft. 

Hold No. 4 — Main Galley 

The main galley which prepares meals for the entire 
complement of passengers and crew is all electric, and is 
directly aft of the main dining room on the saloon deck 
and directly over hold No. 4 which is completely devoted 
to dry and refrigerated galley stores. On the tank tops 
this space embraces a large refrigerated chamber on the 
port side for fruits and vegetables; tanks for milk and for 
fresh water amidships; and butter and eggs, ice cream 
and beverage chambers and an ice-cream making com- 
partment on the starboard side. On the 14 foot 4'/2 inch 
flat are: fresh water and distilled water tanks amidships; 
poultry, fish, chilled and frozen vegetable rooms, star- 
board; and a large meat room port. 

On the 22 foot 9!>2 inch flat are the dry stores, the 
ship's laundry, and the clean linen lockers. These stores 
are loaded through side ports and athwarthship passage 
on A deck and brought down to the various levels by ver- 
tical conveyor and elevator. They are all very convenient- 
ly arranged both for ease of stowage in loading and acces- 
sibility from the galley. 

There is ample room for stowing large quantities of 
refrigerated foods and the space allotted to the various 
categories indicates the planning of well balanced menus. 
The galley takes a space 40 feet by 70 feet and is very 
well arranged. From forward aft on the starboard side 
are arranged, the cold pantry, the bakery, and the pot 
and pan scullery. Port side houses the dish and glass 
scullery, the butcher shop with its service refrigerator; 
and the vegetable preparation room. Against the forward 
bulkhead is a coffee pantry, the cook's office and a silver 
room. At the after bulkhead is a silver cleaning room; 
the conveyor and elevator system for loading and unload- 
ing stores, and the access stairs to A deck above and the 
flats below. 

The system of doors into the dining room is arranged 
for entrance from the galley only on the starboard side, 

The Great Pyramids of Egypt. 





and exit from the dining room only on the port side. 
Above the galley on A deck are the passenger entrance 
lobby, purser's office, purser's workroom, novelty shop 
and some crew accommodation. 

Machinery Space 

In the machinery space which occupies 70 feet of the 
length and at the saloon deck level directly aft of the 
galley there are flats port and starboard with fore and aft 
passageways directly outboard of the machinery space 
casing and giving access to; the deck officers' mess, and 
the stewards' mess starboard; and the crew's mess and 
petty officers' mess port. A pantry on each side facilitates 
service to these messes. On this same level amidships is 
the engineers' shop and side ports for loading fuel oil 
and engine room stores. On the A deck level above this 
space are the fidley, engineers' stores, fan room, elec- 
tricians shop and crew accommodations. 

It is noteworthy that the modern plant for fueling the 
passengers and crew of this ship occupies approximately 
the same proportion of the length of the hull that former- 
ly would have been occupied by the vessel's steam pro- 
pulsion plant in the days of Scotch boilers and "up and 
down " engines. The modern high pressure water tube 
boilers and high speed reduction gear turbines of this 
ship are all enclosed with ample room for accessibility in 
a space less than one third that occupied by the crew and 
passenger fueling plant mentioned above. In other words, 
it takes much less of the revenue cubic of a modern cargo 
and passenger liner to fuel 12,500 horses than it does to 
fuel 347 men and women. Most of the fuel for the horses 
is carried in the non-revenue double-bottom tanks where- 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 5 1 




as the fuel for passengers and crew occupies practically 
the whole of one hold. 

Afterholds 

On A deck over the after end of Hold No. 5 there is a 
thwartship passage with side ports and a pair of vertical 
conveyors serving the A deck level down. A 10 feet by 
16 feet hatch trunked from promenade deck to A deck 
also serves this space. In all the handling the cargo 
through side ports overhead gear will be used. 

Holds No. 6 and 7 have practically the same arrange- 
ment as No. 1 and 2 forward, except that in addition to 
the regular 5 and 10 ton booms No. 6 has a 30 ton 70 
feet boom fitted, and that No. 7 has only one hatch which 
is .32 feet 6 inches fore and aft and 20 feet thwartship. 

The after peak at the saloon deck level houses the 
hydro-electric steering gear and on the A deck level takes 
care of the ship's brig, lamp, paint and chain lockers, 
engineers' and bos'n's stores and carpenter shop. 

These arrangements of the principal watertight sub- 
divisions of this design show careful planning for con- 
venience and economy in the functions of passenger ship 
operation.. It will be noted in the foregoing description 
ind in the inboard profile reproduced herewith that all 
of the commissary and refrigerated stores are located 
directly below the main galley and all the dining rooms, 
both passenger and crew, are directly contiguous to the 
galley fore and aft, and on the same deck level. The 
tankage cargo is complete in another hold subdivision. 
All refrigerated cargo is completely and exclusively in its 
own watertight hold division. The baggage room is very 
conveniently located and efficiently served through one 
of the main cargo hatches. 

Passenger Accommodations 

The same careful planning is evident in the arrange- 
ment of the public rooms and sleeping accommodations 
for passengers and crew. 

All accommodations except the galley and dining room 
are on A deck level or above. From the after end of the 
passenger dining room on the saloon deck, two stairways, 



one for passengers, the other for crew, and an elevator 
run up through A, upper and promenade decks to the 
boat deck with spacious landings on each deck. 

The landing on A deck opens aft directly onto the 
passenger entrance and its thwartship passage, and opens 
forward to a number of bedrooms, the barber shop and 
the baggage room. 

Upper deck landing opens aft into a centerline passage 
giving access to many bedrooms and to the children's 
playroom and the hospital. Forward, it gives access to a 
number of fine bedrooms circularly arranged across the 
front of the superstructure. 

Arrangement of Public Rooms 

At the promenade deck level the landing gives access 
forward to a circular passage which serves II beautiful 
rooms at the front of the house and on the inner side a 
passenger laundry and a passenger dark room for photo- 
graphic developing. This landing opens aft into a 10 foot 
wide thwartship covered passageway that opens port and 
starboard on the enclosed promenades each of which is 
14 feet wide and 100 feet long. The passage serves as a 
continuation of the promenade and gives access from 
the crew's stairway to the public rooms and to a pantry 
on the forward side of the passage starboard, from which 
refreshments may be served either to the public rooms 
or on the promenades. Stowage for deck chairs is ar- 
ranged on the forward side of this passage. 

It is noteworthy in this arrangement that there is no 
access to the public rooms except on the centerline from 
this passage and on the centerline aft. This we think is 
an improvement over the many doors that are usually 
planned for these rooms. On the after side of the passage 
large double doors enter the passenger lounge. On the 
after bulkhead of the lounge double doors open a center- 
line passage running aft 25 feet to the smoking room. 
Port and starboard, opening off this passage are women's 
and men's lavatories and various lockers. Opening only 
off the smoking room on the port side, is a card room, 
on the starboard side a cocktail lounge. The smoking 
room opens aft on the centerline through large double 
doors onto the deck surrounding the swimming pool. 

On the boat deck level the stair and elevator landing 
opens on the centerline directly into a writing room that 
forms a balcony across the forward end of the lounge 
clerestory and the floor of which is the roof of the thwart- 
ship passage on the promenade deck. Forward this land- 
ing is formed into a thwartship passage serving two 
rooms and opening port and starboard onto an open 
semi-circular gallery around the forward end of this deck. 
Springing from this passage is a semi-circular aisle serv- 
ing 9 bedrooms. Aft on the boat deck is an awning 
covered deck game area. The unique feature of the pas- 
senger accommodation is the series of bedrooms forming 
the forward end of the house on the upper deck, the 
promenade deck and the boat deck. Here are a total of 
27 rooms, each shaped as a segment of a circle and having 
windows on the periphery of the circle with a clear out- 
look to the sea. These rooms should be very alluring to 
(Please turn to page 128) 



Page 52 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




e will appe 
and to the 



The Corsair Conversion 

THE STEAM YACHT CORSAIR, built in 1929 at Mr. Morgan, was the large size of the staterooms. A 

Bath Iron Works, Bath, Me., for the late J. Pierpont huge Master suite for Morgan was rather isolated from 

Morgan, is now being converted to a luxury cruiser at the the other quarters, with a private promenade where he 

Victoria Machinery Depot shipyard in Victoria, B. C. to could "walk up and down in pajamas if he felt like it 

plans and specifications recently completed by Joslyn and without having guests or crew get in his way. Had a 

Ryan ( M. P. Ryan ) widely known firm of naval archi- mind of his own, the Commodore did." 

tects and marine engineers of San Francisco, California. In addition there were 10 guest staterooms and four 

_ . . , , . . , , . , , smaller rooms for valets or maids. Some of his friends 

Principal characteristics of this vessel as converted ... ,, . ,.,.,,. 

... , tried to interest Morgan in a gyrc-stabilizer for this ves- 
sel, but he said "Anyone who minded a bit of pitching 

Length Overall 343' 6" or rolling now and then, didn't have to accept any more 

Length B. P 280' 0" invitations." 

p M Id H 42' 8" ^^^ Corsair had a varied career. After numerous sea 

r> u \/i M J T n" cruises under Morgan's ownership, she was sold to the 

" British Navy at the outbreak of "World War II and was 

Draft Loaded , 22 6 assigned to convoy duty in the South Atlantic which 

Turbo-Electric Drive, Twin Screw proved in her case to be rather uneventful. At the end 

Propulsion Power Total 6000 shp. of the war she was purchased by Seattle interests for an 

Passengers 85 undisclosed price. Under the name Pacific Cruise Lines, 

f-. an RS Ltd., these interests intend to sail her on leisurely cruises 

to Alaska in summer and South Pacific in winter. Work 

An interesting feature of this yacht as developed for on conversion is now being rushed to completion in 

MARCH«I947 Page 53 



order to have the ship ready and available for the sum- 
mer cruise season of 1947. 

Accommodations 

Joslyn and Ryan's plans for conversion show the or- 
iginal guest room boundries left intact. The beautiful 
teak panelling of these rooms was found to be practically 
unmarred by the war experience and therefore could be 
retained and somewhat modified to harmonize with the 
contemporary design of the new interior and furnishings. 

On the navigating bridge deck there is a large open 
bridge space forward and port and starboard of the 
wheelhouse. Aft of the wheelhouse are in order: a chart 
room with built-in berth, chart table, and stair to deck 
below; radio room with accommodations including bath, 
for the operator; at port side, chief officer's stateroom 
and at starboard side, captain's stateroom, each with 
private bath. Farther aft on this level is a large open space 
laid out for deck games. 

On the boat deck level at the forward end of the 
house is a large observation lounge 24' x 28' which is 
fitted with Kearfott Clearvu windows and will be a very 
popular spot from which to view the British Columbia 
and Alaska coast scenery. An interesting feature of this 
room is the glass enclosed compartment at its center 
wherein is enshrined the master unit of the Sperry MK 
14 gyro compass system. The interested passenger can 
here observe the changes in the compass pointer which 
it is thought will be very interesting in navigating the 
tortuous bends of the inland passage. 

Aft of this room is a lobby off which aft opens a 
suite consisting of bedroom and sitting room and private 
bath. The space at the after end of the bridge erection 
on this deck houses two sound insulated compartments. 



one for the ventilating fans, and the other for the emer- 
gency generating set. Hung from Welin quadrant davits 
amidship on this deck are four life boats (three of which 
are oar propelled and one motor propelled ) , with a com- 
bined capacity of 178 persons. 

The boat deck afterhouse contains; eight two person 
bedrooms, one single bedroom, and one three room suite, 
all with private bath; a cosy cocktail lounge completely 
sound insulated; and a large main lounge with a central 
dance floor. 

Forward of frame 101 on the main deck and of frame 
86 on the cabin deck, the space is all devoted to crews' 
quarters. The main deck house aft of frame 98 encloses: 
chief Stewarts' room starboard and officers' mess port; the 
galley; the passengers' main dining room with searings 
for 44; the fidley with a stateroom and office for the 
chief engineer on the port side, and a wide enclosed pas- 
sage on the starboard side running aft to the cruise 
director's office and stateroom; and machinery casing 
with beauty shop and barber shop on the port side. From 
frame 101 aft to frame 48, the main deck has an eight- 
foot wide clear space between the side bulkheads of the 
house and the port and starboard bulwarks. Aft of frame 
48, the house is being brought out to the shell plating 
line to allow more spacious passenger rooms. The cruise 
director's office on the starboard side, is included in this 
widened portion of the house. Opposite on the port side 
is a nice two-room and bath apartment. Aft of these and 
opening off a midship passage are 16 large staterooms 
each with private bath and several arranged in pairs, 
with a connecting door. 

Below, on the cabin deck aft are: four two-room suites; 
four staterooms for two passengers each; and two single 
(Please turn to page 125) 




The Corsair, former luxury 
yacht of J. P. Morgan, in dry 
dock af Todd Shipyards Cor- 
poration, before she was 
moved fo the West Coast 
for reconversion. 



Page 54 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



The Hew House IDerchant IDarine Committee 
Bnd Chairman Fred Bradley 



By JAMES S. HINES 



THE NEW CHAIRMAN OF THE MERCHANT 
MARINE & Fisheries Committee, Fred Bradley ( R- 
Mich), has been connected indirectly and directly with 
shipping on the Great Lakes ever since 191 1. His father, 
the late Carl D. Bradley, was one of the pioneers in the 
development of the self-loading freighters on the Great 
Lakes and the largest vessel of that type in the world 
today carries his name. This steamer, with five others, is 
operated by the Bradley Transportation Company of 
Rogers Ciry, Michigan, which is a wholly owned subsid- 
iary of the United States Steel Corporation, and prior to 
coming to Congress, Chairman Bradley served as pur- 
chasing agent for that steamship line as well as for its 
parent company, a large limestone quarry. 

Mr. Bradley from boyhood on was an inveterate 
traveUer on the steamers of the Bradley Line and gained 
an intimate knowledge of operating conditions in the 
pilot house and engine room. While he was serving as 
purchasing agent, two new vessels were built for the 
Bradley Transportation Company and it was his respon- 
sibility to purchase all of the complicated machinery that 
went into these two ships — which, incidentally, were the 
first turbo-electric ships built for the Great Lakes. He 
therefore of necessity made the acquaintance of many 
shipping men on the Great Lakes and on the various 
coasts and also came in close contact with many of the 
leading architects and ship machinery engineers and con- 
sultants. 

Mr. Bradley has served on the Merchant Marine & 
Fisheries Committee for almost eight years and is keenly 
aware of many of the problems facing the industry today. 
He not only is aware of these problems but in some 
instances is keenly disturbed by them. He is disturbed 
by the fact that unless something constructive can be 
done about it, we may see all of our passenger traffic 
taken over by foreign flag ships. This is due in part to 
two principal factors. First of all, our considerably higher 
operating costs; and secondly by the unfortunate impres- 
sion which our own citizens and our foreign travellers 
have of the cuisine on American ships and the reputation 
which we seem to have acquired in recent years for a lack 
of courtesy on the part of some of the members of some 
of our crews. However, he has been getting the most 
encouraging reports from the operation of the S.S. 
AMERICA, now under charter to the U. S. Lines on a 




=red Bradley 
(R-Mich) 



day to day basis. In the operation of that splendid vessel, 
no greater courtesy nor better food can be found on the 
high seas. And that in itself proves that labor and man- 
agement can work together if they will. It is definitely 
certain that we cannot see the permanent return of the 
American flag to the high seas unless those relations 
continue to improve. 

On February 10th, the House of Representatives re- 
stored to the Merchant Marine & Fisheries Committee 
its full investigative powers, which it has maintained in 
the past several Congresses. These powers were removed 
temporarily under the Congressional Reorganization Act 
of 1946. Mr. Bradley has emphasized that it is not the 
intention of his Committee to engage in any witch hunts, 
but they do intend to look into the present and the future 
operation of the various functions that come within the 
purview of his Committee. For instance, we have about 
16 million tons of laid-up ships, which may or may not 
be properly laid up, and that will be investigated at once. 
As chief investigator for the Committee, Mr. Bradley 
has secured the services of one of his long-time friends 
and associates, Guy H. LaBounty, who has been sailing 
on the Great Lakes for 38 years, who has been associated 
with the same Line as Mr. Bradley for the past 29 years, 
and has been a chief engineer for the past 25 years. 

Another matter which will be closely followed by the 
Committee are the transactions of the Maritime Commis- 
sion in disposing of our tremendous war-built fleet and 
which will be carried out in strict accordance with the 
Ship Sales Act of 1946. There is also the question of 
watching the charter hire of some of this fleet to Ameri- 
can operators and the early return to American shores of 
some 300-odd ships that we lend-leased to Great Britain 
and which are still operating under the British flag on 
terms much more favorable than to the American op- 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 55 



erators engaged in the same competitive trade. Whether 
there can be any recapture of the ships similarly lend- 
leased to? Russia is at present in doubt, in view of the 
fact that while they were traversing the Japanese war 
lanes, while Russia was not at war with Japan, our 
Government saw fit to give them actual title to these 
ships and the Russians now seemingly take it for granted 
there will be no recapture of those ships. 

The Committee will also in its normal course discharge 
its responsibilities in the operations of the Maritime 
training program, the operations of the Coast Guard, 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, and will look into conditions 
in the Panama Canal Zone. The study of our fisheries — 
in both salt water and fresh water — will come in for 
considerable consideration. 

Mr. Bradley has divided up his Committee into eight 
subcommittees, each to deal with separate problems and 
each empowered to hold its own hearings in the hope 
that the operations of the overall Committee can be 
expedited thereby. 



THE HOUSE MERCHANT MARINE AND 

FISHERIES COMMITTEE IN THE 

80th CONGRESS IS MADE UP AS FOLLOWS: 

FRED BRADLEY. Mich.. Chairman 



Alvln F. Welchel, Ohio 
T. Millet Hand, N. J. 
Henry J. Latham, N. Y. 
David M. Potts, N. Y. 
Willis W. Bradley, Callt. 
Franklin J. Maloney, Pa. 
Thor C. Tollefson, Wash. 
Raymond H. Burke, Ohio 
John J. Allen, Jr., Calif. 
Horace Seely-Brown, Conn. 
John C. Brophy, Wis. 
Robert Nodar, Jr., N. Y. 



Edward T. Miller, Md. 
Schuyler Otis Bland, Va. 
Edward J. Hart, N. J. 
Herbert C. Bonner, N. C. 
James Domengeaux, La. 
Henry M. Jackson, Wash. 
Eugene J. Keogh, N. Y. 
Cecil R. King, Calif. 
Emory H. Price, Fla. 
Franck R. Havenner, Calif. 
Leo F. Rayfiel, N. Y. 
Prince H. Preston, Ga. 



STANDING SUBCOMMITTEES: 



No. I. 
No. 2. 
No. 3. 
No. 4. 
No. 5. 

No. 6. 
No. 7. 
No. 8. 



Labor 



Ship Construction and Operation and Maritime 

WILLIS W. BRADLEY, Calif., Chairman 

Maritime Affairs 

HENRY J. LATHAM, N. Y., Chairman 

Salt-Water Fish and Shellfish Problems 

THOR C. TOLLEFSON, Wash., Chairman 

Panama Canal 

DAVID M. POTTS, N. Y., Chairman 

Coast Guard, Coast and Geodetic Survey, and Publlt 

Health Service 

T. MILLET HAND, N. J., Chairman 

Ship Sales, Charters, and Layups 

ALVIN F. WEICHEL, Ohio, Chairman 

Inland Waterways and Fresh-Water Fisheries 

ALVIN F. WEICHEL, Ohio, Chairman 

Conservation of Wildlife Resources 

RAYMOND H. BURKE, Ohio, Chairman 



THE NEW SENATE COMMITTEE ON INTERSTATE 
AND FOREIGN COMMERCE ARE AS FOLLOWS: 

Senator Wallace H. White (R), serving as chairman. Other 
Republicans on the committee are: Charles W. Tobey of New 
Hampshire; Clyde M. Reed of Kansas: Owen Brewster of Maine; 
Albert W. Hawkes of New Jersey; E. H. Moore of Oklahoma; 
and Homer E. Capehart of Indiana. 

Democratic senators on the committee are: Edwin C. Johnson 
of Colorado; Tom Stewart of Tennessee; Ernest W. McFarland of 
Arizona; Warren G. Magnuson of Washington; Francis J. Myers 
of Pennsylvania and Brlen McMahon of Connecticut. 

Seven of the 13 senators on the committee are from states 
bordering on salt water while the House Committee on the Mer- 
chant Marine has 21 of 25 members from salt water states. 



marine Exposition in San Francisco 
Ulill be Representative of 
Entire Industry 

The exhibilor's list for the Second 
Annual National Marine Exposition 
sponsored by the Propeller Club of the 
United States is growing daily, and 
now includes the following: 

Adel Precision Products Corporation, ALCOA Steam- 
ship Company, Aluminum Company of America, Amer- 
coat Division, Amer. Pipe & Const. Co., American Export 
Lines, Milo Atkinson Company, Atlantic-Pacific Manu- 
facturing Company, Atlas Imperial Diesel Engine Com- 
pany, E. J. Bartells Company, Cummins Engine Company, 
Inc., Dearborn Chemical Company, Devoe & Reynolds 
Company, Inc., Ets-Hokin & Galvan, Enterprise Engine 
& Foundry Company, Electric Storage Battery Company. 

Flexitallic Gasket Company, Gamlen Chemical Com- 
pany, General Electric Company, Globe Wireless Ltd., 
A. P. Green Fire Brick Company, Frank Groves Com- 
pany, C. J. Hendry Company, Hercules Equipment & 
Rubber Company, Higgins, Inc., Hooper Valve Com- 
pany, International Paint Company, Inc., Johns-Manville 
Corporation, Thomas Laughlin Company, The Log, Lori- 
mer Diesel Enginee Company, Mcwhythe Company, 
Mackay Radio & Telegraph Company, Marine Catalog 
& Buyers Guide, Marine Engineering & Shipping Re- 
view, Marine News, Metalock Casting Repair Service. 

National Inventory Board, Nordberg Manufacturing 
Company, Pacific Marine Review, The Propeller Club of 
the United States, Radiomarine Corporation of America, 
Sausalito Shipbuilding Company, George C. Sharp, The 
Simmons Company, Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., 
Standard Oil Company of California, Submarine Signal 
Company, Triangle Boat Company, Tubbs Cordage Com- 
pany, U. S. Coast & Geodetic Survey, United States 
Gasket Company, U. S. M. S. Officers School, U. S. Navy. 

Vickers Inc., Wall Rope Works, Watson & Meehan, 
Weeks-Howe-Emerson, Westinghouse Air Brake Com- 
pany, Western Electric Company, Western Gear Works, 
Wilcox-Crittenden & Company, Thomas C. Wilson, Inc., 
Worthington Pump & Machinery Corporation, H. G. W. 
Young Company, C-O-Two Fire Equipment Company, 
John A. Roebling's Sons Company of California. 



Page 56 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



. . With The Port Engineers 

The Economical Maintenance of 
Turbine Geared Prime llovers=_ 



Hv GEORGE BARR. General Electric Company 



I LARGE PROPORTION OF MODERN CARGO 

IM VESSELS and most of the passenger Liners in the 
United States are propelled by turbine geared machinery. 
So far very little has been written on the subject of 
maintenance and repair on this type of machinery and 
we are continually being asked, by marine engineers, if 
useful publications are available and from the number 
of questions in the "Question and Answer" sections of 
marine engineer magazines it is very evident that there 
is a crying demand for practical information on the sub- 
ject. 

Maintenance 

Under good operating conditions rotary equipment 
does not require constant adjustment as bearings are not 



subjected to hammer effect. The question then is how 
often should turbine gear units be inspected and by what 
methods should repairs be made. To answer the first 
question it is necessary to make a distinction between 
routine inspection for the owners and periodic survey 
which is an official requirement for classification. 

The routine inspection is a function which is entirely 
at the discretion of the owners. Some call for annual 
inspection. Some call for inspection every second year, 
yet others seem to feel that every fourth year is sufficient. 
This inspection is a form of insurance. It is a physical 
checkup and, in our opinion, it takes away the possibility 
of an inquest and all that can mean. 

This inspection consists of a simple examination of 
the gear teeth through the inspection openings, examina- 




MARCH • 1947 



Page 57 



tion of high speed thrusts, flexible couplings and pinion 
bearings. 

On the turbines it is only necessary to inspect bearings, 
thrusts and packings. It must be remembered, however, 
that it is always good policy to review the engine room 
log before deciding how much of the turbine should be 
inspected. If it transpires that consumption of steam has 
increased radically, to maintain standard speed, or in 
other words if the speed falls off, to any great extent, 
without a corresponding decrease in nozzle opening the 
turbine casing should be raised, as a slowing down of 
the unit may be due to boiler carryover which must be 
removed manually from the internal parts of the tur- 
bines. 

If unusual conditions occur, or gradually develop, 
such as heavy vibration of turbines or undue noise in 
reduction gears an investigation should be made at the 
earliest possible moment. If turbine vibration develops 
while the unit has been steaming steadily, speed should 
be reduced to a point where the vibration disappears and 
held there until the vessel reaches port. 

In the case of vibration while getting underway, pro- 
vided no work has been done on the equipment, the 
trouble is almost sure to be caused by improper warming 
up and when vibration from this cause is noticed the 
power procedure is to slow down until the rotors gather 
a uniform temperature. Complete information on this 
subject of warming up may be found in the Instruction 
Books which have been furnished by the engine manu- 
facturers. 

In the case of excessive and continued vibration, a 
thorough checkup of all external parts should be made 
before deciding that there is something wrong inter- 
nally. The trouble may be caused by worn journal bear- 
ings, worn couplings, worn thrusts or local misalignment, 



and therefore, not a case of actual unbalance. In our 
opinion less than 50 per cent of vibration complaints is 
caused by unbalance and yet unbalance is generally sup- 
posed to be the principal cause of all vibration. 

In the case of a turbine rotor actually going out of 
balance, three points should be checked before attempt- 
ing to do any rebalancing. The buckets or blading should 
be checked for soundness. The shaft should be indicated 
for run out and the entire rotor should be checked for 
cleanliness, if the latter is at fault a cleaning job will 
restore balance, if the shaft has taken a slight permanent 
set a compensation can be made to fully restore balance. 
If buckets or blades are loose rebucketting and rebalanc- 
ing is the only salvation. 

If it is necessary to rebalance small rotors the work 
should be done on a dynamic balancing machine, on 
shore. On large rotors, such as the L.P. unit, dynamic 
balancing can be done without removing the rotor from 
its own bearing, but as a rule it is necessary to expose the 
rotor during the process. In fact, it pays to do the work 
with the top half of the turbine casing removed. 

Correction of Alignment 

Where apparatus has been properly installed the pos- 
sibility of it going out of line is quite remote yet it does 
occur if bearings wear out of shape or if foundations are 
disturbed. 

Flexible couplings, between the driving and driven 
elements, allow for a certain degree of misalignment 
but it is good practice to use the same precision in link- 
ing up rotors with flexible couplings as for rotors with 
solid couplings. 

Carbon Packing 

On all turbine gear sets, built for the U. S. Maritime 
Commission, carbon rings are used as shaft packing. 
As a general rule the manufacturers of turbines furnish 




Low pressure turbine ro- 
tor having packing jour- 
nals corrected. Lett in the 
picture is Mr. Barr. 




Model of 6-E 



sufficient information for operation and maintenance of 
this packing, nevertheless, there is a constant inquiry 
from marine engineers for more detailed information 
and unfortunately, in some cases, their inquiries are mis- 
directed. Often the information they receive is mislead- 
ing. In fact, we have noted some of the called "Hints" 
in engineering publications that contradict the manufac- 
turers instructions and which, if followed could give 
the engineer some bad moments. 

In the first place, carbon packings are designed to have 
shaft clearance and under no circumstances should the 
clearance be reduced below the dimensions given by the 
manufacturers. In actual practice we have found carbon 
packing operating perfectly with running clearance 50 
per cent greater than the original size. The coefficient of 
expansion of carbon is only 25 per cent that of steel; 
therefore it is necessary to make the proper allowance for 
shaft expansion so that the carbon rings will not touch 
the shaft during operation. 

Carbon packings are commonly blamed for loss of 
vacuum when the actual trouble is elsewhere. 

In the repair of damaged or worn parts of turbines 
and gears certain rules must be observed and the first 
rule is that high class machinery requires high class 
workmanship, so the repair of turbines is not a job for 
inexperienced workmen. In reviewing the repair work of 
the war years, we find that the only serious casualties to 
turbine geared sets have been caused needlessly and in 
every case, by a misunderstanding of simple repairs. 
Rotors have been damaged by inexperienced men at- 
tempting to fit packing according to their own ideas. 
They do not appreciate that stationary parts must stand 
clear of spinning rotors. They dress down the butt joints 
of carbon rings until they hug the shaft and depend 
upon the shaft to wear its own clearance. That procedure 
was common practice when turbines were operated on 
saturated team, but it is a fatal mistake to apply it to 
turbines that are operated on superheat. 
Bearings 

As a rule, on turbines and gear installations, bearing 
wear is negligible, but bearings may be wiped or in- 
I Please turn to pai^e 1 25 i 





m 







upper right: Thrust plate being placed in high ■ pressu 
marine steam turbine. This was taken tn the G-E Lynn Riv 



Center; High-pressure element (without upper half casing) 
for S-E cross-compound geared marine steam turbirfe. 



Below right: Low-pressure element (without upper half casing) 
for G-E cross-compound geared marine steam turbine. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 59 



oy Steels in the 
Shipbuilding and 
Ship Repair Industry 



By GEORGE M. HUCK 



ALLOY STEELS MAY BE DEFINED as those steels 
which owe their special properties to the presence 
of one or more special elements or to the presence of 
greater than usual proportions of elements like man- 
ganese or silicon normally present in plain carbon steels. 

They are manufactured by the same process as ordinary 
carbon steels; that is, in the open hearth or electric fur- 
nace, though the greater tonnages are produced in the 
former. 

The majority, if not all, of the metallic elements have 
been added at one time or another to steels — at least in 
an experimental basis, — but those now commonly used 
are listed below: 



Manganese 


Tungsten 


Silicon 


Copper 


Phosphorous 


Vanadium 


Sulphur 


Zirconium 


Aluminum 


Titanium 


Chromium 


Columbium 


Molybdenum 


Silenium 


Cobalt 


Lead 



In comparing carbon and alloy steels, we find that the 
latter serve to defeat a variety of destructive forces en- 
countered in machinery and equipment of many types. 
In addition to providing higher strength per unit of 
weight, without impairment of safety, alloy steels permit 
improvement in resistance to fatigue, corrosion, wear, the 
weakening efforts of high temperatures and the em- 
brittling effects of sub-atmospheric temperatures. 

As a rule, the processing of alloy steels is more in- 
volved than treatment given carbon steels. From refine- 
ment in the steel making furnaces through rolling, heat 
treatment and subsequent finishing operations, the con- 
trol of the various operations is usually more closely 
checked. The ultimate aim in all steel plant procedures is 
to produce a steel with a set of physical properties which 
will best fit the application to which the steel will be put. 



Georg 


e Huck, man 


sger 


of 


Sales 


for Alloy an 
, Bethlehem 


d T 


ool 


Steel 


Pac 


fie 


Coast 


steel Co., t 


olds 


a 


Metall 


rgical Eng 


nee 


r*s 


degree 


from the Ur 


iver 


ity 


of Mi 


nesota. and 


star 


ed 


with B 


Bthlehem Stee 


1 Co 


m- 


pany 


n Bethlehe 


m 


Pa. 


plant 


n 1926. In 


938 


he 


was mc 


de metallurg 


cal 




gineer 


for special 


steels 


sold 


n the West 


Coa 


St. 


Since 


1943 he ha 


be 




Manag 


er of Sales 


of 


all 


alloy e 


nd tool stee 


Is sc 


Id 


by B 


cthelehem Pa 


cific 






With few exceptions the service demanded of alloy steels 
is higher than with carbon steels. 

The correct application and the right steel to use is in 
itself a comprehensive field. Bethlehem Pacific's Metal- 
lurgical Contact Service is constantly engaged in studying 
steel applications and making recommendations for bet- 
ter service to the many steel consuming industries in the 
West. In some cases an alloy steel is not the right steel 
to use and a cheaper carbon steel has at times been rec- 
ommended by our Metallurgical Department. Sometimes 
the machining practices must be changed or the method 
of fabrication and heat-treatment is not right. In every 
case, however, whether the steel be of alloy or carbon 
analysis, the aim is to produce a steel which will provide 
the physical properties desired at the lowest possible cost 
to the user. 

Of the myriad industries on the Pacific Coast in which 
Bethlehem aUoy steels are daily solving problems of 
efliciency, ruggedness and volume production with im- 
provement in quality and little or no increase in cost, the 
shipbuilding industry is one that has particularly bene- 
fited. In fact, it could not have assumed the tremendous 
proportions it did during World W.ar II without the 
major part played by alloy steels. 

Take Bethlehem Steel Company's San Francisco Yard 
as an example. This yard, the only commercial shipyard 
in San Francisco and the largest privately operated ship 
repair yard in the country, built more than 50 Navy 
combat vessels during the last war, overhauled 31 sub- 
marines, and repaired more than 2500 vessels of all 
types. 

Navy vessels, which have to be built to the most 
exact specifications, utilize alloy steel to a great extent. 
Bethlehem nickel-chromium steel, a combination which 
produced a steel having the benefits of the added strength 
of both alloys, is used for gun mount bolts. Bolts made 
of this alloy are now generally used throughout indus- 
tries where parts are subjected to unusual operating con- 



Page 60 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



ditions. Examples are also seen at this yard today in a 
large number of ship repair operations. 

Carbon molybdenum steels are used extensively in 
high pressure steam and feed lines which are operated 
at temperatures in excess of 7500° F. temperature and 
600# per square inch pressure. 

Molybdenum is used as an alloy in steel because it 
imparts definite benefits upon subjecting the steel to heat 
treatment. At present its most general use is mainly to 
enhance the desirable properties of other alloying ele- 
ments such as manganese, nickel, or chromium, and 
nickel with chromium, all of which with the addition of 
a relatively small percentage of molybdenum show an 
improved response to heat treatment. 

Valves, fittings, bolting material, etc., must necessarily 
be of alloy manufacture to withstand rugged sea service. 
Valve trim such as seats, stems, and discs are often made 
from stainless. Feed pump casings are now being made 
from 18-8 to withstand erosion caused by the water. 
Super-heater rubes and headers operated at 900' F. are 
made from carbon-chrome-moly steel. Turbine rotor 
blades, manufactured in Bethlehem's Quincy Yard, are 
made of stainless iron. Temperature of the high pressure 
units is generally 800° to 850° F. Steel castings for the 
turbines also made at this yard are made of C-Mo steel. 
Tail shafts and couplings on Navy vessels utilize alloy 



steel. These operate at 400 rpm. Coupling bolts for the 
main shaft as well as the high pressure turbine joint bolts 
are alloy products. 

Strength at high temperature is vital in the parts just 
enumerated and alloy steel is mandatory for this work. 

Other parts such as reduction gears, where wear, pit- 
ting and resistance to fatigue are essential, require the 
use of alloy steel. 

Vanadium alloy steels are used for rams and machine 
tool parts, many of which are made right at the San 
Francisco Yard. Vanadium acts as a deoxidizer. Its effect 
on the physical properties of a heat-treated steel is to 
promote ductility and accentuate the benefits of other 
alloying elements such as manganese and chromium. 

Other types of Bethlehem alloy steels used in the com- 
pany's San Francisco and other 'W''est Coast yards include 
alloy #2 for boiler studs; class A nickel for boiler studs 
and bolts; stainless steels for valves and rings or any 
parts subject to rust; and Mayari-R, a low alloy steel 
with a high tensile strength and anti-corrosion qualities. 
This latter steel is used to line fish hold tanks in Pacific 
Coast commercial fishing vessels. 

The special demands in many instances found in the 
shipbuilding and ship repair industry can only be satis- 
fied with an alloy product. 



Quick Repairs l\re Important 



WHEN CARGO AND PASSENGER SPACE on ves- 
els plying between the "West Coast and points in the 
Pacific and Far East is so scarce — and from all present in- 
dications this condition is likely to continue — it is ex- 
tremely important to shipping operators that their vessels 
be returned to service from repair lay-up as soon as 
possible. 

Bethlehem Steel Company's San Francisco Yard is 
helping these operators realize this by performing repair 
jobs in minimum time. A typical example can be taken 
from the case of the SS Hoegh Silvercloud, 5287-ton 
combination freighter and passenger vessel. The main 
water cooler housing for this vessel's diesel engines 
cracked and became unserviceable while the vessel was 
at sea. 

The entire water cooler and housing were removed 
from the Silvercloud at Bethlehem's San Francisco Yard. 
Here it was found that to duplicate the cracked housing 
in its original form as an iron casting would take 56 days 
normal delivery and 21 days forced delivery. Further- 
more, if the housing were to be in the form of a casting, 
the risk would be run that the casting might be imper- 
fect, causing further delay. It was finally decided to fab- 
ricate a new housing of steel. This was done in consider- 
ably less time than was estimated for the casting. 



Specifications called for the housing to be 5 feet 7 
inches long with an inside diameter of .i6i '2 inches with 
fianges on each end finished to a thickness of l^k inches. 
Five pockets for fresh water circulation had to be fabri- 
cated and welded on each side of the cylindrical shaped 
housing. The cylinder itself was formed from one plate 
rolled in the shape of a half circle and welded together. 
The flanges were welded on each end. 

The entire fabrication job was handled in the Yard's 
Plate Ship, following which it was stress relieved, sand 
blasted, and then removed to the Machine Shop. Here 
the interior of the housing was machined on the shop's 
boring mill. The flanges also were machined and 15/16- 
inch diameter bolt holes were drilled and spot faced. 
The entire unit was then hot dip galvanized. 

A large tube nest for circulating salt water was then 
installed in the housing. This was equipped with fresh 
water baflfles. 

Final operation before installation of the completed 
cooler in the vessel consisted of first testing the tube nest 
under a 75 pound per square inch water pressure and 
then the housing itself under the same pressure. Upon 
successful completion of its tests both the inner and outer 
tube nest heads at each end of the housing were bolted 
into place. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 61 




The Admiral Hugh Rodman, a P2-SE2-RI troopship before conversion bv Transportation Corps. 



The Army's Ship Conversion Program 

Army Weeli Reminds Us of Its Importance 



fHEN THE NATION PAYS TRIBUTE during 
Army Week, April 6-12, to the men and women, 
living and dead, who contributed so much while in the 
service of their country, ship repair yards on both coasts 
will be reminded of the valuable service they are render- 
ing the Army in their program of postwar ship con- 
version. 

With the cessation of hostilities on both global fronts, 
there was demanded of the Transportation Corps, a mass 
movement of troops back to state-side, which in magni- 
tude far surpassed any such previous movement. The 
Transportation Corps' fleet, aided greatly by vessels of 
Navy and War Shipping Administration, returned to 
states in the six months, August 1, 1945, to January .t1, 
1946, a total of 3,762,868 persons. This figure does not 
include outbound load which in itself was tremendous, 
namely, 817,968 persons in the same 6-months' period. 

While this mass movement of personnel was being 
expeditiously handled, a plan for development of a post- 
war Army transport fleet was in the making. The basic 
vessels covered by this plan were the 610' P-2 type 

Page 62 



vessels and the 523' C-4 type vessels. These vessels had 
been built as troop ships by the Maritime Commission 
but had been previously operated by Navy and Coast 
Guard. The first of the basic group was transferred to 
to the War Department on February 28, 1946, and the 
last vessel on June 21, 1946. A total of thirty-six ve.ssels 
was involved as follows: 

Twenty-five of the C4-S-A1 type (single-screw, geared 
turbine drive) built at Kaiser Richmond Ship Yard No. 
3, Richmond, California. 

Eight of the P2-SE2-R1 type (twin-screw, turbo-elec- 
tric drive) built at Bethlehem Alameda Ship Yard, Ala- 
meda, California. 

Three of the P2-S2-R2 ( twin-screw, geared turbine 
drive) built at the Federal Ship Yard, Kearny, New 
Jersey. 

All vessels, upon delivery to the Transportation Corps, 
were immediately placed in conversion yards and the 
first phase of this major two-phase program was initiated. 

It might be well here to point out the necessity for 
splitting the program into two separate and distinct 
phases. At the time the 36 vessels were undergoing first 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



phase conversion, the transportation requirements of the 
War Department had reduced to a point where, for a 
time, the vessels undergoing conversion could be released 
from service and the entire load handled with other 
miscellaneous vessels of the War Department and War 
Shipping Administration fleets. This latter group of 
War Department vessels, however, could not be counted 
on as permanent troop ships as many were required to 
be returned to private operators, many were old vessels, 
and others were of a cype which could not be considered 
desirable as permanent additions to our fleet. With this 
condition in mind and with a desire to release this latter 
group of vessels from active service with the least pos- 
sible delay, it was considered desirable to separate the 
conversion program into two supplemental phases, the 
first phase of which would cover only chat work necessary 
to allow the vessels to return as soon as possible to service 
fitted with minimum requirements of a postwar Army 
transport, and the second phase covering the balance of 
the permanent conversion features. How well the time 
saving feature of this plan succeeded is indicated by the 
fact that the first of the converted vessels re-entered 
ser\'ice by May 27, 1946, and all vessels were again in 
service by November 1946. The first phase of conver- 
sion consisted of changing the crew quarters, troop quar- 
ters, passenger quarters and life boats, and effecting nec- 
essar)' repairs. 

Crew Quarters 
As all of the thirty-six vessels had been previously 
operated by either the Navy or Coast Guard, the crev\- 
quarters on the vessels were entirely inadequate to meet 



requirements of a civilian crew. In addition, the enlisted 
men of the Navy or Coast Guard crews had messed with 
the transient troops in the usual cafeteria style and new 
messrooms and pantries were required for civilian crews 
which, in accordance with current marine practice, must 
be seated and receive table service during regular meal 
hours. 

The new required crews quarters were developed in 
accordance with latest maritime regulations and in such 
a manner that the least amount of re-arrangement will 
be necessary during second phase conversion. Ships' offi- 
cers, in general, are berthed top sides in one and two- 
man rooms, the crews being quartered in well lighted and 
ventilated two, four, and six-berth rooms. 

New crew messrooms and pantries were fitted as re- 
quired and so located as to concentrate the culinary 
activities in order to achieve the maximum efficiency of 
the Steward's Department. 

The ships as converted provide crew accommodations 
which should go far in reducing shipboard personnel 
turnover and in making for happy, comfortable, and 
satisfied crews. 

Troop Quarters 

During the war years, shipboard comfort of troops in 
transit was considered, within certain limits, as secondary 
to the task of transporting them safely in the large num- 
bers required by the various theater commanders. Troop 
berths were stacked four and five high with small aisles 
between berths. The chief consideration of the Trans- 
portation Corps during the first phase conversion was 
to reduce overcrowding in troop areas. Troop berths 




The Admiral E. W. Eberle, a sister 

MARCH • 1947 



of the Admiral Rodman, after conve 



by tlie Transportation Corps. 



Page 63 



were limited to three high, undesirable berthing loca- 
tions were converted for other purposes, slight changes 
in lighting and ventilation were accomplished all in an 
effort to make troop spaces as comfortable as practicable. 

Minor rearrangements were accomplished in troop 
mess spaces to speed up serving and to insure that each 
man was fed three healthful and satisfying meals a day. 
Troops are fed cafeteria style using five-compartment 
mess trays which when emptied are passed through 
mechanical washers in order to make certain that each 
tray is physically and biologically clean before its next use. 

The troop capacity of each vessel was materially re- 
duced and the distinctly uncomfortable overcrowding 
conditions of war days no longer exist. 

Passenger Quarters 

As the War Department is required to transport fam- 
ilies of its officers and troops as well as civilian govern- 
mental employees, quarters for this type of passenger 
were a necessity. During the first phase conversion, troop 
officer spaces and other available spaces were fitted for 
this purpose. New fire-resistant, Class "B" stateroom 
bulkheads were installed, comfortable berths fitted and 
private, semi-private, and public toilets were located 
throughout passenger areas as required. In certain of the 
vessels, larger spaces were fitted as dormitories for junior 
officers, single members of families or male civilian em- 
ployees. While the quarters can in no manner be com- 
pared to prewar stateroom space, the outfitting, location, 
ventilation, and lighting is adequate to insure the com- 
fort of all quartered therein. 

The old troop ofiicers' mess rooms were utilized for the 
saloon mess with provision for serving three meals a day 
to all cabin passengers. 

While the second phase conversion contemplates for 
all cabin passengers, a high standard of accommodation, 
the first phase conversion has covered the installation of 
the fundamental facilities and provides for a limited 
number of passengers in quantities as listed below: 

C4-S-A1 136 Passengers 

P2-SE2-R1 302 Passengers 

P2-S2-R2 139 Passengers 

Life Boats 

The eight vessels of the P2-SE2-R1 class at the time 
of their transfer to the War Department, were fitted with 
only two sets of davits under which were stored the 
emergency boats. The War Department felt that such 
lack of life boat capacity could not be condoned in peace- 
time use and on each of the eight vessels of this class, six 
sets of gravity davits were installed. Under each set of 
davits, a 35' 135-passenger life boat was fitted together 
with necessary life boat handling winches. 

Repairs 

During the conversion period all vessels in the pro- 
gram were drydocked and any necessary underwater re- 



pairs completed. All vessels were painted in Transpor- 
tation Corps colors and the well-known red, white, and 
blue Army Transport Service stack bands again made 
their appearance. All hull structural repairs found nec- 
essary were accomplished and all machinery and equip- 
ment was given thorough overhauling. 

Severe war service by these vessels had precluded the 
usual attention to machinery maintenance and engine 
and fire room repairs were found to be extensive. 

All boilers were opened, cleaned on both fire and 
water sides, furnace brick work was renewed or re- 
paired where necessary, and tubes re-rolled or new tubes 
fitted. All boiler mountings were examined, boilers 
hydrostatically tested and passed by the U. S. Coast Guard 
Vessel Inspection Service. All turbines and gear covers 
were removed, units cleaned, necessary repairs accom- 
plished and units closed. Auxiliaries, blowers and me- 
chanical equipment throughout each vessel were opened, 
inspected and thoroughly overhauled. Each vessel was 
given a dock and sea trial before being placed in active 
service to insure its seaworthiness and satisfactory me- 
chanical condition. 

In the case of the eight P-2 vessels which are turbo- 
electric drive, reverse current relays and voltage regula- 
tors were fitted to insure safety of main propulsion units 
under all maneuvering conditions. 

The repairs were accomplished concurrently with con- 
version work so that "out of service" time of the vessels 
was held to a minimum. 

In addition to the major groups of work described 
above, the conversions of these vessels entailed work on 
thousands of lesser items such as fire detecting and ex- 
tinguishing system, rearrangement of radar installations, 
installation of general alarm systems, overhauling and 
rearrangement of cargo gear, life saving gear, etc., all of 
which work was required in the development of these 
war time built troop ships into safe and efficient postwar 
troop transports. 

In addition to the twenty-five C-4 and eleven P-2 ves- 
sels which underwent first phase conversion as indicated 
above, additional conversions were accomplished on spe- 
cial C-3 type troop ships, the Frederick Funston and 
James O'Hara, and three Cl-B hospital type ships, the 
Hope, Comfort and Mercy. In general the work on these 
vessels consisted of installation of civilian crew quarters, 
overhaul of hulls and machinery, and minor modifica- 
tions in way of passenger spaces to fit the vessels for 
demands of postwar service. 

Another interesting chapter of the War Department 
conversion story involves three ex-Navy vessels, the 
Tryon, Rixey and Pinkney. These combination assault 
and hospital vessels were built by the Moore Dry Dock 
Company in Oakland, California, and were originally 
intended for service with Alcoa Steamship Company. 
However, prior to completion they were altered for Navy 
service and served with distinction in the Pacific during 

(Please turn to page 117) 



Page 64 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




W(«^«SfHgl!S*b«feis««S.-* 



'•—""'-^.asgs*'-:. 



of the late Nil 



Pacific Merchant Marine Gave 
Edison His First Lighting Installation 



LAST MONTH (FEBRUARY 1947) was the 100th 
anniversary of the birth of Thomas Alva Edison, a 
great American citizen who was the despair of his school 
teachers during his early years, a great grief to his bosses 
during youth, and suddenly developed into the greatest 
inventor that America, and possibly the world, has thus 
far produced. He is getting much merited acclaim from 
the daily press and from technical journals all over the 
world, even to giving him credit for everything that 
marks the United States as a prosperous, industrial and 
manfacturing nation, which of course, is ridiculous. 

In the midst of all this eulogy and fulsome praise, we 
wish here to again record and emphasize the fact that it 
was a Pacific Coast shipowner, a Pacific Coast steamer. 
and a Pacific Coast marine engineer, in combination, 
who gave to Edison the first big boost in connection with 
the practical application of his electric incandescent 
lamp, his shunt wound constant voltage generator, and 
his parallel wiring system. 

In 1879 there was building at the famous John Roach 
shipyard, Chester, Pa., an iron steamer, christened Colum- 
bia, for the account of the Oregon Railway and Naviga- 
tion Co., and to be used by them in the Pacific Coastwise 
trade between Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco. 
President Henry Villard, of the Oregon firm, was in New 
York late in 1879 and was intrigued by the announce- 
ments of Edison's discovery of the practical application 
of the incandescent electric lamp. He went out to Menlo 
Park, N. J., and was much impressed by what he saw 



there and by Edison's personality. He was also very much 
in favor of the advertising value of having the first steam- 
er with electric light. So he gave Edison an order to wire 
the Columbia for lights and install an electric generat- 
ing system thereon. 

Edison at this period, was under much adverse criti- 
cism because premature publicity had not been followed 
by promised performance and the big New York dailies 
were beginning to suspect that he was working the 
market on shares of the then just-formed Edison Elec- 
tric Illuminating Co. This order to equip an American 
passenger steamer was the first tangible evidence of busi- 
ness confidence in Edison's proposed electric light sys- 
tem and came before he had perfected the carbon fila- 
ment for his lamps. 

The inventor and his friend Villard, found themselves 
immediately in conflict with the conservatism of John 
Roach, then the great shipbuilder of the United States. 
This shipbuilder refused to have the electricians do any 
work on the ship while the vessel was in his yard, so the 
job had to wait until she was moored alongside a New 
York Dock and having her hotel equipment installed. 

There, Edison's workmen and the chief engineer of 
the Columbia, Oliver Van Duzer, wired the steamer as 
told in the letter reproduced below, and installed four 
Edison bi-polar constant voltage generators and a pair of 
vertical steam engines to run these generators. 

The Columbia had a long and useful career on the 
Pacific Coast. Between her arrival at Portland on July 22 
and her lay-up for complete overhaul in 1895, she had 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 65 



Dynamo Room, SS Columbia 




lamp, started 
hibition at the 



made over 400 round trips between San Francisco and 
the Columbia River. She was thoroughly overhauled at 
the Union Iron Works (presently Bethlehem San Fran- 
cisco yard) in 1895 and at that time her original Edison 
generator plant was removed and a more modern plant 
installed. This was a U.l.W. generator direct connected 
to a U.l.W. compound vertical engine. The Edison gen- 
erators were distributed to various museums and other 
institutions. The one sent to the Smithsonian is depicted 
in one of our illustrations. 

A letter to Edison dated 1882 and written by the port 
engineer of the Oregon Railway and Navigation Co., 
was used by the Edison Electric Illuminating Co. in much 
of their early advertising as proof of the long life of the 
Edison incandescent lamp. This letter, in part, read: 

"In 1879, while the Columbia, which contains a 
large number of passenger rooms, was under con- 
struction, President Villard conceived the idea of 
lighting each room in the vessel independently by 
the electric light. Thereupon, at your suggestion 
and by his orders, I wired the ship with No. 1 1 wire 
for mains and No. 32 wire for loops, insulated by 
double cotton paraffine and painted over all. The 
wires run throughout the entire vessel, but the proj- 
ect at that time being experimental, we lighted 
only the passenger rooms and main saloons. The 
dynamos, of which we had four, one of them run- 
ning at half the speed of the others as an exciter 
or fielder, were of the class you now call "A," and 
were all run from a countershaft directly overhead, 
driven in turn by a pair of vertical engines at a very 
high angle in order to economize freight space. On 
the night of the 2nd of May 1880, we started up the 
dynamos, and from the time when the steam was 



first turned on until the present day they have work- 
ed to our entire satisfaction under all circumstances. 

"We found the light of the greatest value for the 
examination of the ship's propeller, rudder or hull, 
which examination we conducted by connecting to 
a main line aft, or at any convenient point, a coil of 
insulated wire with lamps attached to a sinker. 

"The first lamps used, being of the paper carbon 
variety, were irregular in their duration of life and 
so liable to breakage by heavy shocks that I found it 
best to suspend them from the wires above, and to 
do away with the sockets entirely. The lamps being 
surrounded with a ground globe, the attachment 
was hid, the lamps being suspended from the ceil- 
ing. Since the arrival of the ship on the Pacific 
coast we have received a full supply of new bamboo 
carbon lamps. How well these have worked can 
best be seen from the following report of the Chief 
Engineer Van Duzer: I have now one hundred and 
fifteen lamps in circuit, and have, up to date, run 
four hundred and fifteen hours and forty-five min- 
utes without one lamp giving out.' " 

The Columbia has long ago gone to her rest as has 
Edison, but let it not be forgotten that this Pacific 
Coast steamer carried the first commercial plant of elec- 
tric incandescent lighting ever installed on earth and that 
she pioneered the marine use of electricity which has 
now become such an important factor in the world's 
marine engineering practice. 



[dison Dynamo, 1879 




Edison made a dynamo that was 90 per cent efficient which 
scientists said was impossible. This dynamo is in the collection 
of the Smithsonian Institution and was one of the machines on the 
Columbia, the first commercial installation of the Edison lamp. 



Page 66 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Reblading Turbines 
lit San Francisco 



IN WHAT REPRESENTS a painstaking and exacting 
piece of work, one which is not frequently found being 
done in Bay Area ship repair yards, Bethlehem Steel 
Company's San Francisco Yard is currently engaged in 
reblading both the high pressure and low pressure tur- 
bines of a T-3 tanker the company built in 1943 at its 
Sparrows Point Yard. The vessel is the SS Cornell, 487 
feet long and 10,180 tons. Her two turbines were built 



at Bethlehem's Fore River Yard in Quincy, Massachu- 
setts. 

Because of the experience it has gained in reblading 
and repairing steam turbines, plus the technical know- 
how, the San Francisco Yard is placed in an enviable 
position for performing a job requiring such skill. 

It became necessary to reblade the low pressure tur- 
f Please turn to page /t6/ 



At top, left: Checking rotor from Low Pr( 



turbine for trueness prior to removing blades. Right: Reblading lo 




At bottom, left: Installing labyrinth packing in backing turbine diaphragm. Right: Installing blading segments in LP rotor 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 67 




urn 



A VICTORY TYPE CARGO STEAMER is now being 
converted into a self-unloading combination bulk 
cement and other rock carrier by the Kaiser Company at 
Swan Island Yard, Portland, Oregon, for the Permanente 
Cement Company. 

The main characteristics of the converted vessel will 
be: 

Length Overall 455' — 3" 

Length B. P 436'— 6" 

Beam Molded 62'— 0" 

Depth M. D. Molded 38'— 0" 

Draft Molded S. L. L 28'— 6%" 

Light Ship Meandraft 9' — 8" 

Displacement Loaded 15,210 tons 

Displacement Light 4,430 tons 

Total Deadweight 10,780 tons 

Cargo Deadweight 8,676 tons 

In general, the platform decks in Holds Nos. 2, 3, 4 
are being removed and these spaces changed into hop- 
pers, port and starboard, with 45° angle bottoms so ar- 
ranged that they converge into the scraper tunnels. 
Holds Nos. 1 and 5 are arranged to house: the machinery 
operating the scrapers and conveyors; the cement pumps, 
and the discharge hoppers. The cargo is discharged 
from the hold hoppers into one of the tunnels and con- 
veyed by scraper system to the forward or aft discharge 
hopper from which it is discharged to FuUer-Kenyon 
cargo pumps — if cement, or to a conveyor system — 
if miscellaneous rock. Scrapers are Sauerman Bros, 
crescent type each having a capacity of 6 cubic yards. 
These scraper systems will each be operated by a Clyde 
Iron Works hoist, one operator manipulating two 
hoists and their scrapers. One scraper system has more 
than enough capacity to feed one cement pump. Opera- 
tion of the scrapers is handled from a control room 
with pneumatic controls. 

The two cement pumps with the help of four Fuller 
air compressors are to be capable of handling a total 
of 8000 cu. ft. or 376 short tons of cement an hour and 
discharging it ashore through 1000 feet of flexible pipe. 



"! 



BULIiCEniEIICflRltlEI! 



The Link Belt rock conveyors consist of vertical bucket 
elevators discharging onto boom conveyors, which dis- 
charge outboard port or starboard, and are designed to 
handle a total of 500 short tons of bulk miscellaneous 
rock an hour. 

A large amount of structural work is involved in com- 
pensating for the portions of hull removed and for the 
extra strains imposed by this handling machinery. This 
structural work includes: the removal of large parts of 
the platform decks in way of holds No. 2, 3 and 4; the 
removal and decking over the weather deck hatches 
2, 3 and 4; the construction and installation of dust 
tight steel bulkheads to form new sides and 45° bot- 
toms for holds 2, 3 and 4; the construction of the four 
scraper runnels mentioned above, and the cutting and 
fitting of their access through bulkheads; the construc- 
tion and fitting of access hatches and ladders for the 
machinery spaces in holds No. 1 and No. 5; the fabri- 
cation and installation of suitable deck piping for 
cement loading and suitable discharge piping for cement 
unloading pumps; the fabrication and installation of 
ventilating ducts for the machinery spaces and for the 
scraper tunnels; and the construction of reinforcing 
transverse arches and compensating structural members 
in various parts of the ship. 

There are four scraper tunnels in the ship. Two for- 
ward 10 feet outboard from center line port and star- 
board and two aft 12 feet 9 inches outboard from cen- 
ter line port and starboard. These tunnels have an in- 
verted V roof in way of the cargo hoppers changing 
into flat roof as they enter machinery spaces where they 
incline upward as a ramp carrying the scrapers to the 
top of the discharge hopper. Doors in the sides of each 
tunnel allow the cement to discharge from the hop- 
per holds by gravity. 

Electric power for the cement piunps, for the air 
compressors, and for the rock conveyors is taken from 
the shore through three shore box connections to con- 
trol panels in the machinery spaces. Each cement pump 
takes a 350 hp motor and each compressor a 200 hp 
motor. Each bucket elevator takes a 40 hp motor and 



each boom conveyor a 15 hp motor. Interlocking elec- 
tric controls prevent any dangerous piling up of cargo 
on either the cement pumping system or the rock 
conveying system. 

Cement is loaded by shoreside pumps assisted by com- 
pressed air and discharging to the holds by deck piping. 
This air is discharged from the cement hold hoppers 
through dust arresters of the bag type. One such ar- 
rester is located aft to take care of the discharge air from 
the cement tanks in Hold No. 4 space. The second ar- 
rester is located over Hold No. 3 and takes care of the 
air discharge from the cement tanks in the space for- 
merly occupied by holds No. 2 and 3. Each arrester is 
fitted with an electric bag shaker. Their combined 
capacity is 6000 cfm of air and they will normally col- 
lect 35 tons of cement dust during one loading opera- 
tion. 

The deck piping system for cement loading and un- 
loading are specified seamless drawn steel pipe 10" in- 
side diameter. All bends are made to a minimum radius 
of 8' — 0", all joints are dust tight and those on the 
weather deck watertight, and all connections self clean- 
ing. The discharge of the loading pipes into the holds 
is through deck terminal boxes, and these boxes are 
fitted with removable wearing plates. The cement piping 
is tested for 100 psi air pressure. 

A mechanical ventilation system of the exhaust fan 
type is being fitted in each of the cargo machinery 
spaces. Four Sturtevant design "Silent Vane" fans, each 
driven by a 5 hp motor and each having a capacity for 
delivering 10,000 cfm at IV2 in. water static pressure. 
These systems will change the air every 4 minutes in the 
compartments they serve. 

Accommodations 

Considerable change is being made in the crews quar- 
ters to accommodate a nice suite of rooms for the 
owner. A complete clean up and paint job is being 
done so that this vessel, when delivered to her owners, 
will be complete and practically new in every detail. 



Five Million Tons Salvaged 



By G. W. L. DAY. British Feature Writer 



A GREAT MANY FOUNDERED VESSELS round 
Britain's coasts have been refloated and towed into 
harbor; but the rest whose twisted frames are beyond 
repair are now being disintegrated with high explosives 
to clear the sea-routes. Though the work of refloating 
wrecks is practically complete, there are still some 500 
wrecks to be dispersed, and the men of the Admiralty 
Wreck Dispersal Department will probably be hard at 
work for another three years. 

Before the war, marine salvage was a declining indus- 
try in Britain; there were less than half-a-dozen salvage 
vessels in commission and only a handful of profession- 
al salvage officers. When war came, there were more 
shipping casualties in need of first aid in the first three 
months than there had been in the previous ten years. 
All manner of odd ships were requisitioned and quickly 
converted, and eventually a huge organization came into 
being with ships and bases extending even to the Pacific. 
At the end of the war there were about forty salvage 
ships in commission, manned by highly trained crews 
and carrying a great deal of special apparatus, much of 
which had been invented and developed in the previous 



six years. Today a good many of these ships have been 
paid ofl^, but there are still about 18 modern trawlers 
fitted up for wreck dispersal work, each with a crew of 

Wartime Technique 

During the war. widely varying methods and tech- 
nique had to be used to meet the very diverse conditions. 
For instance, in the coastal waters of Britain the lifting 
and removal of wrecks was helped by the tides, whereas 
entirely difl^erent equipment had to be used in the tide- 
less Mediterranean. It was no uncommon sight on the 
beaches of Italy and Sicily to see bulldozers clearing a 
launching way for a stranded craft, or tracked Army 
vehicles hauling vessels down to the water. Round the 
shores of Britain a temporary timber patch over damaged 
side plates was sufficient first aid for towing a damaged 
vessel into port, but for a voyage from Iceland or North 
Africa to a dry dock in the United Kingdom, a major 
operation had to be performed. 

Faced with an unparaUeled emergency, special salvage 
craft had to be designed and constructed at a moment's 
notice. Exactly what constitutes an ideal salvage vessel 



A Brifish merchantman, claimed by the German radio to have 

been sunk in the North Atlantic, sailed all the way from the 

Aiores with a makeshift concrete patch 45 feet by 32 feet over 

the hole made in her side by the torpedo. 



obstacles that clutter 
( port of Gaeta on t 



iropean ports. This picture 
West Coast of Italy, 40 




Page 70 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



has always been a matter of controversy. Sir Frederick 
Young, Chief of Britain's salvage section in the last war, 
described it as one which would float on the dew of a 
meadow! So many diflferent sorts of work have to be car- 
ried out under so many different conditions that a sal- 
vage vessel is of necessity a compromise between the 
elements of speed, endurance, draft, bow lifting capacity', 
derricks, hold space and towing ability. 

The Admiralty ordered two new types of salvage tug, 
(one ocean-going and one coastal), three types of 
special lifting craft to work in pairs, and a submersible 
pontoon or camel with a lifting capacity of 80 tons. 

Special salvage equipment was also invented and put 
into use. In 1939 there came into operation a new type 
of submersible pump for draining, which is driven nor- 
mally by a portable air compressor delivering air at 100 
lbs. per square inch pressure. This compressor also can 
be used to drive pneumatic tools above and below water, 
portable air winches, or the ships steam cargo winches. 

Some researches have been made into the possibilities 
of using a mixture of helium and oxygen, or helium and 
air, for deep-water diving. A new electric oxyarc cutting 
torch was invented, and an electric arc process for under- 
water welding. 

Another notable invention was the Cox submerged 
bolt driving gun. This ingenious apparatus is used both 
for welding and for firing a hollow bolt into the side 
of a ship's compartment so as to introduce compressed 
air, and it punches holes far more quickly than the or- 
dinary pneumatic drill. It was used in the war by divers 
to drive screwed studs and bolts into the hull plating for 
the purpose of securing a patch of steel or wood. It was 
also employed with great effect for the rapid repair of 
tanks and armored cars on the battlefield. 

Such appliances make it necessary for divers to be 
much more skilful and highly trained than ever before 
This is a point made by our salvage officers who worked 
with the American Salvage Corps and were very much 
impressed with their thorough training and exceptional 
skill. 

Another striking development which saved many a 
ship is the use of compressed air on motor tankers to 
keep the ship afloat after it had been mined or torpedoed. 
The Admiralty carried out a great deal of successful ex- 
perimental work with compressed air in salvage damaged 
tankers which were in danger of sinking. Then in 1940 
the Eagle Oil Shipping Company began to fit all its 
motor tankers with the additional stand-by compressors 
under the forecastle head, connected to the compressors 
in the engine room. It was not long before a U-Boat tor- 
pedoed one of these tankers, holing 14 out of her 27 
compartments and flooding both pump rooms. But the 
compressed air system kept her afloat on a voyage of 
several hundred miles to dry dock, and after this a great 
many Allied tankers were fitted with the device. 

Salvage 5.000.000 Tons 

Some of the damaged ships subsequently towed into 
dry dock were a curious sight. On occasions it was no 




more than half ship. There were hogged ships, sagged 
ships, ships without bottoms, and even the two halves 
of a ship floating but almost separated. 

Between September 1939 and December 1944, the 
salvage and rescue tug service saved more than 5,000,000 
tons of merchant shipping, which is about equal to the 
tonnage of new merchant ships built in the United King- 
dom during the same period. The need for salvage was 
certainly desperate. From the beginning of the war to 
the end of 1943, 11,500,000 gross tons of merchant 
shipping were lost, as against an existing pre-war ton- 
nage of 17,500,000. 

Owing to the tremendous development of bombing 
and mine-laying which made it comparatively easy for 
enemy aircraft to block ports by sinking ships in the 
fairways, the Admiralty salvage fleet was faced with a 
new task on the outbreak of war. One of the first calls 
made on it was to keep the London docks clear of ob- 
structions during the terrible blitz of 1940. Work had 
to continue night and day without interruption and 
divers had to go down in the fouled and muddy water 
of the docks and river even during raids. Bombs had 
penetrated deep into the river bed; the water was thick 
with evil-smelling decaying matter, and the visibility 
was almost nil. 

At another of Britain's ports in 1941, no less than nine 
sunken vessels were raised in 1 3 days. In Dover harbor 
divers worked with shells and bombs falling, with ships 
on fire nearby, and with a thick covering of oil on the 
water. 

From 1942, harbor clearance became one of the major 
(Please turn to page !2~ ) 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 71 




The SS Donbass, III, former 
Russian tanker which broke in 
two last February in the North 
Pacific, being operated by the 
Pacific Gas i Electric Company 
to augment the power supply 
of the fast-growing Humboldt 
area, by using the ship's main 
propulsion equipment. 



Electric Power From Salvaged Ship 



I N INGENIOUS SOLUTION to postwar shortages 
rl of both manufactured and construction material is 
a beached ex-tanker which Pacific Gas & Electric Com- 
pany put into operation as a power plant at Eureka, 
California, augmenting the company's power supply to 
keep pace with the growth of the Humboldt area. The 
power plant was put on the line December 28, 1946. 

The stern half of the SS Donbass III, former Russian 
tanker which broke in two last February in the North 
Pacific, has been berthed on the Eureka waterfront in 
Humboldt Bay and its General Electric engines original- 
ly designed and installed as the main ship propulsion 
equipment, now pour 6700 horsepower of electric ener- 
gy into the company's local distribution system. The pro- 
pulsion on the Donbass consisted of a marine-type GE 
steam turbine turning an electric generator, which sup- 
plied electric power to the ship's electric propulsion 
motor. At Eureka, the power company takes its electri- 
cal energy direct from the turbine. 

P. G. & E. recently purchased the after-end of the 
Donbass from the U. S. Maritime Commission, and a 
former Navy seagoing tug towed it from Seattle to 
Eureka where it was prepared for operation. A bank of 
transformers has been installed on the dock alongside 
the Donbass and feeds the power directly into a 12 Kv 
transmission line. 



The SS Donbass, formerly the American SS Beacon 
Rock, was built in 1944 at the Swan Island Shipyards, 
Portland, Oregon, and was operated under lend-lease by 
the U.S.S.R. During the war the Russians hauled avia- 
tion gas and other fuel in the tanker and carried deck 
loads of American-built airplanes and tanks. She ran 
from Pacific coast ports through the Bering, Okhotsk and 
Japan seas to Vladivostok. 

The Donbass suffered her disaster on February 17, 
1946. The ship's master and 14 crewmen, all Russians, 
were lost. Five days later the SS Puente Hills, a Marin- 
ship tanker operated by the War Shipping Administra- 
tion, found the ship after sighting her distress flares, put 
a tow line aboard her and began a 21-day salvage opera- 
tion, much of it through stormy seas, bringing her safe- 
ly to Port Angeles, Washington. 

The Puente Hills' crew claimed the Donbass as a 
prize and their claim was upheld in Federal Court. At 
a U. S. Marshal's sale, the War Shipping Administration, 
actual owner of the Donbass and also of the Puente 
Hills, paid $110,000 to buy its own ship. The purchase 
price established the prize fund for the Puente Hills 
crew and operator. 

The Pacific Gas and Electric Company purchased the 
Donbass for 5125,000, being the successful bidder in a 
sale held by the U. S. Maritime Commission. 



Page 72 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Transmission lines on the SS Donbass at Eureka rigged to carry otf 
power to the main system via transformers installed on the dock. 



The stern half of the SS Donbass III being towed to dock at Eureka 
California. 




Charles R. Mossman, utility man, standing in front of main control panel 
on the SS Donbass. Meters indicate that unit is under load. 



John J. Barr, operator on the SS Donbass, looking o.er one of the 525 kw 
generators which furnish excitation for the main generator. 



MARCH • I 947 





















■ 






nierchan 


t Fl 


eet 


s 


of 


the 


Number, Gross and 


Deadweight Tonnage of S 


eagoing Steam and Motor 


Merctiant Type 


(EXCLUDES VESSELS ON THE GREAT LAKES AND 


INLAND WATERWAYS AND 


SPECIAL TYPES, 


SUCH AS 












VESSEL 


TYPE 












TOTAL 




COMBINATION PASSENGER 


COMBINATION PASSENGER 










AND CARGO 




AND 


:ARG0 REFRIGERATED 




No. 


Gross Tons 


DWT Tons 


No. 


Gross Tons 


DWT Tons 


No. 


Gross Tons 


DWT Tom 


GROSS TONS— Total 


12,445 


71.000.408 


99.219.900 


936 


6.279.393 


4,678,400 


52 


501.076 


407,200 


1,000 but under 2,000 Gross 


Tons 2,023 


2.998,938 


4,317,300 


218 


312.877 


256,900 


5 


6.601 


6.700 


2.000 " " 4,000 


2,225 


6,616,097 


9,501,800 


224 


652.813 


573,600 


4 


13,047 


10.100 


4,000 ■■ ■• 6,000 


1,591 


8.043,027 


12.312.200 


131 


649.606 


623,400 


4 


18,348 


14.500 


6,000 " " 8,000 


4,826 


34.486,357 


49.356.900 


94 


657.230 


619,600 


12 


82,410 


60.000 


8,000 " ■■ 10,000 


810 


7.094.863 


9,596,900 


78 


699,897 


670,100 


7 


63,622 


59,300 


10,000 " " 15,000 


857 


9,292,212 


12.845.900 


89 


1.050.885 


838,700 


13 


173,638 


153,100 


15,000 •■ " 20,000 


65 


1,107.997 


697.800 


58 


995.283 


588,500 


4 


65.141 


49,000 


20,000 " " 25,000 


27 


584,437 


313.000 


26 


562,591 


284,000 








25,000 " " 30,000 


12 


322,308 


167,800 


9 


244,039 


113,300 


3 


78.269 


54,500 


30,000 gross tons and over 


9 


454.172 


110,300 


9 


454,172 


110,300 








DEADWEIGHT TONS— Tola 


1 12,445 


71.000,408 


99,219,900 


936 


6,279,393 


4,678,400 


52 


501,076 


407,200 


Under 2,000 Dwt. 


908 


1.342,283 


1,322,500 


296 


605,381 


342,900 


6 


9,072 


8.500 


2.000 but under 6,000 Dwt. 


3,531 


10,089,138 


13,012,300 


289 


1,268,774 


1.026.000 


17 


99,060 


67.900 


6,000 ■■ " 8.000 " 


964 


5,364.287 


6,756,500 


109 


914,759 


761.400 


3 


20,468 


19.500 


8.000 ■■ " 10.000 " 


1,556 


10.010.054 


13,895,600 


117 


1,460,883 


1.054.400 


10 


123,133 


88.700 


10.000 " " 13,000 " 


4,538 


33.970.953 


48,954,900 


93 


1,262,554 


1.019.100 


5 


51.990 


55.600 


13.000 ■ " 15,000 " 


234 


2.455,744 


3,267,800 


20 


390,780 


269.900 


8 


119.084 


112,500 


15,000 " " 18,000 " 


651 


6.982.913 


10.747.500 


10 


337,778 


166.300 


2 


51.114 


31,800 


18.000 Dwt. and over 


63 


785,036 


1.262,800 


2 


38,484 


38.400 


1 


27,155 


22,700 


SPEED— Total 


12,445 


71,000,408 


99,219,900 


936 


6,279,393 


4,678,400 


52 


501,076 


407,200 


Under 10 Knots 


1,853 


4.394.905 


6,758,000 


61 


114,593 


112,600 








10 to 12 Knots inclusive 


7.340 


40.431,350 


60,208,700 


292 


944,454 


1,022,600 


4 


17,378 


15,100 


13 ■' 11 ■■ 


1.472 


10.835,818 


15,786,600 


240 


1,232,294 


1,152,500 


18 


119,514 


107,700 


15 •■ 17 " 


1.629 


12.958,986 


15,159,200 


225 


1,932.897 


1.457.700 


27 


285,915 


229,900 


18 " 20 •■ 


118 


1,528,499 


1,013,600 


88 


1.282.574 


693.700 








21 " 25 " 


29 


587,694 


236,800 


26 


509.425 


182.300 


3 


78,269 


54,500 


26 Knots and over 


4 


263,156 


57,000 


4 


263,156 


57.000 








YEAH BUILT— Total 


12.445 


71,000,408 


99,219,900 


936 


6.279.393 


4,678,400 


52 


501.076 


407,200 


Prior to 1916 


1,573 


4,998,158 


6,737,800 


280 


1.161.901 


970.200 


6 


48.012 


48.200 


1916 " 1920 inclusive 


1,403 


5,707,428 


8,608,600 


64 


343.393 


333.900 


6 


42.814 


35,700 


1921 " 1925 


1,077 


4,792.698 


6.520.400 


161 


1.197.504 


1.056.200 


16 


148.288 


134,900 


1926 " 1930 


952 


4,794,920 


6,207.100 


193 


1.251.562 


871.600 


11 


115.605 


83,800 


1931 ■' 1935 


399 


2,303.833 


2.742.200 


83 


720.369 


445.100 


8 


50.417 


33,600 


1936 ■■ 1940 


942 


5,424.749 


7,219,500 


104 


998.588 


592.300 


4 


82.462 


57,600 


1941 • 1945 


5,955 


42.077.096 


59,917.100 


47 


569.236 


374.600 


1 


13.478 


13,400 


First 6 months 1946 


144 


901.526 


1,267,200 


4 


36.840 


34.500 








ENGINES— Total 


12,445 


71.000,408 


99,219,900 


936 


6.279.393 


4.678.400 


52 


501.076 


407.200 


Reciprocating 


7,957 


38.410.244 


56,284,200 


514 


2.078.064 


1.875.700 


24 


147.561 


132,000 


Turbine 


1,708 


13.819.021 


16,413.000 


180 


2.279.043 


1.351.600 


11 


125.759 


113.000 


Diesel Electric 


16 


85,781 


118,500 


2 


24.821 


28.600 








Diesel 


2,208 


12,918,571 


17,635,200 


218 


1.545,953 


1,232.000 


11 


185.916 


135.400 


Turbo-Electric 


556 


5,766,791 


8,769,000 


22 


351,512 


190.500 


6 


41.840 


26.800 


BOILERS (KIND OF FUEL)— To 


lal 12,445 


71.000,408 


99.219.900 


936 


6.279.393 


4.678,400 


52 


501,076 


407.200 


Motors 


2,224 


13.004.352 


17.753,700 


220 


1.570.774 


1,260.600 


11 


185,916 


135.400 


Coal 


4,051 


13.579.375 


19.945.800 


381 


1,391,913 


1,313.400 


16 


95,919 


93.100 


Oil 


6.170 


44.416.681 


61.520.400 


335 


3,316,706 


2.104,400 


25 


219,241 


178.700 



Page 74 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



























Uiorld 


as 


f 


June 3( 


1 


194 


1 
) 








\ essels 


of lODD Gross Tons and Over. 


Arrange 


d by Size, Speed, Draft 


Age 


and Propulsion 


CHANNEL VESSELS 


. ICEBREAKERS, CABLE SHIPS 


, ETC., AND VESSELS OWNED BY THE ARMED 


FORCES) 














VESSEL 


TYPE 












' 


FREIGHTERS 


REFRIGERATED VESSELS 


BULK CARRIERS 


(Incli 


TANKERS 
des Whaling Tankers) 


No. 


Gross Tons 


DWT Tons 


No. 


Gross Tons 


DWT Tons 


No. 


Gross Tons 


DWT Tons 


No. 


Gross Tons 


DWT Tons 


8.694 


46.152.940 


66,767,000 


224 


1,361,196 


1,527,900 


S5S 


1.639.508 


2,604,800 


1,981 


15,066,295 


23,234,600 


1.421 


2.117.454 


3,240,800 


12 


19,273 


27,100 


238 


368.192 


548,000 


129 


174,541 


237,800 


1.S41 


4.624.500 


7,097.100 


74 


243,941 


267,000 


183 


484.400 


744,700 


199 


597,396 


809,300 


1.176 


5.949.211 


9.562,600 


31 


156,281 


155,800 


91 


447.400 


737.600 


158 


822,181 


1,218,300 


4.228 


30.334,378 


43,532.700 


34 


235.266 


280,000 


34 


224.966 


358.400 


424 


2.952.107 


4,506,200 


242 


2.090,677 


2.544.000 


45 


402,177 


464.600 


9 


78.870 


171.100 


429 


3.759.620 


5.686.900 


85 


1,020,817 


773.000 


28 


304,258 


333,400 


2 


20.380 


22.300 


640 


6.722,234 


10.725,300 


1 


15,903 


15,800 








1 


15,300 


22.700 


1 
1 


16,370 
21.846 


21,800 
29,000 


8.694 


46,152,940 


66,767,000 


224 


1,361,196 


1,527,900 


558 


1,639,508 


2.604.800 


1.981 


15.066,295 


23,234,600 


458 


546,564 


736.400 


3 


8.964 


4,600 


59 


69,095 


96.900 


86 


103,207 


133,200 


2.519 


6,906,095 


9.459,100 


104 


356.281 


379,900 


349 


736,105 


1,110,900 


253 


722,823 


968,500 


697 


3,649,346 


4,876.800 


25 


167,803 


170,200 


54 


230,551 


382,300 


76 


381,360 


546.300 


1.160 


6,770,505 


10.332.400 


33 


258,211 


295,300 


51 


271,348 


448,300 


185 


1,125,974 


1.676.500 


3.820 


27.858,193 


40.813.800 


51 


478,791 


568.300 


37 


255,586 


397,800 


532 


4,063,839 


6,100.300 


36 


374.009 


486.400 


8 


91,146 


109.600 


2 


19.376 


28,600 


160 


1,461,349 


2,260.800 


4 


48,228 


62.100 














635 


6,545,793 


10.487,300 














6 


57.447 


140,000 


54 


661,950 


1,061,700 


8.694 


46,152,940 


66,767,000 


224 


1,361.196 


1,527.900 


558 


1.639,508 


2,604,800 


1.981 


15,066,295 


23,234,600 


1.380 


3,192,290 


5.034,200 


5 


18.433 


23.700 


215 


462.304 


719,300 


192 


607,285 


868,200 


5.587 


30,914,442 


46,311,500 


58 


223.712 


275,400 


325 


1.061.637 


1,674.800 


1.074 


7,269,727 


10,909,300 


514 


2,708.672 


3.856.400 


54 


344.595 


412,100 


15 


89.892 


138.700 


631 


6,340,851 


10,119,200 


1.196 


9,213,951 


11.412.400 


101 


732.012 


777,700 


3 


25.675 


72.000 


77 


768.536 


1,209,500 


17 


123,585 


152.500 


6 


42.444 


39,000 








7 


79.896 


128.400 


8.E94 


46,152,940 


66.767.000 


224 


1,361,196 


1,527,900 


558 


1.639,508 


2.604.800 


1,981 


15,066,295 


23.234.600 


1.073 


2,957,977 


4.533,400 


21 


115,839 


130,400 


103 


266.428 


399.100 


90 


448,001 


656.500 


990 


3,643,171 


5,701,400 


31 


198,178 


248,600 


91 


254.940 


396,400 


221 


1,224,932 


1.892.600 


593 


2,082,703 


3,252,200 


11 


67,535 


80,100 


136 


353,939 


567,900 


160 


942,729 


1.429.100 


428 


1,674,323 


2,618,700 


23 


137,600 


151.600 


80 


253.888 


420.400 


217 


1,361,942 


2.061.000 


146 


485,629 


756,000 


29 


146,232 


158.300 


15 


36.685 


57.200 


118 


864,501 


1,292.000 


526 


2,194,555 


3,413,100 


36 


202,167 


221,000 


36 


94.909 


144.500 


236 


1,852,068 


2.791.000 


4.836 


32,508,604 


45,647,900 


69 


459,609 


502,100 


86 


341.074 


541.100 


916 


8,185,095 


12.838.000 


102 


605,978 


844,300 


4 


34,036 


35.800 


11 


37.645 


78.200 


23 


187,02) 


^74,400 


8.694 


46.152,940 


66,767,000 


224 


1,361,196 


1,527,900 


558 


1.639,508 


2.604,800 


1,981 


15,066,295 


23.234.600 


6,237 


30,933,185 


46,490,900 


73 


399,471 


455,000 


507 


1,403,209 


2.191.900 


602 


3,448,754 


5.138,700 


1.303 


9,650,082 


12,214,500 


35 


264,924 


305,900 


14 


81,405 


170.700 


165 


1,417,808 


2.257.300 


4 


19,057 


26,200 


I 


3,682 


3,200 


1 


1,694 


2.800 


8 


36,527 


57.700 


1.133 


5,437,444 


7,943.700 


111 


673,362 


746,500 


36 


153,200 


239.400 


699 


4,922,696 


7,338,200 


17 


113,172 


91.700 


4 


19,757 


17,300 








507 


5,240,510 


8.442.700 


8.694 


46,152,940 


66,767.000 


224 


1,361,196 


1,527,900 


558 


1,639.508 


2.604.800 


1,981 


15,066,295 


23.234.600 


1.137 


5,456,501 


7,969,900 


112 


677,044 


749,700 


37 


154.894 


242.200 


707 


4,959,223 


7.395.900 


3.149 


10,678,204 


16,418,700 


33 


i09,442 


256.600 


456 


1,129,298 


1,757,600 


16 


74,599 


106.400 


4,408 


30,018.235 


42,378,400 


79 


474,710 


521.600 


65 


355,316 


605,000 


1,258 


10,032,473 


15.732,300 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 75 



All-i\luniinuni Ships 
Proposed By Alcoa 



CONSTRUCTION OF TWO ALL-ALUMINUM 
MERCHANT VESSELS— long a favorite develop- 
ment project of Aluminum Company of America — may 
become a maritime reality before many months. The pro- 
posed ships, aluminized from truck to keel, are scheduled 
for Caribbean runs by the Alcoa Steamship Company, 
an Aluminum Company subsidiary. 

If construction is decided upon by the company, the 
merchantmen will be used to transport bauxite from 
Alcoa's Moengo and Paranam mines in Dutch Guiana to 
Trinidad, British West Indies, where the ore will be 
transferred to deep-draft carriers and brought to Ameri- 
can ports. 

Marking a high point in the use of aluminum for 
maritime use, and climaxing many years of intensive re- 
search and development work, the ships will feature 
hulls and strengthening members fabricated solely from 
aluminum alloys. 

General characteristics of the first vessel are 422 feet 
long overall; 60 foot extreme beam; 10,232 tons dis- 
placement; cargo-carrying capacity 8,143 tons; maximum 
draft, 20 feet. Somewhat smaller, the second carrier will 
displace 6,730 tons, have an overall length of 348 feet, 
a beam of 54 feet and a 19 foot draft. Her cargo-carrying 
capacity is rated at 5,101 tons. Use of aluminum alloys 
will permit the new vessels to carry some 20 per cent 
more cargo. 

Although the metal has long been used extensively 
in ship's superstructures, topside equipment and related 
installations, this will mark an important "first" in hull 
construction. Moreover, the light, corrosion-resistant 



metal will be employed in superstructures, funnels, life- 
boats and davits. Bulkheads, hatch covers and miscel- 
laneous fittings will also be formed from aluminum, as 
will the furnishings in all living quarters. 

Use of aluminum alloys wherever practicable in the 
construction of these ships will result in a appreciable 
saving in deadweight over the conventional steel counter- 
parts without sacrificing any of the strength so impor- 
tant to marine construction. 

Since weight saving is so vital a factor in shipping, use 
of this modern marine metal will enable additional 
aluminum ore to be transported more economically. The 
all-aluminum ships may well point the way to more 
profitable operation through lower freight rates. It is 
expected, too, that operating costs will be materially 
reduced by the saving in maintenance that will result 
from this use of aluminum. 

Possessing excellent resistence to salt-water corrosion, 
the aluminum alloy hulls and superstructures will not 
deteriorate in service, and long range tests conducted 
by Alcoa on smaller experimental aluminum hulls have 
well demonstrated the metal's adaptability to standard 
shipbuilding practices. One of the ships will be employ- 
ed to transport bauxite from the Paranam mines, and the 
other will carry a similar cargo from Alcoa's Moengo 
mines. 

Although the primary purpose of the all-aluminum 
carriers will be to move the ore of aluminum to Trini- 
dad, they will be fitted with accommodations for twelve 
passengers, and in keeping with the modern all-alumi- 
num alloy construction of the ships, quarters will be com- 
pletely air conditioned. 




jing years of Intenjlve Alcoa research, the lO.OOC 
superstructure, lifeboats and fittings will be fabricated f 



ill-aluminum ship shown above represents a new era In marine construction. Hull, 
uminum alloys pretested for resistance to salt water corrosion. Overall lengtli of 
422 feet, extreme beam id feet. 



Page 76 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




A«r(al photograph of th« cipansiv* Long B*«ch Harbor, batter 
known ai tha Port of Long Baach, Catifornia. 



I 

Port of long Beach from the Hir 



■ N the immediate foreground is the U. S. 

R Navy Shipyard and graving docks, along the water- 
front, with ships of our Navy at anchor within the pro- 
tection of the mole which forms the western and sea- 
ward side of the Port of Long Beach, California. The 
remaining part of the Harbor, within the opposite mole 
and back inland bordering the channels shown, is the 
Port of Long Beach proper. Beyond and to the right 
(east) is the city of Long Beach, with the hills and 
mountains serving as a backdrop to the engaging pano- 
rama. 

Unique in Port development are the two large moles, 
constructed as a result of scientific study at Vicksburg, 
Mississippi, from scaled models used with activated 
water for study of currents and wave action similar to 
actual conditions existant in the Long Beach Harbor 
Area. 

The length, width and angles of the moles are such 
that the surge within the entire harbor and its channels 

MARCH • 1947 



has been reduced to nearly zero, making for quiet waters 
at ail times, including storm periods. 

With 35 to 45 feet deep channels throughout, and 
with still water constantly, an added asset has been attain- 
ed in the ease and speed of handling any size ship through 
the harbor and at the docks. Coupled with the fact that 
ships are but from 6 to 15 minutes from open sea, re- 
duces the time of dockage of ships, handling of their 
cargoes, a major consideration to every shipper. 

The Board of Harbor Commissioners from plans of 
their Port Manager and Chief Engineer have a program 
underway which will involve the ultimate expenditure 
of 59 million dollars. It is anticipated that this entire 
amount will be derived from Harbor revenues and from 
oil wells located on Port lands which are being produced 
and operated by the Port of Long Beach, California. This 
eliminates the necessity of Bond issues or increased taxa- 
tion for the completion of this huge program. The Port 
has already received sufficient income from oil revenues 
to retire all outstanding Harbor bonds, and is now one 
of the few, if not the only, debt-free Ports in the World. 

Page 77 



Condenser 
Repairing [quipment 

WHEN CONDENSER MANUFACTURERS adopted 
the practice of rolling one or both ends of rubes in 
rube sheets, a new problem was created for the repair 
yard, namely, a quick method of removal. To insure 
tight joints that would remain tight in spite of expan- 
sion and vibration, serrations were grooved into the tube 
sheets, thereby causing additional difficulties. 

The ingenuity of machinery superintendents, port 
engineers, and others was challenged and many time and 
labor saving tools were developed to reduce the time 
required for this difficult and unpleasant work. A variety 
of fly cutters, drifts and drills were employed but in al- 
most all cases it was necessary to lower men into the 
condenser and break the joint made by rolling from be- 
hind the sheet or to remove the sheet from the con- 
denser, cut the tubes and drive out the nipples. 

A complete set of pneumatically operated tools have 
been developed by Armstrong & Sons Company, Ridge- 
field, New Jersey, for removing old and defective tubes 
from condensers and heat exchangers. This set .consists 
of two separate tools, the first being a rotary tube cutter 
used when tubes are rolled at both ends or when the 
packing is particularly tenacious and an attempt to pull 
them might cause them to break or stretch. After it has 
been determined from the location of surrounding pumps, 
generators, piping, etc., from which end of the con- 
denser sufficient space is available for tube removal, the 
tubes are cut on the opposite end just inside the tube 
sheet. The diagram below shows the cutter with tool bit 
engaged in cutting position. The spindle carrying the 
cutter is rotated by an air motor. An adjustable shoulder 
determines the distance behind the sheet that the cut 
is to be made and when the tool is in cutting position, 
the tool bit which has been held in its retracted position, 
is caused to engage the tube by means of a small lever 
and a quick clean cut through the tube wall is made. 
This operation requires only a few seconds and an opera- 
tor can easily cut as many as 15 tubes per minute. 



Tool bit cutting through tube 




The cutter is adaptable for 16 or 18 gage tubes from 
%" to 1" inclusive. It can be operated by one man by 
suspending it from a pulley by means of a rope and 
counter-balancing it. 

The second tool is a tube puller for removing the short 
and long section formed by the above cut. This patented, 
simple, compact machine is adaptable to any condition, 
whether the tubes are rolled at one or both ends, or 
packed with fibre, corset lace, or metallic packing. En- 
gagement of the tube puller with the tube and packing 
is rapid and automatic. 

The machine consists of a cylinder with two pistons 
whose rods and attached mechanisms extend to the front 
of the piston. By moving the pistons, the teeth grip the 
tube and remove it from the sheet. Any size non-ferrous 
tube from %" to 1" inclusive can be pulled. The tube 
is pulled 8" from the sheet, from which point it can be 
gripped by hand and slid the remaining distance until 
removed from the condenser. 

The complete operation of the puller is effected by 
throwing a three-way valve in one direction to pull the 
tube, and in the opposite direction to release its grip, 
so that it can be removed and inserted in the next tube. 
It requires two operators for most efficient use and under 
favorable conditions, 15 to 20 rubes per minute can be 
loosened. 

On a recent job which required removal of tubes from 
a defective tube sheet, 6150 tubes were cut at one end. 
pulled 6" out of the tube sheet at the other end and the 
short tube ends completely removed in 24 hours. 

The following diagrams show the head of the puller 
engaged in pulling both a rolled rube and a packed tube. 

Due to the intricate nature of the tools and the high 
costs of manufacture most prospective users prefer to 
engage the equipment with supervision of operation. In 
this way, repairs can be handled with great savings in 
time and cost. 

The equipment is represented on the Pacific Coast by 
Harang Engineering Company, 840 Lake Street, San 
Francisco, California. Demonsrrations are cheerfully 
made for interested users or professional groups. 



Tube cut through just inside tube sheet! , }- 

Page 78 



Tube Sheet 




PULLING TUBE WITH PACKING 
PACIFIC MARINE REVIEWj 





UieitLD 
TRflDf 



Be«. U. S. Pit. Off. 



^^ T. Douglas MacMullen 




MEMBERS OF A GROUP OF 25 SAN FRANCISCO BUSINESS LEADERS AND THEIR WIVES. WHICH LEFT MARCH I ON THE FIRST POSTWAR VISIT 
BY AIR TO THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, SPONSORED BY THE SAN FRANCISCO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Nine days were spent in the Islands making individual business development calls and consulting with civic leaders on inter-related community 
problems. Efforts were directed toward strengthening relations between the mainland and the Islands. 



th, 



Bottom row. left to right: Naaman T. Meyers; Thomas A. Leddy, manager. San Francisco Division. Zellerbach Paper Company Fred Galb 
manager. Marine Office of America; Alvin C. ElchhoU. manager, World Trade Department, San Francisco C. of C; George O. Bahrs president Sa 

anager^ D. E. Sanford Company, distributors; Ronald E. Kaehler 
Association, Apparel Trades Industry. 



Bov. 



Top to bottom, left: E. J. McClanahan. vice pres.. Standard Oil Company of California; Mrs. Louis B. Lundborg- Charles C. Bowen Charle 
tn i Company, Management Consultants; Mrs. Carl J. Eastman; Carl J. Eastman, vice pres., N. W. Aver < Son Inc. and pres. San Fran< 
nber of Commerce; L. Oeming Tilton, Planning Consultants. . . r- . 



Right: Bradford Lundborg; Louis B. Lundborg, mgr., San Francisco Chamber of Commerce: Donald L. Ross Special Representative Standard Oil 
Company of California; Mrs. Donald L. Ross; Mrs. Benjamin Swig; L. N. Thompson, manager. Egg Department, Poultry Producers Association. 



MARCH • I 947 



Page 79 



U. 8. Replaces Germany 
In Turkish lllarket 



The rich Turkish market that was predominantly Ger- 
many's before the war, is now America's for the taking. 

That is the view of Robert Liebert, distributor in 
Turkey for the products of Borg-Warner International 
Corp. He is in Chicago on his first postwar trip to this 
country. 

Only a failure on the part of American manufacturers 
to "make good" on deliveries could prevent our capturing 
the 75 per cent of Turkey's import business which used 
to go to German traders, Mr. Liebert said. 

He names four factors favoring increasing Turkish 
trade with the United States: ( 1 ) A strong consumer 
demand in Turkey for "the best" in quality, frequently 
regardless of price; ( 2 ) a wide-spread desire to increase 
Turkey's standard of living; ( 3 ) the new popularity of 
everything American" — from Americans themselves to 
their movies and their shiny manufactured products; and 
(4) the knowledge that the U. S. has no imperialistic 
designs upon Turkey. 

Unfavorable factors: (1) Britain, Belgium, Switzer- 
land, Sweden, Czechoslovakia — and even Italy — have in- 
tensified their export activities in recent months; ( 2 ) 
while the average prices of their manufactured goods are 
below America's, they have not yet matched American 
products in efficiency and economy of operation. 

With Turkish currency devalued about a month ago 
and 40 per cent less American dollars now needed for 
purchases there, Turkey is hopeful of increasing its ex- 
port of tobacco and dried fruits to the U. S. 




r. 


V. K. 


Wei 


nqton Koo, Ch! 


nese 


A 


tibassadc 


r to the 


Uni 


ed States 


th 


Arth 


ur B. 


Foye (left), Pres 


iden 


t. 


3hina-An 


-lerica 


Cc 


unc 


1 of Com 


er 


Le an 


d Ind 


usfry, and C. S. 


Chi 


ng 


(right). 


Chair 


ma 


of 


the Coun- 


I's 


Boa 


d of 


Directors, at c 


onfe 


en 


ce on S 


no-Ar 


ner 


can 


economic 




rela 


tions, 


Waldorf-Astoria 


Hotel 


New Yc 


rk, F 


br 


ary 


18th. 



Mr. Liebert's firm distributes Borg-Warner Inter- 
national Corp.'s refrigeration and household appliance 
lines throughout Turkey. Mr. Liebert expects America 
to retain the dominant position in this trade which it 
enjoyed in Turkey even before the war, in contrast to a 
general trade picture that was most favorable to the 
Nazis. 

While in the U. S. Mr. Liebert placed large commit- 
ments for Norge refrigerators and appliances. Although 
the Turkish automotive market is predominantly British 
and continental, substantial orders were placed for Amer- 
ican equipment including Marvel-Schebler carburetors. 



Participants In 
Waldorf-Astori 
Embassy in U. 



on Sino-American economic relations sponsored by the China-Am 
York, February 18th. At speaker's table, from left to right are: 
W. Kuo, Deputy Director General of UNRRA; Blackwell Smith, Ch, 



Council of Corr 



of the Execul 
Representative in the U. S. A. of the Chinese Miriistry of Finance; Willia 
;ommittee, and Dr. S. P. Ladas, Chairman of the Legislative Committee of the 



Tierce and Industry at the 
nercial Counselor. Chinese 
( Committee of the China- 
P. Hunt, member of the 




Page 80 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



FUNOWENTAl MANUAL SYSTtM 



1000 CASES 
A • DiSTANCt 

Piling: too OSU PtR f 



ASSUMID RAILS \ ^^^ ^ , 

SIMPlt MANUAL OPERATION 
LOAD - I CASE 




TOTAL itUi 




FUNDAMtNTAL WHteitO SYSTEM 
4 WHEtL HAND TRUCIC 




PIU ON TRUCK inn. 
PtU ON PILI ShRS 

FOTAL IOHK 



X-WO(£tT 

piuonntuc". i»««. 

TRAVtL UiH« 

TOTAL I16«S 





/ 


„a»uaM ma,di,»o 




/ 






/ 


I WMUL TOuCt 


/ 


L**"'^' 


/ ^ 




/^""^ 




" 


7 

















FUNMMCNTAL WHttLtD STSTIAV 
2 WHEtL HAND TRUCK. 



tOAO >CA515 




J-^ 


/ 



X - o 


»• DISIANCL 


lUOIUI 


ClUMC O* TRUCK tiCUIS 
P!LI« 0« PIU S ■ 
TRAVIL • 

TOrAI. DUB 




(nunc » WKK sax; 

PILING ON PiLt & - 





y 


MANUAL MANOLING 




/ 


1 




/ 


1 WMUL TRUOC 


^ 


/ 




' 


/ 


^ 








>1 


f"^ 








/^ 












1 





KX) 200 «> 

OlSTANCt IN FetT 



Time and Dlotion Analysis 
For materials Handling 



In a recent issue of "Exide Topics" published by the Electric Storage Battery Co., H. A. Stevenson of 
the Electric Industrial Truck Assn. Pallet Committee presents a well prepared analysis of materials 
handling. All drawings herein are by courtesy of Exide Topics. 



There is no short cut substitute for analysis of mate- 
rials handling jobs. There is no better recommendation 
than to pick out from general observation the heavy 
volume, time-and-space-consuming jobs and then analyze 
those jobs with a questioning attitude. You should de- 
termine: 

What is being done. Why it is being done. Where it 
is being done. How it is being done. 

Then, without too much regard for precedent in your 
warehouse, apply certain well-established principles of 
material handling and know-how to determine; 

Where it should be done. How it should be done. By 
what it should be done. 

If you or your staff are not qualified or lack the time to 
do that, have a qualified group do it for you. You will 
save money in the long run. 

The two illustrations covering small and large busi- 
ness may not fit your conditions. What are your condi- 
tions.'' Which handling method and what types of equip- 
ment will meet them? General Levin Campbell is cred- 
ited with saying, "If you want to eat an elephant, you 
must cut it up in small pieces." Material handling, cut 
in small pieces, consists of moving a pile of packages of 
given size and weight and the transportation of those 

MARCH»I947 



packages from one location to another. These opera- 
tions may be repeated many times and with many varia- 
tions, but material handling essentially involves only 
these two operations: ( 1 ) piling, ( 2 ) transportation. 
The simplest form of material handling is that where a 
man picks up a package, walks a certain distance and 
puts it on another pile. Let us consider a pile of 1000 
packages to be moved a certain distance and replied. 
Before attacking this very simple problem, we have two 
forms of data. 

1. How many packages can a man pile per hour? 

2. How fast will he walk between the two piles? 

Let us assume that a man in the plant will pile 200 
packages per hour, and that he walks at a speed of 200 
feet per minute under this plant's conditions. These 






lUGillD 
TRflD€ 



Page 81 



figures, while they represent actual conditions which have 
been observed, may vary widely in different plants, and 
intentionally, the size and weight of the packages are not 
given in these fundamental assumptions. 

Now let's assume a movement that involves our funla- 
mental assumptions. 



To move 1000 of these packages 200 feet and pile, 
using the data above, 5 hours are Spent piling, and 
33 3/10 hours in transportation between piles. This, of 
course, includes the return trip. If a man simply replies 
a thousand cases at the same location, or travels zero 
distance, the operation will require 5 hours. If, in addi- 



INDUSTRY CALLS IT 

•'PALLETIZIMG" 





Palletizing is the modern method 
of handling materials in unit loads ... a method 
that eliminates bottlenecks in shipping and receiv- 
ing, and keeps goods moving with savings in time 



and handling costs. Much of the lifting, hauling 
and stacking is done by electric industrial trucks 
powered by Exides, the batteries that assure peak 
performance and full shift availability. 



Page S2 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



tion, he moves the pile 200 feet, he 
will utilize in the entire operation 33- 
3/10 hours. These rwo points, zero dis- 
tance and 200 feet project r. curve from 
which we can read the man-hours re- 
quired to move the pile any required 
distance by this method. 

Suppose we give our man a 2-wheel 
truck capable of carrying 5 cases per 
trip. In this case, he piles twice — once 
on the truck and once on the final pile. 
Thus, the piling time is doubled, but 
the travel time is divided by 5. Inas- 
much as 10 hours are spent piling, our 
curve starts at 10 man-hours for zero 
distance. Inasmuch as only 1/5 the 
time is required for travel, we have 
6-6/10 hours of travel or a total of 16- 
6/10 man-hours to move the pile 200 
feet. Again a line through these two points projects a 
curve of the man-hours required for any distance the pile 
is moved by this method. An interesting point is that the 
portion of the original line which is below the new line 
indicates a distance within which the most primitive 
form of handling is more economical than the use of the 
2-wheel truck. 

If we increase the unit load for the travel by providing 
our man with a 4-wheel truck capable of carrying 20 
cases, we have the same piling time as with the 2-wheel 
truck, but our travel time is V4 of that with the 2-wheel 
truck and we find a total for 200 feet of travel to be 
11-6/10 man-hours. Again, striking a line, we find at 
every distance there are less man hours, or that this 
method is more economical than the 2-wheel truck for 
this particular set of conditions. We do find, however, 
that even in this case there is a certain distance at which 
the most primitive method is still more economical than 
the 4-wheel truck. 

Naturally, the travel in each of these cases could be 



Chart no. 9 

COMPARATIVE COST OF HANDLING 
1000 PIECES - 200 FT. 

ASSUMPTIONS- 
LAOOft COST MOOPiRHR. 

COST OF OWNING AND OPtRATINC A 
BATTERY- POWtRtD UtCTRIC TRUCK,: 

2000 HRS. PER YEAR '0.49 PER HR. 

4000 HRS PER YEAR 3Z PER HR. 
TRUCKING COST WONE 04 HRS,x'049 PER HR'tOW 




TRflDf 



C A S L lADOR cost 


TRucumst 


rotM COST 


A '— ' 


■3830 




•3830 


B H-J.*."^. 


•16.60 




'16.60 


C .;?-?*.&., 


'11.60 




•11.60 


Q icoHvnoB) 


'10.00 




'10.00 


P (iCKKTEual 


'B.-UD 


.196 


•S.59 


C lAulET K3R1L 

r manJitM) 


.40 


.196 


.59 



.iccomplished by conveyors, and under 
certain conditions where an operation 
requiring the individual handling of 
each package is encountered, the con- 
veyor is one of the most useful tools 
we have. In this case, we require 5 
hours to pile the material on the con- 
veyor and 5 hours to pile it from the 
conveyor in a new location. Transportation man-hours 
being zero, we have a horizontal line starting at 10 man- 
hours for our 1000 pieces and remaining at that figure 
regardless of the distance the material must be moved. 
This shows a man-hour economy greater than the 2-wheel 
truck or the 4-wheel truck to all distances, but still the 
primitive method on the extremely short distance is more 
economical. 

Now we come to the pallet and fork truck method in 
which we rriake our pile at the source our first operation 
and move a whole section of the pile successively to a 
new location, eliminating the necessity for repeated han- 
dling of the individual packages. In this case, we have 
one piling operation involving 5 hours' piling on pallets. 
The travel time is greatly reduced inasmuch as one man 
with a fork truck can handle two or more times as many 
cases per trip and operates about twice as fast. In this 
case, we have a line starting at 5 hours per thousand and 
increasing gradually with the distance due to the rela- 
I Please turn to page 127) 



CONVEYOR SYSTEM 




wir^^ 



1DIAL lOHeS 



» 




y 


KUUAl 


.»o<.«; 






/ 








s" 




/ 


1 


OHIU THIXI 


^!' 




/ 




,^,„»'^ 




/ 




- — ■ ,U .1 


1" 


^ 






COMviwa 


r^ 




' 


c 








1 



ELECTRIC FORK TRUCK SYSTEM 




TOTAL I0»«S TOTAL 5« 



« 






MAKUU KAMOLINC 


3» 






1 1 






l<»MmT«OCK 






^v^ 


:« 


y^ 




0M— 


s «> 


J 




itORHTRUCH 


3 ' 






1 1 



OrSTANCl IN fltT 



100 200 *" 

0I3TANCI m Mil 



lUCTPlC FORK TRUCK. HANDLING 
PALLtTIZED INCOMING SHIPMENT 




?c 



' ^j^-'-' ^ ' n^^,.. .... 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 83 



The Junior World Trade Association 
of San Francisco 



This live organization is offering its members — and the entire world trade profes- 
sion — some constructive assistance in its efforts to solve the problems of the industry. 
Following a recent dinner meeting presided over by John L. Stewart, president, a com- 
prehensive address on marine insurance was given by Donald Tormey of Marsh & 
McLennan. Mr. Tormey conducts the course on marine insurance offered by the 
Association of Marine Underwriters of San Francisco. 

The address was so important that many members were anxious to have it printed 
for more intensive study. 

Additional copies of this book may be obtained through President Stewart, c, o 
Baxter Trading Co., or Secretary John J. Mulvehill, c/o American President Lines 
( Freight Department ) . 



An Insurance Analysis 
for the Shipper 

By Donald Tormey 

MARINE INSURANCE IN FOREIGN TRADE is 
far too large a subject to attempt to cover at one 
sitting. I have, herefore, chosen to limit my discussion to 
certain aspects of cargo insurance. 

There are certain risks that are inherent to business 
and which must be borne by the importer or exporter. 
The success of a merchant engaging in Foreign Trade 
will to a large extent depend on his knowledge of mar- 
kets, credits, durability of goods, packaging and the in- 
herent qualities of his merchandise. 

There are risks, however, that the merchant can pass 
on to others. As the owner of cargo he stands at the 
apex of a triangle. To one side of him is the carrier and 
to the other side is his marine insurance underwriter. 



71U9111 



TRflDt 



The cargo owner, of course, has the primary burden of 
loss. The carrier, however, by virtue of the contract of 
affreightment or bill of lading, and the underwriter, by 
virtue of the contract of insurance, assume a certain por- 
tion of his burden. 

The carrier who issues a bill of lading has under com- 
mon law the obligation of delivering the cargo safely at 
the named destination unless prevented "by acts of God 
or the King's enemies. " This basic law has been greatly 
modified by statute. Further exceptions are set forth in 
the bill of lading. 

The underwriter who issues a marine insurance policy 
on cargo agrees to indemnify the party at interest in case 
of loss or damage but only in accordance with certain 
terms and conditions. These terms and conditions are 
set forth in the policy. 

If we study the risks excluded by the terms ot the bill 
of lading and then learn whether they are covered by the 
insurance policy, we will have a better idea of what risks 
the merchant must bear himself. We must keep in mind 
the carrier assumes full responsibility for the cargo un- 
less relieved in part by common law or statute; whereas, 
the insurance assumes only such liability as is speci- 
fically set forth in the insurance policy. 

The Carriage-of-Goods-by-Sea Act of 19.i6 is the most 
important statute affecting the carrier's obligations un- 
der the bill of lading. Passed by the Congress of the 
United States in 19.^6, it provides that every outward 
bill of lading shall contain a statement that it is issued 
pursuant to the provisions of the Act. It also provides 
that every incoming bill of lading shall be subject to the 



Page 84 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Act. The provisions of the Act, however, are not neces- 
sarily set forth in the bill of lading. To understand the 
carrier's obligations, as modified by the Act. it is neces- 
sary to review its provisions. 

Our review of the Carriage-of-Goods-by-Sea Act will 
be limited to the way in which it relieves the carrier 
from his basic obligation to deliver the cargo at the 
named destination in the same condition as he receives 
it. While we are doing this, we will note whether the 
marine insurance assumes the responsibilities from which 
the carrier is excused. We are assuming for the purposes 
of this discussion that the marine insurance policy is 
the usual policy issued on "With Average " conditions 
and subject to the usual Strikes, War and Marine Ex- 
tension endorsements. 

Fundamentally, the carrier is expected to furnish a 
seaworthy vessel but he is not liable for loss or damage 
due to unseaworthiness unless such loss or damage is 
caused by want of due diligence on the part of the car- 
rier to make the ship seaworthy. The question of unsea- 
worthiness does not arise under the insurance because 
between the assured and the insurance company the sea- 
worthiness of the vessel is admitted. Thus, the carrier 
who can show due diligence would not be liable for 
loss due to unseaworthiness. If the loss, however, was due 
to one of the perils covered by the insurance, the unsea- 
worthiness of the vessel would not be a bar to recovery. 

The carrier is not responsible for loss or damage aris- 
ing from "Act, neglect or default of the master, mariner, 
pilot or the servants of the carrier in the navigation or 
in the management of the ship. ' The insurance picks up 
this liability generally using the exact wording of the 
Act or by reference to the Act in doing so. 

The carrier is not responsible for fire losses unless 
caused by the actual fault or priviry of the carrier. The 
insurance policy assumes the risk of fire unless due to 
the inherent quality of the goods, i. e., spontaneous com- 
bustion in fishmeal. 

The carrier is not responsible for loss from "perils, 
dangers and accidents of the sea or other navigable 

waters and Acts of God. Perils of the sea" and "other 

like perils" are specifically stated as being risks the in- 
surance undertakes to bear. 

The Act relieves the carrier from responsibility for 
"Acts of war, acts of public enemies and arrests or re- 
straint of princes, rulers or people, or seizure under legal 
process. The war risks endorsement provides insurance 
against these risks, except for "seizure under legal proc- 
ess." Space does not permit a full discussion of the 
limitations of the war risk insurance. The carrier is re- 
lieved in full for loss due to act of war but the war risk 
insurance does not assume liability in full for the same 
risks. There are certain war risks that it would be con- 
trary to the public policy to insure and some underwriters 
are unwilling to assume. 

Quarantine restrictions constitute another peril. The 
carrier is not responsible for loss or damage due to such 




restrictions. Marine insurance does not provide protec- 
tion against losses due to such restrictions. It is the re- 
sponsibility of the cargo owner to know that his mer- 
chandise meets the requirements of the country it is en- 
tering. 

The carrier is also relieved of liability for loss due to 
the acts or omissions of the shipper and insufficiency of 
packing and marks. The insurance does not assume lia- 
bility for losses due to these causes. They are not listed 
as perils which the underwriters are willing to bear. It, 
therefore, behooves the cargo owner to see to it that 
the usual obligations of a shipper are fulfilled and that 
the goods are properly packed and marked for the in- 
tended voyage. 

Strikes ( but not the carrier's own acts ; as well as 
riots and civil commotion relieve the carrier of his ob- 
ligation to deliver the cargo safely at the named destina- 
tion. The S. R. & C. C. endorsement on the policy pro- 
vides protection against these risks. 

We come now to "Inherent vice. " The carrier is not 
liable for loss or damage due to inherent vice nor is the 
insurance company. This is certainly a risk that the owner 
of the cargo must bear himself. "Inherent vice " may be 
more easily understood if described as those qualities of 
a commodity that make that particular commodity sub- 
ject to changes that lower its commercial value. For ex- 
ample: Iron will rust with the mere passing of time. 



71UB1I1 



TRfiDf 



MARCH • 1947 



""age 



8g 



Therefore, the carrier would not be liable for loss due to 
the rusting, nor would the insurance company. 

Summarizing the discussion so far, we can say that 
the cargo owner cannot look to the carrier for recovery 
of losses caused by: 

1. Perils of the sea. 

2. Acts of God. 

3. Public enemies. 

4. Inherent vice. 

5. Faults or neglect of shipper. 

6. Faults or errors in the navigation or management 

of the vessel. 

7. Fire. 

These cover practically ail major perils — stranding, 
sinking, burning, collision, heavy weather, war. They do 
not, however, include negligence of carrier in loading, 
stowage, custody and care of cargo. 

We have also noted that the insurance covers causes 
of loss for which the carrier is not liable, except: 

1. Inherent vice. 

2. Fault or neglect of the shipper. 

a. Insufficient packing. 

b. Insufficient marking. 

3. Delay, deterioration due to delay. 

4. Frustration of voyage. 

a. Due to war. 

b. Due to strike. 

c. Due to weather. 

d. Due to other causes beyond the control of 

shipowner. 

So far, we have been discussing the perils, the inter- 
vention of which will excuse the carrier from the obliga- 
tion of delivering the cargo safely at the named destina- 
tion. The Carriage-of-Goods-by-Sea Act also limits the 
carrier's liability in certain other ways. It must be borne 
in mind that these limitations are separate and aside from 
the question of liability, on the part of the carrier. 

The carrier is not liable for more than S500 per pack- 
age or customary freight unit unless he accepts a higher 
valuation. The insurance policy has no such limitation. 
In no event is the carrier liable for more than actual 
damage based on sound market value at destination. The 
insurance is based on an agreed valuation. In event of 
total loss, the insured value will be paid and in the event 
of partial loss, the damaged value will be C07npared to 
the sound market value to determine a fraction, which 
fractional part of the insured value will be paid. 

While the bill of lading requires that notice of ap- 
parent damage must be given the carrier before removal 



71U81{1 



lUOiflD 
TRflDf 



Page 86 



of the cargo, failure to give such notice does not pre- 
judice right to payment of claim under the insurance. 
The same thing is true of written claims, the bill of lad- 
ing requiring, in most instances, that written claims be 
riled within thirty days. The cargo owner can recover 
from the insurance company without having filed a writ- 
ten claim against the carrier. 

Lawsuits to recover losses believed to be payable by 
the shipowner must be filed within one year after de- 
livery of the cargo or the time the cargo should have 
been delivered. The assured under a policy does not have 
to comply with this requirement. We should keep in 
mind, however, that failure to comply with the re- 
quirements of the bill of lading in regard to notice, 
claims and suits does prejudice the insurance company 
rights of subrogation. Since a good many claims pay- 
able under the insurance are also collectible from the 
carrier, an assured should cooperate with his underwriter 
in the collection of such claims or expect to see his in- 
surance costs go up. 

The Limitation Statute which is preserved by the 
Carriage-of-Goods-by-Sea Act limits the carrier's liabili- 
ty in regard to cargo to the value of the vessel and pend- 
ing freight. In some instances, this amount may not be 
sufficient to pay the total damages to cargo. The insur- 
ance policy, if specifically arranged, has no such limita- 
tion. If the insurance is provided by means of a certi- 
ficate issued under an open policy, the limitation per 
vessel expressed in the open policy must be considered. 

When a collision happens at sea, the liabilities of the 
parties involved may appear to be very complicated. 
Most collisions are due to negligence. Since the Carriage- 
of-Goods-by-Sea Act relieves the carrier of liability for 
negligence of master, mariner, pilot or servants of the 
carrier in the navigation of the vessel, it seldom happens 
that the carrier is liable for damage to cargo on the 
vessel due to collision. If the other or non-carrying ves- 
sel is held "to blame," cargo on the carrying vessel can 
collect from the non-carrying vessel. Under the insur- 
ance policy, the cargo owner is protected regardless of 
who is "to blame" for the collision. In the case of a 
"both-to-blame " collision, the cargo owner can only col- 
lect one-half of his loss from the carriers involved, but 
he can collect his full loss, up to the amount of his in- 
surance, from the insurance company. 

General Average 

The expression "General Average " is very confusing 
to anyone not familiar with Marine Insurance. In order 
to understand the expression, it is first necessary to know 
the meaning of the word "Average" in reference to 
Marine Insurance. Actually, it is an unintelligible sym- 
bol. We might just as well use any other combination 
of letters, but since we do use this particular combina- 
tion, it is interesting to speculate on why we do. 

Students of the subject have not been able to defi- 
nitely trace the origin of the word. They have developed 
several theories. One is that it comes from the old Eng- 
( Please turn to page 1 26 1 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Marine Insurance 



Our London Letter 

By Our Li, H. Correspondent 

Two OF THE LEADING UNDERWRITING AS- 
SOCIATIONS in the country have issued their annual 
reports. They are the Institute of London Underwriters 
and the Liverpool Underwriters' Association. 

Institute of London Underwriters 

At the annual meeting of the Institute of London 
Underwriters, Harold H. Mummery said that the period 
which he was reviewing was the first complete year of 
peace ("if one may call it so") since 1938. We had 
heard in the past year a great deal about reverting to 
freedom of underwriting. 

Mr. Mummery continued: 

"I understand quite well that there must be many 
of the younger generation of underwriters who are 
anxious to win their spurs. I would, however, add 
this word of caution — that underwriting under con- 
ditions such as exist today must necessarily differ in 
its entirety from similar conditions as they existed 
during the period of the war. 

"We must get back to exercising our own indi- 
viduality, but if at any time we see a risk which cuts 
across an agreement to which we have subscribed, 
then whatever our neighbour may have done, that 
risk should not be written. 

"For these reasons, I do feel most strongly that if 
we are to maintain this great market as the marine 
insurance center of the world, it is of paramount 
importance that we should be unselfish and effect the 
transfer from war to peace conditions in a thoughtful 
and unhurried manner, and so make certain that we 
establish a sound foundation. 

"In other words, each one of us must be prepared 
to sacrifice premium at times in order to achieve 
something worth-while. I am convinced that never 
was it more necessary to seek collaboration, not only 
amongst ourselves but with the various sections of 
the market, and what is perhaps still more important 
between the various markets of the world." 

This led Mr. Mummery to think of the International 
Union of Marine Insurance, which he described as the 
forum in which can be debated the many problems "with 
which we and our friends are likely to be confronted 
now and in the future." He quoted from the "Liverpool 



Journal of Commerce" of the l6th October, 1946, the 
following: 

"Moreover, I am able to state that steps are being 
taken which may enable not only Lloyd's under- 
writers to become full members of the Union, but 
would also overcome the difficulties which American 
underwriters experience in adhering to the Union by 
reason of their anti-trust laws." 
Mr. Mummery was sure he was speaking for each of 
those present at the meeting of the Institute of London 
Underwriters when he expressed the hope that this may 
be so. 

Another important point in Mr. Mummery's lengthy 
review, in connection with theft and pilferage, was that 
shipowners and port authorities could do more to save 
cargo from the depredation of those having access to the 
docks. Mr. Mummery commented: 

"Personally — and it must be understood that I am 
merely expressing an individual view — I would like 
to see underwriters giving consideration to the set- 
ting up of an organisation which could be called 
upon to supervise and examine the loading and dis- 
charge of cargoes, not overlooking any supervision 
which might be necessary at a port or place of tran- 
shipment. This practice is, I think it true to say, fol- 
lowed to a great extent by our colleagues across the 
Atlantic, and I think such an organisation would, over 
a period, more than justify itself." 
The annual report of the Liverpool Underwriters' As- 
sociation also deals with theft and pilferage of cargo. 
The number of claims resulting from this evil have in- 
creased during the year to "an alarming extent, and 
represent a serious problem at home and overseas. " The 
Committee feel that the problem is one of national im- 
portance, as the high proportion of losses through theft 
and pilferage of commodities which are in short supply 
is a matter which affects the general public, and they 
trust that the authorities will view the situation with the 
gravity which it warrants by doing everything possible to 
increase the number of police and trustworthy watchmen 
on the docks and by imposing terms of imprisonment on 
offenders. It is hoped, too, that attempts will be made to 
improve the quality of packages. 

LIVERPOOL UNDERWRITERS' 
ASSOCIATION 

At the annual meeting of the Liverpool Underwriters' 
Association, Oscar Prentice, the chairman, said: 

"I must give a word of warning to English under- 
writers with regard to U. S. A. hulls. That market 
knows its business much better than we do, and it is 
of no value to English underwriters, or to the country 
in the form of invisible exports, to make material 
undercuts in their rates. U. S. A. business written at 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 87 



a loss is a further drain on our already precarious 
dollar position. 

"We must bear in mind that the discounts on 
U. S. A. hulls are 2X6 per cent, less than ours, and 
that, in addition, we have to pay a stamp tax of 4 
per cent. Underwriters are, in my opinion, batting 
on a very poor wicket." 

A COMMENT ON AMERICAN 
INSURANCE MARKET 

Insurance people in London have noted with interest 
an article (in "The Eastern Underwriter") by W. Irving 
Plitt, vice president of the Atlantic Mutual Insurance 
Company. Mr. Plitt's picture is regarded as a black one. 
He admits that the picture is gloomy, but points out that 
marine underwriters thrive on problems. "Frankly," 
writes a London marine insurance commentator, "I do 
not like his final remarks to the effect that there are some 
bright spots, such as the tremendous increase in the for- 
eign trade of the United States and the prospect of a 
great American merchant marine and the hope for a 
more nationalistic spirit in the American people so that 
our American insurance market may truly become a 
world market of the first magnitude.' " 
The commentator adds: 

"I would suggest that to aspire to become a world 
market of the first magnitude is right and proper, 
but to hope to do so by nationalism is contrary to the 
spirit of the Atlantic Charter, especiaUy where marine 
insurance is concerned, for marine insurance is an 
international, not a national, business, and depends 
for its continued prosperity upon the absence of 
nationalistic restrictions." 

RELATING TO SEIZED SHIPS 

News of an important lawsuit, of particular interest 
to shipping, comes from Copenhagen. The case will 
shortly come before the Danish Court of Justice. A 
number of Norwegian shipowners are jointly suing three 
Danish shipyards, the Ministry of Finance and the Dan- 
ish War Insurance Office for the payment of 34,000,000 
kr. in respect of Norwegian vessels building in Denmark 
at the time of the German invasion in 1940, and eventu- 
ally seized by the Germans. The question is about eight 
diesel vessels ordered from Danish builders in 19.38 and 
1939, and the construction of which was in progress 
when the Germans came, six vessels building with 
Messrs. Burmeister and Wain, Copenhagen, two with 
the Nakskov Shipyard, Nagskov, and two with the 
Odense Steel Shipyard, Odense. The seizure of the ships 
by the enemy took place in the spring of 1941, and the 
said builders were forced to complete the vessels. 

It is held by the Norwegian owners that the three 
Danish shipyards committted a breach of contract in con- 
forming to the orders of the Germans. The seizure was 
contrary to the rules of the Hague Convention, and the 
shipyards were not entitled to allow the Germans on 



board the vessels, or to proceed with their construction 
for German account. Furthermore, it is held that the 
circumstance that the builders, at the time of the seizure, 
sought and obtained guarantee from the Ministry of 
Finance as a security against forthcoming compensation 
claims from the Norwegian side, is, it is contended, a 
proof of builders realising that it was contrary to inter- 
national law to obey the German orders. That when, 
also, the Danish State is made responsible for the losses 
sustained by the Norwegian shipowners, the reason is, 
it is alleged, that the Danish State neglected its duty to 
protect the property of foreign citizens on Danish terri- 
tory. The lawsuit concerns the following vessels ( with 
claim amounts attached): m. s. "Kurland" (8,075,500 
kr. ), m. v. "Lappland" (5,816,113 kr. ), m. v. "Austan- 
ger" (500,080 kr. ), m. v. "Johan Essberger" (2,851,667 
kr.), m. V. "Falkanger" (1,613,688 kr.), m. v. "Hope- 
ville" (1,104,236 kr.), m. v. "Viator" (3,500,202 kr.) 
and m. v. "Ferngulf" (3,528,982 kr.). 

A later report states that, in connection with the legal 
action taken by a combine of five Norwegian shipowners 
against three Danish shipyards, the Ministry of Finance 
and the Danish War Insurance, in respect of new con- 
struction in Denmark for Norwegian account, which, 
during the German occupation of Denmark, was seized 
by the enemy and eventually completed by the shipyards 
under German pressure, from Britain, also, a similar 
lawsuit has been started against the shipyard of Bur- 
meister and Wain. Copenhagen, the Ministry, and the 
War Insurance. The British owners are the Blue Star 
Line, Ltd., London, who claim compensation of about 
14,000,000 kr. in respect of the m. s. "Adelaide Star" 
which, in 1939, w'as under construction at Copenhagen, 
was seized by the Germans and completed under their 
orders. It is anticipated that only one or two of the cases 
will go to court, and that the outcome of them will be 
decisive for the other vessels. 

ARGENTINE INSURANCE LAWS 

It is the considered opinion in London marine insur- 
ance circles that the Argentine Government's proposed 
nationalist insurance laws, as originally drafted, would 
have proved unworkable. No surprise, therefore, has 
been expressed at the change of policy. It appears that 
the Argentine has been having some "second thoughts" 
regarding this matter, no doubt following the adverse 
comments which have been directed against it from sun- 
dry quarters. They have, of course, been giving the 
matter their attention since May last year. 

The initial draft was never ratified by Congress. A 
second draft introduced into the Chamber of Deputies 
is not expected to be passed, and it is said that a third 
draft is under consideration. The aim of the Government 
to set up a national reinsurance institute seems to remain 
unchanged, and so does the intention to exclude foreign 
participation by shareholding in Argentine companies, 
but the law of last May prohibiting the insurance of 
imports and exports in transit by other than Argentine 



■'age 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



insurers, which was never rarihed, is said to have been 
scrapped. 

"No wonder! " is the comment. Had the insurance law 
been enacted, not only would it have proved unwork- 
able, but Argentine importers and exporters would have 
been involved in great difficulties. 

DENMARK 

Insurance expenses, states a Copenhagen correspond- 
ent, have become a little cheaper, but the premiums 
claimed by the Danish war insurance are above the terms 
on which the vessels could be covered in other markets, 
and if the compulsory Danish war insurance continues in 
existence the effect of it will be that Danish owners 
cannot benefit from the advantages of covering insur- 
ances in the cheapest market. Compensation for vessels 
lost during the war outside the blockade is only partially 
settled by Great Britain, Canada and the United States, 
whereas this problem still remains unsettled with France, 
South Africa. Holland, India, etc. The agreement arrived 
at with Great Britain, on the basis of £10,000,000, plus 
an additional amount of between £500,000 and £1,000,- 
000 to cover repairs to re-delivered vessels, is satisfac- 



tory; nevertheless, the compensation for the lost vessels 
does not cover the full hull war insurance value of the 
tonnage at 9th April, 1940. The balance, therefore, will 
have to be claimed from the Danish war insurance. The 
compensation negotiated with Canada and the United 
States is a little better. The total amount to be received 
from the United States lies between §26,000,000 and 
S.i0,000,000, but also on this basis there is a margin to 
be covered by the Danish war insurance. 

FRANCE 

It is reported from Paris that, according to a com- 
munication from the Central Committee to Sworn in- 
surance Brokers, the Minister of Finance recalled in a 
recent circular that marine insurance operations could 
only be undertaken in France and her oversea possessions 
by firms, or organisations, having complied with certain 
obligations — notably as regards compulsory reinsurance 
— laid down in an ordinance of 23rd January, 1945. The 
circular added that Lloyd's, London, not falling in this 
category, are not legally competent, under present condi- 
tions, to carry on marine insurance in France. Any con- 
tracts entered into with Lloyd's would, therefore, con- 
stitute a breach of the ordinance of 1945. 



ymiralty Decisions 



By HAROLD S. DDBBS 

of San Francisco Bar 

Liability for Injuries Ashore 

AN INTERESTING GROUP OF CASES are being 
brought to trial in many jurisdictions since the de- 
cision of Aguilar rs. Standard Oil and Aioss vs. Alaska 
Packers Association which are based upon the theory that 
a seaman injured during authorized shore leave is entitled 
to wages and maintenance for the period of disability 
even though the injury occurs ashore and in some cases 
at a great distance from the vessel. One of the excep- 
tions to the rule lies in proof of misconduct on the part 
of the seaman. What factors would, in a given case 
amount to misconduct are difficult to spell out. In any 
event, a recent decision in the District Court of Penn- 
sylvania appears to extend the aforesaid rule by permit- 
ting a seaman to recover not ony for wages and main- 
tenance but also damages for negligence even though the 
injury occurred ashore. 

In Nowery is Smith and Johinon. 1946, the plaintiff, 
a seaman, brought suit for personal injuries under the 
Jones Act against the operators of the SS MATTHEW 
B. BRADY. Plaintiffs alleged injuries were sustained as 
a result of a fist fight with the chief engineer of the 



BRADY, one Nantau, while plaintiff was on shore leave 
in a barroom at Antilla, Cuba. The court's charge to the 
jury provided that they could find for the plaintiff if they 
found ( a ) that Nantau, when he entered the barroom 
where the fight occurred, was acting as an officer of the 
ship, and was on the ship's business; or (h) if they found 
that Nantau was a man of vicious and brutal tendencies, 
who was likely to engage in violent and unprovoked 
physical assaults upon his fellows, and that Nantau's dis- 
position was known, or should have been known, to the 
master of the vessel; provided, in either instance, that 
the jury also found that plaintiff was free from willful 
misbehavior, and that he did not provoke the assault. 

The court discusses the case of O'Donnell vs. Great 
Lakes Dredge & Dock Co.. a United States Supreme 
Court case, where a seaman, pursuant to orders, was 
standing on the dock alongside his ship repairing a con- 
duit through which a cargo of sand was being discharged 
from the vessel; and, while so engaged, he was injured 
through the negligence of a fellow employee. In holding 
that the plaintiff could recover under the Jones Act, the 
Supreme Court said: 

"The right of recovery in the Jones Act is given 
to the seaman as such, and, as in the case of main- 
tenance and cure, the admiralty jurisdiction over 
the suit depends not on the place where the injury 
is inflicted but on the nature of the service and its 
(Please turn to page Ii2i 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 89 




m€RCIfll 
CRflfT 



Controllable Pitch Propellers 
On Dew River Craft 




A REVOLUTIONARY STEP IN THE DESIGN and 
motivation of river craft has been taken with the 
construction of two 525 foot all steel streamlined auto- 
mobile carrying vessels by the St. Louis Shipbuilding 
and Steel Company for Commercial Barge Lines, Inc., of 
Detroit, Michigan. 

Designed by top ranking naval architects and marine 
engineers, these modern vessels are the first river craft 
to incorporate many commercial adaptations of propul- 
sion principles developed and tested under battle con- 



ditions during World War II. Multiple high speed die- 
sel engine units driving controllable pitch propellers 
provide power and maneuverability hitherto unknown 
to inland waterway cargo vessels. These propellers were 
originally engineered by General Motors to meet the 
Navy's inportant landing craft and sub-chaser require- 
ments. 

Christened the Commercial Clipper and Commercial 
Express, immediate use of the trim sister craft will be to 
make scheduled runs between automobile assembly 




Page 90 



dl Clipper operating with two of its three units during trial runs on the Mississippi. The center unit had not been 
completed at the time of the trials. 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



plants at Evansville, Indiana, and connecting highway 
transportation lines at Guntersville. Alabama, a distance 
of some 500 miles. 

Each of the 325 foot vessels consists of three separate 
175 foot units tightly joined by cable and ratchets. When 
integrated, the fine lines of the hull are carried through- 
out the entire length without sacrificing speed or effi- 
ciency. The bow and center units are made up for four 
cargo carrying levels, all of which may be loaded or un- 
loaded from either end by the use of adjustable ramps. 
The stern section is the power unit, with an elevated 
pilothouse located on the port side. Generous crew ac- 
commodations, propulsion engines, maintenance machin- 
ery, and fuel bunkers are all located in the hull of this 
unit. In addition, three levels of storage area are available 
for cargo. 

In operation, the vessels may be made up of either 
two or three units, depending upon load requirements. 
Three integrated units can accommodate 600 automobiles 
and 498 long tons of freight. Fully loaded, each unit dis- 
places 248.^.5 tons of fresh water to a 5V2 foot draft. 
Beam at the water line measures 35 feet and 45 feet on 
deck. 

Propulsion power for both the Commercial Clipper 
and the Commercial Express is supplied by three General 
Motors Diesel Quad multiple engine units, each of 
which is rated at 660 bhp at 1850 rpm. A Quad unit 
consists of four basic 6-cylinder engines mounted to- 
gether and driving a single propeller shaft through a 
4.4:1 reduction gear. Correct engine water temperature 
is maintained through separate closing cooling systems 
for individual Quads, each system having its own shell 
and tube heat exchanger. 

Basic engines have individual clutch and throttle con- 
trols so that under light load conditions one or more 
engines in a unit may be shut off for more economical 
operation. If necessary, basic engines could be quickly 




Engine room of the Commercial Clipper showing two of the 
three &M Diesel Quad propulsion units. 

disconnected and replaced either enroute or at port dur- 
ing loading, thus obviating costly lay up time while 
repair work is being performed. Hatches directly over 
the engine room facilitate quick removal or exchange 
of any engine. 

Although this power plant is capable of delivering 
over 2,000 bhp at a governed speed of 1850 rpm. each 
of the three "Quad 6" units measures only 4V2 feet by 
10% feet and 4Vi feet high. 

Each of the three 60 inch controllable pitch propellers 
is driven at 415 rpm by a separate Quad engine unit. 
Since there are no reverse gears, backing is accomplished 
by simply reversing the propeller pitch by means of a 
hydraulic mechanism. Engines need not be throttled 
down when this operation is performed. The control- 
lable pitch feature, in addition to providing greater 

I Please lurti to page 7/>6i 




Bridge of the C 
Irols. throttle control 



iven 30 kw ge 
power panel. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 91 




New Sinclair Oil Tanli 
er, the f. C. Randall 
re -built for service ir 
hard-to-qet-to ports o 
Cuban and South Amer 
ican waters. 



ar Techniques Used in 
Hew Shallow Draft Tankers 



THE SINCLAIR REFINING COMPANY, drawing 
on its wide experience in product distribution, has 
taken advantage of available postwar trends in small 
tanker design to expand coastwise operations in Cuba 
and South America, with particular emphasis on opera 
tions in shallow ports. 

To widen its distribution within such "hard-to-get-to' 
ports, Sinclair has acquired the newly constructed F. C, 
Randall, a tanker of the YO class which was contract 
termination inventory in the Smith Shipyards, Pensacola, 
Florida, after cancellation by the United States Navy 
The vessel was purchased by Marine Industries and later 
sold to Sinclair Refining Company for operation by Sin- 
clair of Cuba. The Gibbs Corporation of Jacksonville, 
Florida, rebuilt the tanker to meet Sinclair's special needs. 

Sinclair was particularly interested in this type of 




The F. C. R, 



dall's Model 8-278A General Motors diesel en- 
ated at 640 bhp, turns the propeller at 221 rpm, through 
Airflex clutch-reverse-reduction-gear mechanism. 



tanker, being aware that the Navy used a long string of 
vessels of this type when establishing a beachhead or 
when entering shallow ports with needed supplies. Sin- 
clair was also interested due to the fact that this tanker 
is of modern construction and is amply powered; being 
equipped with steam coils and a smothering system for 
handling heavy petroleum products as well as molasses 
in bulk cargo. In addition the vessel is well protected 
with C02 fire fighting equipment. 

Now in service, the F. C. Randall is of all-welded steel 
construction, and measures 216' 6" in length, overall; 
with a molded beam of ^2' and molded depth of 15'; 
capacity, 10,000 barrels of gasoline plus approximately 
50 tons of fuel oil and 14 tons of fresh water at maxi- 
mum draft of 1 3 feet. It is powered by Cleveland Deisel 
Engine Division of General Motors Corporation with 
a Model 8-278A diesel engine, rated 640 bhp at 675 rpm 
of the engine, turning the three-blade bronze propeller, 
90 inches in diameter by 56 inch pitch, at 221 rpm 
through an Airflex clutch-reverse-reduction-gear mecha- 
nism. 

Other equipment used in the operation of this oil 
carrier includes a diesel cargo pump; combination 40 kw. 
cargo pump and generator; two air compression pumps, 
600-pound working pressure; a 20-gpm centrifugal 
fresh water pump; bilge pump, 100 gpm at 1250 rpm; 
a 50 gpm flushing pump and a steam generating plant. 
There also is electric steering; and the usual type air 
whistle characteristic of a motor vessel. The galley is 
spacious and well equipped with a three-gallon stain- 
less steel coffee urn with contact electric heater; a large 
electric refrigerator, as well as a .30-cubic foot electric 
refrigerator and deep freeze unit. The vessel carries a 
I Please turn to page 134) 



Page 92 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Uoti/L (h4rbum& dnUin^uL 



by "The Chief" 

'The Chief's" department welcomes questions — Just write "The Chief," Pacific Marine Review. 



IDoderH IDarine Boiler Huxiliaries 



STEAM FROM A BOILER, having done its work in 
the turbine or reciprocating engine, goes into another 
phase of its cycle in which it is reduced to water and 
prepared for entrance into the boiler again at the most 
advantageous pressure and temperature for the best 
economy of the particular installation. Therefore, every 
piece of apparatus between the exhaust outlet of the 
turbine and the feed water inlet of the boiler may pro- 
perly be called a boiler auxiliary, considering the con- 
denser as a 50-50 auxiliary half boiler, half engine. 

Starting then with the condenser we have a low tem- 
perature heat exchanger consisting of a large nest of 
tubes contained in a cast iron or cast steel shell and so 
arranged that a fairly high vacuum can be maintained in 
the shell and cold salt water can be pumped through the 
tubes while steam is pouring down over these tubes 
from the exhaust. Important points in the operation of 
steam exhaust condensers are: 

( 1 ) That all joints between tubes and tube sheets 
and between tube sheets and shell be kept tight. 

( 2 ; That any split or punctured rubes be blanked 
out as soon as discovered. 

( 3 ) That inlet ends of tubes be examined periodi- 
cally so that steps can be taken to prevent erosion 
and, if necessary, to renew tubes. 

The engineer should secure for his personal use from 
the manufacturer an instruction book covering the con- 
denser installed on his ship. He should also find out the 
make and material of the condenser tubes used and 
write the maker of those tubes for complete information. 
He should be supplied with the proper tools for making 
tubes tight and with ample spare ferrules and packing, 
if packing is used. 

Condenser tubes in most modern condensers are made 
of copper nickel or aluminum brass alloys, which arc 



much less subject to corrosion than the former standard 
Admiralty metal rubes. Any brass, however, is subject 
to dezincification when exposed to salt water that is con- 
tained in an iron shell. This is due to electrolytic action 
and is largely preventable by the use of zinc wasting 
plates fitted in the water boxes. 

All of this is to prevent salt water getting into the 
steam which is particularly harmful in a water tube 



</r vent lo utm.- 



ConaenscVt^ 




Fig. I. Two-stage 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 93 



boiler installation. Such leakage is discovered by making 
frequent tests of the condensate for salinity. Many mod- 
ern vessels are fitted with salinity indicator systems hav- 
ing connection to the hotwell and flashing a red light 
and ringing an alarm when salt concentration becomes 
dangerous. However, notwithsanding the presence of 
such a system, it is wise and safe procedure for the engi- 
neer to take a salinity reading every 15 minutes while 
underway. 

When a condenser is idle it should be thoroughly 
dried out both on salt water and steam sides. If imprac- 
ticable to dry out the tubes, the salt water side should 
be kept full and fresh circulation water pumped through 
occasionally. 

Serving the condenser are two important auxiliaries: 

( 1 ) The air ejector for maintaining the vacuum in 
the shell; and 

(2) The condensate pump which draws the con- 
densed steam from the bottom of the condenser 

I and starts it on its way to the main feed pump 

I and the boiler. 

In the great majority of modern steam plants an air 
ejector takes the place of the old air pump. Figure 1, 



illustrates the two stage air ejector with inter and after 
condensers which is the type most commonly used in 
American 450 psi marine steam plants. Simply stated, 
the air ejector is a steam nozzle discharging a high veloc- 
ity steam jet through a mixing chamber into a venturi 
tube difTuser, which may discharge into a condenser or 
into the atmosphere. In the two stage variety the first 
stage discharges into an inter-condenser and the second 
stage takes its suction from the inter-condenser and dis- 
charges into an after-condenser as shown ( Fig. 1 ) . The 
condensers in an air ejector are the start of the regenera- 
tive feed water system. Cooling water for these con- 
densers is the condensate from the main condensers, 
which picks up here a few degrees of heat. The con- 
densate from these air ejector condensers goes to the 
hotwell of the main condenser adding a little heat to the 
feed water. Figure 2 shows a complete regenerative 
closed feed water system with bled steam from various 
stages of the turbine piped to the essential heat exchange 
functions and drains from those functions piped to con- 
venient stages of the feed water cycle. The usual marine 
450 psi plant has three bleed points approximotely 100 
psi absolute 25 psi gage, and 8 psi absolute. 

One hundred pound bled steam is used in the third 
stage feed water heater and in the evaporators. Twenty- 
( Please turn to page 138) 



EGEND 



TO JOOT etjOWOIS 



o*y SOO'f 




rtiD > 


O«0'Tt 




WP^'I'n. 






OtlUP'H'l 








RCSUCIHa VALVC 



; ^vEtff cixa{ 



10* (i 
ocAOunx 



T m-o 







ile 0CACKAT1NS 
1 M£ATt" 

, OWttM. CVA* 

|p\ f CtO PUWf I I 

Fig. 2. Modern 



cuit with bled sle 



Page 94 



-nain turbine serving the heaters. 

PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 






4f(W ^^/ 

KnOUILEOCE IS THE STRRICHT 
[QURSE TO ROUflniEmEHT 

by "The Skipper" 

Questions Welcomed. Just Address "The Skipper," Pacific 
Marine Review, SOO Sansome St., San Francisco, California 



TH[ SEXTANT 



CHAPTER X 
( THIS IS THE CONCLUDING CHAPTER IN 
A SERIES ON THE SEXTANT. WHICH HAS 
RUN THROUGH 1946-I94~) 

Practical ^otes on the Care of the Sextant 

I S WILL HAVE BEEN GATHERED from the fore- 
ilgoing articles on the Sextant, it is a most important 
and somewhat delicate instrument requiring a good deal 
of personal care, handling and attention. It is hoped 
that the following notes will supply the navigator with 
hints and tips on all the points which will assist him 
to take the greatest care of his sextant and keep it in 
the best adjustment. 

As the sextant is the best friend you will have at sea, 
treat it with respect. The old saying is — 

Never lend your sextant — 

Never lend your wife — 

Buying a Sextant 

When buying a sextant, particularly a new sextant, 
the maker's name will be sufficient guarantee of the 
quality and accuracy of its construction. BEWARE OF 
A SECOND-HAND SEXTANT UNLESS IT HAS 
BEEN FULLY CHECKED BEFORE YOU PART 
WITH YOUR MONEY. 

In buying a second-hand sextant the following points 
should be watched. Suppose, for instance, you see adver- 
tised a sextant, and that you make an appointment with 
the seller and call on him. Immediately he will begin to 
extol the qualities of the sextant in the manner follow- 
ing: 'This is a beautiful instrument; my grandfather 
used it, my father used it, and I have used it for several 
years. It is a wonderful buy for S2 50.00. Just give me 
the money and be on your way, etc., etc. " 



Now here is a little free legal advice that will save you 
money — and grief. Before you say more than how-de-do 
to the seller, ask him: 

"Have you a Certificate of Inspection for this sextant? 
If so, where is it? Has is been pasted on the inside of the 
lid of the sextant case?" If so, examine it, and examine 
it carefully. If the seller is a "slicker " he may have picked 
up a Certificate of Inspection that belongs to some 
other sextant entirely. Check this Certificate of Inspec- 
tion with the sextant. Does it describe the sextant you 
are planning to buy? Has it the same serial number? 
Does it contain the name of the same manufacturer that 
is engraved on the sextant? What is the date of the 
certificate? 

Before you part with any money for a second-hand 
sextant, even after you have checked the Certificate of 
Inspection, insist that either the seller or you take this 
sextant to any reputable instrument concern and have 
it thoroughly checked. Between the time the Certificate 
of Inspection was issued and the time you look at it, it 
may have been dropped on the deck; thrown at the ship's 
cat, or used by the seller's wife to pound a nail in the 
wall on which to hang a picture. Any one of these uses 
to iihich a sextant is put tiill utterly ruin it for naviga- 
tional purposes. A thorough check of a sextant will cost 
from S15.00 to S25.00 but will be money well invested. 
Anything wrong with the sextant will come out in this 
check-up. 

See that the glasses in the shades are not slack. Re- 
verse the instrument and see if the true and reflected arcs 
are in the same continuous line. Note whether the arc is 
well cut, as this is often worn by constant polishing; if 
it is, reject the sextant at once. See that the screws on 
the index mirror and horizon glass are in working con- 
dition and not all worn away. Examine the silvering on 
the mirrors. 

If you are going to use the sextant for deep-sea work 
be sure that you have the proper telescopes. Unless your 



MARCH • 1947 



Page95 




®lj« ^attmial f Ijgaical faburator? 

TEDDINGTON. 



ffl^HISISTO (JeRTIPTTHAT ^extant J^O.-?ii82- nam. 

H^Hughes & Sonjitdj ,29 J^^^ 

with vernier showing 15!I reaches the standard lor 

CLASS A. 

The dividing has been examined at a number of points along the arc and 
tound Jree Irom material error. The following corrections, u addition to th« 
index correction, should be appUed to the readings of the arc : — 



16* 1 30° • 46° 


60° 


76* 


90° 


108° 


ISO* 


0" O'O" 


-O'lO" 


-o'30" 


-C30" 


^•30" 


-0'20" 


-O'K 



The shades, minors and telescopes are good. The magnifying powers an 
10.5.4 The general workmanship is satisfactory. 

21at .Jaiiu ary 1941 _ . 

.^.:-S. 54.288 0(^--^Cv^W-v^ j,^„,.. 

(•1M8I> Wl.lMM/7» 1,0M tlV A.AB.WXU: QMU 

Fig.^A The National Physical Laboratory Certificate Class \. 

Fig. 23. Certificate of Inspection issued by The National 
Physical Laboratory, London. 

sextant will pick up stars without difficulty it is no good 
nowadays. 

7/ possible buy a new sextant and take care of it — 
ivith proper care it will last a lifetime. 

Using The Sextant 

When holding the sextant many men prefer to grasp 
the frame of the sextant around the handle as well, thus 
getting a firmer grip. 

When clamping the index arm the clamp screw should 
not be forced down hard, just tight enough to prevent 
the index arm slipping so that the tangent screw will 
act. 

Do not strain the tangent screw by allowing it con- 
tinually to get to the end of the thread. 

Always rub over your sextant lightly after use — par- 
ticularly in damp weather — with a piece of chamois. 
This will prevent the silvering from being damaged and 
keep your sextant in good working order and condition 
for years. Be careful to rub the arc dry at the same time. 

When taking sights in rough weather be careful to 
clean off the salt spray. After sunset and at night mois- 
ture may form on the mirrors, which should be removed. 
Remove all moisture from the dividing line between 
the plain glass and the silvered glass, otherwise the sil- 
vering will soon deteriorate and make star sights much 
more difficult. 



Be careful not to apply excessive pressure on the viir- 
rors or the adjustments may be upset. 

The sextant should never be left exposed to the sun 
for longer than necessary, and between sights it is a good 
plan to stow it away in its box, or someone may knock 
it off on the deck. 

The micrometer sextant must be carefully handled. 
Firm pressure must be applied to the release clamp, dis-. 
engaging it carefully by firm pressure of the thumb and 
finger on the clamp. The arc and micrometer teeth must 
be kept clean in order to prevent any stiffness occurring 
in the movement of the index arm. 

The working parts of the micrometer sextant should 
be lubricated with the special oil provided. This should 
be used sparingly to the underside of the large microm- 
eter pivot screw, the micrometer screw bearing, and also 
to the rubbing surfaces of the arc. 

In addition to adjusting the sextant and finding the 
index error, a periodical examination should be made 
as follows; 

( 1 ) See that the index arm moves freely along the 
arc — if not, send to the maker for an overhaul. 

( 2 ) Holding the sextant arc away, as for the first 
adjustment, see if the true and reflected horizons are in 
line, and if not, note the difference. Now move the in- 
dex arm around the arc from one side to the other and 
see if there is any variation in the distance between the 
true and reflected arcs. If there is, the index mirror is 
bent and the instrument should be sent to the maker 
for an overhaul. 

( 3 ) Examine the sextant and see if the telescope is 
paralled with the arc ( fourth adjustment ) ; if not, either 
adjust or send to the maker for an overhaul. 

(4) The vernier should be examined to see whether 
when zero exactly cuts a division on the arc the 10' divi- 
sion on the vernier also coincides with another division 
on the arc. It should do this at several places along the 
arc, otherwise the sextant should be sent to the maker 
for overhaul. 

Keep Your Sextant Away From Damp and 
Vibration 

Do not keep your sextant in a drawer where constant 
jolting will probably alter the adjustments. If possible 
get a special shelf built fitted with side battens to pre- 
vent the box from getting any play when the ship is 
rolling. 

An occasional rubbing of the arc ( on the vernier sex- 
tant ) with a weak solution of ammonia and water will 
brighten it so that it is easier to read. Never use any- 
thing on the arc of an abrasive nature which will cut it. 

[Phase turn to page 138) 



Page 96 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



0^ t^ 'Wcuf^ 

New Construction - Reconditioning - Repairs 



Six C-3's for Matson 

Six C-5's assigned to Matson Navigation Company are 
to be converted to special needs of that firm by the addi- 
tion of cargo refrigeration, deep tanks for molasses, and 
special cargo handling machinery. 

General Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company was 
successful low bidder on two of these vessels for a total 
cost of over 51,000,000. The other four will be converted 
on the Atlantic Coast or the Gulf. 

Specifically each of the ships contracted to the General 
Engineering & Dry Dock Co. will be fitted for 60,000 
cu. ft. capacity in refrigerated cargo chambers together 
with the refrigeration machinery to take care of this 
cargo. 

The molasses will be carried in deep tanks with a 
capacity for 2700 tons. A pump room with machinery of 



adequate pumping capacity to handle this cargo will be 
installed. The ships' holds will be fitted to carry sugar in 
bulk. Topping winches will be installed to complete the 
cargo handling gear. 



Progress on Passenger Liners 

The two passenger liners. President Cleveland and 
President Wilson, building at the Alameda, California 
yard of the Shipbuilding Division, Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, are rapidly nearing completion. The SS Cleveland 
is expected to run trials early in the summer and a num- 
ber of executives and engineers of the Maritime Commis- 
sion will be out from Washington to make special studies 
on this trial. Of particular interest to the engineers will 
be the strain gage tests on the aluminum superstructure 
of this vessel. These tests will determine to a large extent 
the usefulness of this light weight metal in such struc- 
tural application. 

Undoubtedly the first of this pair of vessels will be put 
through exhaustive tests as to all of her engineering and 
navigational functions, although these should be identical 
with those of her sister vessels that were used as troop 
transports during the war. The only new feature to be 
tested is the aluminim: superstructure and this test data 



GOOD NEIGHBOR" \\m COMES BACK 




The SS Argentina, which served as a troopship during the war. enters a 25,000-ton floating drydock — the largest in the country — at the Bethlehem 
Brooklyn Division yard. The vessel is being reconverted for peacetime ser/ice by the U. S. Maritime Commission. By mid-summer the 587-foot, 
20,611-lon ship will emerge again as a luiury liner, to be operated on the "Good Neighbor" run to east coast South American ports by the 

Moore-McCormack Lines. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 97 



will be awaited with keen interest by all naval architects. 
On a sea trial of one of the sister vessels built in this 
same yard we found her to be an eceptionally good sea- 
going model, easy in her roll and pitch, and able with her 
electric twin-screw drive to spin around practically in a 
circle with a diameter scarcely exceeding her own length. 



liner Plans Deferred 



A number of American steamship lines have long 
range plans for special passenger liner and combination 
passenger and cargo liner construction that are, at pres- 
ent, deferred awaiting final rulings on taxes by the Treas- 
ury Department, and on subsidies by the Maritime Com- 
mission. Among these are American President Lines, 
American Export Lines, U. S. Lines, and American Mail 
Lines. 

Designs for these vessels are practically complete and 
the necessary reserve funds for their construction are on 
hand pending the decision by government agencies on 
several important factors. If the government insists on 
payment of income taxes covering these funds, a decision 
that would be based on a very flimsy technicality, then 
of course the remainder would not be sufficient to war- 
rant going ahead with the work. If the Maritime Com- 
mission decides against adequate consttuction differential 
subsidy that also hamstrings the plans. So both the ship- 
ping and the shipbuilding industry are temporarily, at 
least, "out on a limb" so far as new construction is 
concerned. 



Todd Reconverts Puebia [E\-Orinoco] 

The former German passenger liner, Orinoco, interned 
early in the war by Mexican authorities, was chartered 
early in 1942 to the United States and with her name 
changed to Puebia, turned over to the Army in New 
Orleans, for use as a transport hospital. On her way round 
to San Francisco trouble developed in the M.A.N, diesel 
engines of her electric generating sets. At San Francisco 
these engines were replaced by Enterprise diesels and 
the ship went into hospital transport service on the 
Pacific. 

In 1944, after repeated trouble with her main engines 
( Bremer- Vulcan ) she was laid up at Bethlehem, San 
Francisco Yard, and her engines completely rebuilt. After 
further service she was sold to the Southern Steamship 
Company (Olympia Line) of New York, which is head- 
ed by Markos P. Nomikos, a Greek shipowner, who had 
the vessel reconverted to a passenger liner at Todd's 
Brooklyn Division yard. This job was completed on 
February 7 and the Puebia, later to be named Olympia, 
delivered to her owners. 

This vessel is about the same size and horsepower as a 
C-3. She is 485'-6" long, 60'-H" beam, 34'-I" depth 
and her diesel engines generate 8000 hp. She probably 
makes 16 knots speed. 

As now fitted, she will carry 626 passengers in five 
classes: 68 in de luxe suites, 125 in first class cabins, 118 
in second class cabins, 134 in tourist class rooms, 181 in 
third class berths. Our illustrations show the furnishings 
and the general appearance of this ship. 




n^s^. 



Page 98 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Public rooms on the recently reconverted oasse 

are noteworthy for simplicity and good taste 

treatment and the furnishings. Our illustration 

first class lounge and (below) a de luxe < 



,er liner Puebia ^ 
the decorative ^^ 
show (top) the 
ss cabin. 



The reconverted passenger liner Puebia leaving Todd's Brooklyn 
Yard, assisted by three tugs. This vessel, the former German 
liner Orinoco, was converted to an Army transport hospital for 

Olympla line, New York. 



/\luniinum Hulls Proposed 

The Aluminum Company of America is proposing to 
build two all-aluminum comparatively shallow draft ves- 
sels to transport bauxite ore from their mines in Dutch 
Guiana, to Trinidad, British West Indies, where it will 
be transferred to deep draft vessels for transport to 
American ports. The first proposed vessel will have an 
overall length of 422 feet, a beam of 60 ft., a depth of 
28 ft., and a maximum draft of 20 ft. She will have a 
deadweight capacity of 8143 tons on a displacement of 
10,232 tons. The second vessel as designed will have a 
length overall of 348 feet, a beam of 54 feet, a depth of 
27 feet, and a maximum draft of 19 feet. Her maximum 
deadweight capacity on 6730 tons displacement will be 
5101 tons. 

Such figures will be very interesting to naval architects 
if these vessels in sea service measure up to the expecta- 
tions of their designers. Alcoa has carried on much pains- 
taking research into the problems of the adaptability of 
aluminum and its alloys to marine structures and are to 
be commended for their courage in planning this full 
size demonstration in actual service conditions. The suc- 
cess of this demonstration might well revolutionize mer- 
chant ship design and construction. 

Gibbs and Cox have worked out the design details for 
the larger vessel and George E. Sharp has charge of the 
design of the smaller one. Bids are being invited this 
month. 



Hospital Ships Converted 

Todd Shipyard Corporation, Seattle Division, is near- 
ing completion of its contract to convert two former 
naval combat hospital ships into Army transports. These 
vessels were the Rixey and the Tryon, built by the Moore 
Dry Dock Co. during the war and used as combat evacu- 
ation vessels. They were decommissioned last year and 
taken over by the Seattle Port of Embarkation, total con- 
tract price for the two conversions is over two and a half 
million dollars. Both ships are to be turned over to the 
San Francisco Port of Embarkation. 




Converting a Victory 

The Kaiser Company at the Swan Island yard, Port- 
land, Oregon, is converting a Victory type steamer into 
a bulk carrier of cement and or miscellaneous rock 
for the Permanente Cement Co. 

Holds No. 2, 3 and 4 of this vessel will be changed into 
hoppers with bottoms sloped at a 45° angle. Holds No. 
1 and No. 5 will be fitted with cargo conveying machin- 
ery. Deck piping will be installed for connection to 10 
inch flexible piping running ashore for the loading of 
cement. Four tunnels will be constructed, two forward 
(Please turn lo page I38j 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 99 




Converse M. Converse's yachi 
Dorsal lakes on unusually large 
supply of fuel and lubricants 
at General Petroleum marine 
station at Los Angeles Harbor. 



Inlercoastal Yacht Trip 

THE FIRST POSTWAR COAST-TO-COAST 
yachting excursion to leave the Los Angeles area 
got under way when Captain R. C. "Dick" Wilson 
took out Converse M. Converse's 80-foot diesel yacht 




Dorsal on the first leg of a non-scheduled journey that 
ultimately will reach New York. 

Leaving Wilmington, the Dorsal will proceed to En- 
senada for its Mexico papers, then touch at Mazatlan and 
Acapulco to which port Mr. and Mrs. Converse will fly 
to join the craft. 

The Dorsal will then proceed to Panama after touch- 
ing ports in Guatemala, El Salvador and Costa Rica. 
Transiting the Canal, Mr. Converse will be joined by his 
brother, George, who has been cruising in the Caribbean 
aboard his yacht Aeolus, and the two yachts will con- 
tinue together in that sea, fishing and cruising among 
the islands and stopping at Kingston, Havana and Miami. 
With the coming of stormy weather in the Florida area, 
they will proceed via the inland waterway to New York. 
Mr. Converse is a member of the New York and New- 
port Yacht Clubs, as well as of the Santa Barbara and 
California Yacht Clubs. He is also president of the 
Santa Barbara Polo Association. 

The Dorsal is 80 feet in length, with 15-foot beam and 
draws seven feet of water. It is powered by two 200 hp 
General Motor diesels. Its range is 1061 miles and it 
carries a crew of four. 

An interesting feature of the final preparations was the 
loading of an unusual supply of diesel fuel and lubricat- 
ing oil at the General Petroleum marine station in Wil- 
mington where 3625 gallons of fuel and 100 gallons of 
lubricating oil, some of which had to be stored on deck, 
was taken aboard. General Petroleum and Socony-Vac- 
uum have arranged a fueling itinerary along the entire 
route for the Dorsal. 



Page 100 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



^umtui<^ ^c^^t^ 



Edited by B. H. BOYNTDIV 



Aerial phctograpH ol 
the Sunny.ale plant of 
the Joshua Hendy Iron 
Works, which will be 
operated by the West- 
inghouse Electric Cor- 
poration under a lease 
agreement for ten years 
with option to bLy. 




Westinghouse Gets 
' Joshua Hendy Plant 

Westinghouse Electric Corpora- 
tion will take over operation of the 
Sunnyvale, California, plant of the 
Joshua Hendy Iron Works under a 
lease arrangement. 

Westinghouse is entering into a 
10-year lease with option to pur- 
chase the California plant, accord- 
ing to a joint announcement by 
John A. McCone, president of 
Joshua Hendy. and Harry F. Boe. 
vice president in charge af the 
Westinghouse Manufacturing and 
Repair Division. 

The 57-acre plant will be operat- 
ed under the direction of Mr. Boe 
and will become the largest of .>" 
manufacturing and repair plants 

MARCH • 1947 



which Westinghouse operates in 25 
states, in addition to its principal 
manufacturing divisions. Other 
West Coast plants in the Westing- 
house "M & R" Division are at Los 
Angeles, Emeryville, Portland, and 
Seattle. 

With its 900.000 square feet of 
floor space, the Sunnyvale plant be- 
comes a major Westinghouse man- 
ufacturing unit. Westinghouse plans 
to take over actual management of 
the plant about March I. 

In addition to carrying on Joshua 
Hendy s present production of such 
heavy equipment as pipe line valves 
and smaller types of steam turbines, 
Westinghouse plans to expand its 



operation by adding new products 
now being manufactured in a num- 
ber of other Westinghouse plants. 
The Sunnyvale plant's present em- 
ployment figure of 1 100 people will 
be increased when the operation 
gets into full swing, according to 
Mr. Boe. 

During the war, the Joshua 
Hendy Iron Works was licensed by 
W estinghouse to use its plans and 
processes to produce marine tur- 
bines and gears. 

Organized in 1856 as a metal fab- 
ricating concern, Joshua Hendy em- 
ployed at wartime peak approxi- 
mately 9000 employees. On the 57- 
acre plant site which adjoins the 
main line of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad are located seven manu- 
facturing buildings, an office build- 
ing, and a cafeteria. Four of the 
manufacturing buildings were built 
during the war, including two mod- 
ern machine shops. .Among the 
other structures is a large foundry. 

Page 101 




General Petroleum Names 
Marine Sales Manager 

The appointment of Edward S. 
Hochuli as manager of Marine Sales 
for the Northern California Divi- 
sion of General Petroleum Corpora- 
tion was announced by B. F. Ball, 
Division Manager. Mr. Hochuli, 
who assumed his new position the 
first of February, has had a varied 
background of seafaring experience 
in both the merchant marine and 
the Na\-y. He goes to his San Fran- 
cisco assignment from Los Angeles. 
where he has long been affiliated 
with the company. During the war 
he ser\'ed as assistant supervisor in 
charge of education for the U. S. 
Merchant Marine Cadet Corps, and 
in overseas combat, where he was 
in command of an undersea demo- 
lition team. 

Cleveland Diesel Promotions 

George W. Codrington, general 
manager, Cleveland Diesel Engine 
Division, General Motors Corpora- 
tion, Cleveland. Ohio, announces 
the appointment of T. E. Hughes 
as general sales manager and B. H. 
Gommel as commercial sales man- 
ager. Mr. Hughes was for many 
years manager of the Washington. 
D. C, office, and Mr. Gommel was 
formerly service manager. Their 
headquarters will be at the divi- 
sion's plant in Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. S. Melton has been transferred 



from the Cleveland office to Mr. 
Hughes' old f>ost as manager of the 
VC'ashington office. 

All of these men have been with 
the company for many years and are 
widely known in the diesel engine 
industry 



Installation 



BRYANT O'CONNOR, who is 
with Toumey Electric & Engineer- 
ing Company of San Francisco ( rep- 
resentatives for Bendix depth re- 
corders on the Pacific Coast), re- 
cently went on a trial trip in Hum- 
boldt County on the Sportfisher II. 
owned by Milton A. Pellegrini of 
Eureka. A Bendix depth recorder 
was installed and Bryant was able 
to check on its performance during 
a bad spell of foul weather outside 
the bar. 

Over the past year more than 60 
installations of Bendix depth re- 
corders have been installed in com- 
mercial fishing boats of the Pacific 
Coast. 



Ceorge Ferry Joins 
Atlas Paint 

George Ferry, well known in marine 
circles on this Coast, including years 
as a yacht skipper, has joined the 
Atlas Paint and Varnish Company 
Sales Department. He was formerly 
with West Coast Shipbuilding Com- 
pany for some time. 



Top 


to bottom; T 


E. He 


ghes. 


sale 


manager. Cl€ 


veland 


DIese 


Divi 


Ion. General 


Motors 


Corp 


Cle« 


eland, Ohio: 


J. S. Melton 


qer 


Washington 


office 


and 


Gor 


nmel. commercial la 


es ma 




Page 102 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




t the head table, lett to right: Peter Klemenkov ot U.S.b.R. C 
& Hawaiian Sugar Refining Co.; Herb Porter, Otis McAllister & Co.; Bob Prock, Atkin Kroll i Co.; R. H. Wylie, Brig. General (retired), 
speaker of the Day; Allan Eber, Polak Winters i Co.; Alvin C. Eichholi, Senior Chamber of Commerce; Bill Loomis. Senior Chamber of 

Commerce, and Maurice Knox, Polak Winters t Co. 
General Wylie is the newly appointed manager for State Board of Harbor Commissioners, San Francisco. 



IDorld Trade Committee of 
San Francisco Junior Chamber 
lllelcomes General Ulvlie 



' 1 




ii 


f~i 


K 


m — 3i — ^'-nM — 


■n 


1 


1 i 

. L 


SiH FRANCISCO 

JUNIOR CHAMBER 

SOFCr-MERV 


1 




1 .'J. - *__•»_ 




1 . 




r ;? 




m^ 


'^^ 


rf.' 




% 


li-r-» 


> '« 


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r 




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■7 


L -' 


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■| "^^^"^''''BBBKiift 1 


M. 


• • 


SAN FR ; 
1 JUNIOR^ 




i 1 


^^^ iM ^^^B, 







Speaker at the Junior Foreign Trade Meeting 
W. H. Wylie, Brig. General (Ret.), talked on 
the Importance of San Francisco's Harbor and 
touched upon a plan for its development. At 
left: Bob Prock. Atkin Kroll & Co. On the 
right of General Wylie is Allan Eber, Polak 
Winters i Co. 



General view of the meeting. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 103 



Ulhite Bros. Executives 




In February Pacific 
Marine Review there 
appeared a story of 
the 75 years of serv- 
ice to shipping of 
White Brothers, San 



adqu 



hardv. 



W. T. White presi- 
dent of White Bros, 
and C. H. White, 
vice president and 



< 



Don White of White 




Sterling Engine's Pacific 
Coast Sales IDanager 

The appointment of W. Edgar 
. Martin as Pacific Coast sales mana- 
ger of the Sterling Engine Co., of 
Buffalo, N. Y., effective March 1, 
1947, was announced by Hans Bohu- 
slav. Sterling vice president. Mr. 
Martin will make his headquarters 
at the company's San Francisco of- 
fices, 1040 Bryant St. 

Widely known to the marine in- 
dustry throughout the West, "Eddie " 
Martin joins Sterling after a long 
period of service to the industry 
for the Westinghouse Electric Cor- 
poration, more than 20 years of 
which were spent on the Pacific 
Coast as Marine Department repre- 
sentative, headquartered at San 
Francisco. 

A native of Brooklyn, N. Y.. Mr. 
Martin attended grade and high 
schools in Denver, Colo., then grad- 
uated from the University of Colo- 
rado as a Bachelor of Science in 
Electrical Engineering. Soon after 
graduation, he joined Westinghouse 
at East Pittsburgh, Pa., as a grad- 
uate student, and later became one 
of the first members of that com- 
pany's Marine Department. 

In 1920, he took a post-graduate 
course in Carnegie Institute of 




Technology at Pittsburgh, and in 
1922 was transferred to the West 
Coast where he has served since as 
a marine representative. 

In his new post, Mr. Martin will 
have charge of the sale of Sterling's 
complete line of diesel and gasoline 
engines of medium horsepower for 
both marine and stationary appli- 
cations, throughout the Pacific 
Coast territory. 



IDarine Insurance Dews 

CHANGES AT HOME 
INSURANCE 
A further change in the Marine 
Department of The Home Insur- 
ance Co., New York, is the transfer 
of Marine Special Agent John V. 



Beahrs from Los Angeles to the 
San Francisco office where his duties 
will be that of Underwriter super- 
vising Ocean Marine writings. 

Due to the increase of business 
and in line with the Home's wish to 
improve service to their producers. 
Marine Special Agent Victor H. 
Winkel is taking over the supervi- 
sion of Inland Marine underwriting 
in the San Francisco office, his 
place in the field being filled by 
Marine Special Agent David J. Gag- 
gero. 

MATHEWS & LIVINGSTON, 
recently announced the removal of 
their San Francisco offices, March 1, 
1947, to 317 Montgomery Street, 
California Commercial Union Build- 
ing, ground floor offices. San Fran- 
cisco. 



Page 104 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



PORT of; 

t-OS ANGELES- U' 





Left lo right: Commodore L. L. Bennett, USCS; Leonard T. Backus, 
first vice president, Los Angeles-Long Beach Propeller Club; and 
E. A. MacMahon, Luckenbach Steamship Co., president of the 
Propeller Club; Stafford S. Harlow, third vice president- and Rear 
Admiral Albert W. Marshall, USN, ret., honorary member. He 
presented the club with the Ship's Bell a few months ago. 



Propellers of 
Southern California 
Saw Training Film 



At right, above: Left to right; Mat S. Linder. Transmarine Naviga- 
tion, past president of the Propeller Club; Ralph M. Hylton, De La 
Rama Steamship Co.; R. D. Kingsbury, De La Rama Steamship Co.; 
and Lloyd Roberts, Los Angeles Harbor Department, who showed 
the Training of Maritime Cadets film featured at this meeting. 



At right: Dan Brennan (standing) graduate of the San Mateo Mai 
time Service Cadet School gave a short talk after the film w, 
presented to the club members. Included In this group are M. 
Richley. formerly with Pope & Talbot, now retired' D. M. Hodg 
Foster Wheeler Corp.; and Martin Faerber. American Pacific Stea 
ship Co. 



Wolff. Unii 
Fuel Anne: 
and S. F. 



E. J. McKee. Naval Fuel 

Oil Co. of California; Lt. i 

Captain Lester L. Lishma 

<acDonald. Luckenbach Stec 



nei. Sa 



1 Pedro; Lawrence 
F. Walthew. Naval 
Oil. port captain; 



Below, right: Front row: Left to right- Roy W. Crosby, 
Robert O. Vernon. Lloyd Shipping Co.. (in back row: Mr. 
G. F. McDonald, Harold R. Paulcv. Board of Governors 
Club, and A. E. Gram. Marine Eichange); W. A. St. / 
of Governors of the L.A.-L.B. Propeller Club and W. 
Parry Navigation Co. 






W.OJ.M.M'S 

Hear Shipping 

Executive 

K. C. Tripp, West 



Mo 



McCormack Lines, Inc., 
was the featured speak- 
er at the February 
meeting of the Port of 
San Francisco, Wo- 
men's Organization for 
the American Merchant 
Marine. Left to right: 
Mrs. Duane Tweeddale; 
Mrs. Alfred Pittman; 
Mr. Tripp; Club Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Harry W. 
Parsons; Mrs. J. F. 
Johnstone: and Mrs. 
Harvey. 



Staterooms of Glass 

The modern ship, with fireproof 
paneHng, fire bulkheads and alarms 
has gone far toward control of major 
fires. Still uncontrolled, however, is 
the fire that starts in a stateroom, 
even though it travels no further 
than the confines of the room itself. 
Renovating is a considerable ex- 
pense to which must frequently be 
added loss of passenger revenue. 

Fireproof fabrics or treated cloths 
have been available for some time, 
but they have not lent themselves 
to good decorative treatments. Pas- 
sengers want and now expect their 
living quarters to be attractive to 
the point of being luxuriant. So 
naval architects and decorators have 
had little choice but to use conven- 
tional fabrics throughout the inter- 
iors. 

Rapidly advanced during and 
since the war, products made of 
Owens-Corning Fiberglas textiles 
now provide the medium for both 
safe and decoratively beautiful fur- 
nishings such as port curtains, 
drapes, lamp shades, pillows, mat- 
tress covers and even complete box 
and inner spring mattresses. Many 
new developments now on the hori- 
zon will shortly make it possible 
to completely furnish a stateroom 
in GLASS. 



In addition to its being non-com- 
bustible, Fiberglas will not mildew 
nor absorb moisture, is vermin 
proof, colorfast, easily cleaned and 
durable. Pillows and mattresses are 
a boon to alergy sufferers, are ex- 
tremely light and will remain so, as 
they cannot gain weight by moisture 
absorbtion. 

Mattress covers give, to a very 
large extent, the same qualities to 
the conventional mattress on which 
they are designed to be used. 

These items are made available 
in San Francisco by Glass Fiber Pro- 
ducts, a subsidiary of White & Hol- 
combe, who specialize in the marine 
field. 

White & Holcombe 
Acquire Loft at Pier 5 

Of interest to the marine field is 
the announcement of White & Hol- 
combe, sailmakers at Pier 7, San 
Francisco, that they have recently 
acquired Louis Ottesen Company 
loft at Pier 5. 

They will operate both lofts and 
will retain the name of Louis Otte- 
sen Co., as well as their own. 

Robert J. White was formerly 
associated with the Army Transport 
Services in an executive capacity 
in San Francisco. Gordon B. Hol- 
combe has been connected with 



various steamship lines for the past 
20 years, among which were the 
American Mail Line, Dollar Line, 
K. P. M. Line and Matson Naviga- 
tion Co. 



Pacific Far East Line 
Appointments 

Al Wenderoth and George H. 
Nash were named assistants to the 
traffic manager of Pacific Far East 
Line, Inc., effective March 1st, 
Thomas E. Cuffe, executive vice 
president announces. 

Mr. Wenderoth resigns as assist- 
ant general freight agent of Ameri- 
can Hawaiian Steamship Company 
of San Francisco to take his new 
post. During the war, he was a 
Commander in the Navy. Before 
going with American-Hawaiian 
many years ago, he was with Gen- 
eral Steamship Corp., Ltd. and prior 
to that with Dollar Steamship Lines. 

Mr. Nash held the position of 
San Francisco manager of Judson 
Sheldon Division of National Car- 
loading Corp. until his appointment 
to Pacific Far East Line. During the 
war he served with the British Min- 
istry of War Transport and prior to 
that as traveling representative of 
the Port of Oakland. 



Page 106 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




The 1947 officers of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engint 
Champlain, vice president, is Division Marine Supt. for United Fruit Co. 
Coast. American Bureau of Shppinq; Captain R. O. Myers. USN.. Morr 
the February meeting, who told his eiperiences as observer at Biiiini; ; 

of Califo 



ers were nominated at the February meeting. Left to rgiht: H. P. 

Incoming President. W. B. Warren, Principal Surveyor on the Pacific 

s Weitiner, on Executive Committee; Robert 0. Miller, speaker of 

nd Gordon W. Colberg. assistant naval architect. Standard Oil Co. 



Haval Architects 
Oominate For 1047 



The Northern California Section 
of the Society of Naval Architects 
and Marine Engineers, at the Febru- 
ary meeting in San Francisco, heard 
delivered addresses by two Navy 
men, and received the report of the 




nommatmg committee. 

The first address was the "Activi- 
ties of the Office of Naval Research" 
by Captain R. O. Myers, USN, Com- 
manding Officer of the San Francis- 
co Branch of the Office of Naval 
Research. He was followed by "The 
Story of Bikini ' by R. D. Miller of 
the San Francisco Naval Shipyard, 
who illustrated his talk with pic- 
tures taken before, during and after 
the Explosions. 

Nominated for President is W. B. 
Warren, who is Principal Surveyor 
on the Pacific Coast for the Ameri- 
can Bureau of Ships. Vice President 
is H. P. Champlain, who is Division 
Marine Superintendent for United 
Fruit Co. Secretary is Lester White, 
Chief Surveyor, C. & R. Department, 
Matson Navigation Co. 




Lester White, chief survey 
Department of Matson Navigation Co.. 
incoming secretary of Society of Naval 
Architects and Marine Engineers, 



Sewell A. Knapp, general super- 
intendent. Moore Dry Dock Com- 
pany, is nominated for a vacancy on 
the Section's executive committee, 
the others being: M. Weitzner, 
Bethlehem Steel Company, the re- 
tiring chairman; Harvard P. Stew- 
art, Bethlehem Steel Company; and 
C. M. LeCount, General Electric 
Company. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 107 



Shoreside Personalities 




Co.. 



Aboard the ferryboat. Sacramento, during the General Electi 
radar demonstration, left to right: Henry Becker. American Pre 
dent Lines' naval architect: C. M. Lc Count. General Electi 
Co.; Charles R. Page, chairman. Fireman's Fund Ins 
and director, of APL; Hughes Ogilvie. General Electric Cc 
E. Russell Luti. enecutive vice president. APL; George L. Cro 
GE: Thomas Cokely. operating manager. APL; Gene Hoffma 
manager of Public Relations. APL; and Captain Walter ( 
Pearch. marine superintendent of APL. 



Radar Demonstrated 
to Shipping Officials 



Left to right: Captain Walter G. Pearch. marine superintendent; 

E. Russell Luti. executive vice president; Charles R. Page, director; 

T. J. Cokely. operating manager; and B. N. De Rochie, assistant 

publisher of Pacific KHarine Review. 



C 


aptain C 


arl Hawkin 


. Ame 


ican Pres 


dent L 


nes Assistant 


Oper. 


at 


ing Mar 


ager, exoU 


ining 


sn eiperi 


T>ental 


radar 


set to 


Henry 


F. 


Grady 


(left) and 


A. Em 


ory Wish 


sn. pre 


siden 


ar 


d d 


irector 


re 


spective 


y of Amer 


can Pr 


esident L 


nes. as 


the 


gro 


up c 


rossed 


fh 


e Bay r 


ecently on 


the fe 


rry boat 


Sacrarr 


ento 




whi 


ch the 


ra 


dar set 


is installed 


APL 


officials a 


re studying 


the 


equ 


pment 


of 


various 


companies 


with a 


view to 


installi 


ng th 


s n 


ew n 


avlga- 


ti 


}nal aid 


on their 


ew po 


stwar tra 


spacifi 


: and 


Re 


und-World 





Captain Evans 
of G. E. Retires 



Captain Joseph S. Evans. USN (retired) 
(center) was honored at a dinner in 
Schenectady. January 8, attended by high- 
ranking naval officers, General Electric 
executives. and shipbuilding officials. 
Captain Evans retired January I after 43 
years' naval service. 13 of which were 
spent as naval inspector with the Gen- 
eral Electric Company. Left to right are 
Vice Admiral E. W. Mills, chief of the 
U. S. Navy Bureau of Ships: Rear Admiral 
F. J. Willie, in charge of the Contract 
Division; Capt. Evans; C. H. Lang, vice 
president and manager of sales, Apparatus 
Department. G.E.; and Captain W. A. 
Brooks, present G.E. naval inspector. 



Page 108 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




T. H. Bossert. pr( 



cnt and director and D. A. Williams, vice president and 
York Shipbuilding Corporation of Camden, New Jersey. 



\m York Ship Elects 

J. F. Metten, chairman of the 
Board of Directors and chief execu- 
tive officer of New York Shipbuild- 
ing Corporation. Camden, N. J., on 
January 27 announced the following 
changes in officers and directors: 

T. H. Bossert, elected president 
and director and 

D. A. Williams, elected vice presi- 
dent and works manager. 

N. R. Parker will continue as 
vice president and treasurer, and 
was also elected director. 

Mr. Bossert began his shipbuild- 
ing career as an apprentice drafts- 
man in the Hull Drawing Room of 
New York Shipbuilding Corp., in 
1 908 and graduated from the Frank- 
lin Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., in 
1912. He has been with the New 
York Shipbuilding Corporation 
since 1930 as Naval Architect and 
in 1942 was made Vice President of 
the Corp. He is a member of the 
Society of Naval Architects and 
Marine Engineers and of the Amer- 
ican Society of Naval Engineers. 

Mr. Williams graduated from 
Franklin & Marshall College in 1917 
with a B. S. Degree. He has been 
with New York Shipbuilding since 
1919, as foreman, Hull Department. 



Ship's dockside fender f< 

Buenos Aires with Inventor V 

standing at left. 



Subsequently, assistant foreman, 
Production Department; Head of 
Inspection Department; General 
Foreman, Hull; assistant superin- 
tendent and superintendent, Hull 
Department; and assistant general 
manager in 1942. 



Five -Foot Fenders 

The fender shown in the illus- 
tration is used by the vessels of the 
Moore-McCormack Company and 
the Pope and Talbot Company on 



the Buenos Aires run. Each vessel 
sailing into this port carries two of 
these which are held in position 
over the ships side by means ot a 
wire rope cradle, which in turn is 
fastened to a deck bollard. One of 
the port regulations at Buenos Aires 
requires that all vessels when moor- 
ed alongside the dock must remain 
a distance of about 5 feet from the 
dockside and many vessels which 
do not have the required fenders 
on board, have to rent those of the 
port authority at quite a consider- 
able cost. 

This special type fender was de- 
signed and manufactured by Vic 
Knudsen, ship rigger of San Fran- 
cisco, to meet the special require- 
ments of the two shipping com- 
panies. It consists of a circular core 
of Oregon pine, 26 inches in dia- 
meter and ten feet long. The bump- 
er portion is made up of five air- 
plane tires, five feet in diameter, 
each packed with manila rope, all 
recessed into the wood core a few 
inches, and held in place by a strong 
wooden collar at each end, rein- 
forced by wood brackets. The total 
weight of each bumper is two and 
one half tons. 




MARCH • I 947 



Page 109 



Shoreside Personalities 



llmerican Dlail Hews 

GILBERT HIBSON TO AMERI- 
CAN MAIL 

Gilbert T. Hibson, former su- 
pervising port analyst of the War 
Shipping Administration and the 
U. S. Maritime Commission, has 
joined the American Mail Line as 
assistant freight traffic manager, 
with offices at San Francisco. 

Mr. Hibson, a native of New 
York, has been on this coast since 
prior to the last war and after work- 
ing for a short time for the Freight 
Division of the Western Pacific 
Railroad, joined the forces of the 
War Shipping Administration 
where he organized the West Coast 
Statistical and Research Division. 




Gilbert T. Hibson of American Mail Line. 

This entailed the recording of the 
movements and activities of all the 
vessels operated for the U. S. Gov- 
ernment in the Pacific Area. In lat- 
ter months of service with the U. S. 
Maritime Commission he assisted 
the Pacific Coast Director's office in 
handling administrative functions 
pertaining to Terminal and Steve- 
doring contracts. He will retain his 
position as President of the Mari- 
time Commission Recreation Club 
until the fullfiUment of his term in 
the fall of this year. 

Ackerman Visits S. F. 

G. J. Ackerman, operating man- 
ager, American Mail Line, Seattle, 




was on a recent trip to San Fran- 
cisco, where he made a study of con- 
ditions prevailing on the change 
over of the American Mail Line 
from wartime to peacetime opera- 
tions. 

Mr. Ackerman states the Ameri- 
can Mail Line will soon place in op- 
eration six reconverted ships of the 
C-3 class. These vessels will operate 
in connection with three vessels 
now in operation of the C-2's Is- 
land Mail, China Mail, and Ocean 
Mail, and will operate out of the 
Pacific Coast serving the Orient and 
Far East. Five of the nine Ameri- 
can Mail ships will be equipped to 
carry refrigerated cargo. 

The C-3 class vessels are to be 
re-named as follows; American 
Mail, Java Mail, Washington Mail, 
Oregon Mail, India Mail and Cana- 
da Mail. 




C. J. Hendry Promotion of 
John R. Logan 

The C. J. Hendry Company an- 
nounced, on February 10, through 
its President, Charles J. Dilke of 
San Francisco, the retirement of 
Alfred W. Johnson as manager of 
its San Pedro Branch. John A. Lo- 
gan, formerly assistant manager suc- 
ceeds Johnson as manager at this 
important unit of the Hendry Com- 
pany. 

After serving in the United 
States Navy during World War I, 
Al tried his hand, for a short time, 
at selling oil products. Hendry's had 
opened their San Pedro Branch in 
1915, and believing that the Ship 
Chandlery business would share in 
the growth and progress of the 
Harbor, Al joined the company in 
1919 as Shipping Clerk. In 1923 he 
became Assistant Manager and 
served in that capacity until 1937 
when he was appointed Manager at 
San Pedro. In 1942 he was elected 
to the Board of Directors and be- 
came an Executive Officer of the 
company. 

Jack Logan is well qualified by 
experience and training to represent 
Hendry in the Los Angeles-Long 
Beach Harbor District. Jack started 
working for Hendry's during High 
School vacations. The smell of tar 
and oakum must have gotten in his 
blood, for after graduating he took 
a full time job, and is still at it. 
After advancing through the var- 
ious departments, he was appointed 
Assistant Manager in 19_-^7. 




Page 110 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Ulestinghouse Pacific Coast 
Dlarine, Hviation IDanager 

H. G. Rethmeyer, veteran of 
more than 20 years' service with the 
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 
has been named manager of the 
Marine and Aviation Divisions of 
the corporation's Pacific Coast Dis- 
trict. The announcement of Mr. 
Rethmeyer's appointment was made 
by Charles A. Dostal, vice president. 

In his new post, Mr. Rethmeyer 
will take over the marine and avia- 
tion activities handled formerly by 
G. B. Rosenblatt. Mr. Rosenblatt is 
relinquishing managerial duties to 
devote full time to serving person- 
ally the company's major industrial 
and marine accounts throughout the 
district. 

He is a member of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers and 
the Propeller Club, and also holds 
membership in several Masonic or- 
ganizations including Nile Temple, 
Seattle. Mr. Rethmeyer was trans- 
ferred to San Francisco from Seattle. 
Washington, where he had served 
the company's marine, transporta- 
tion and central station accounts 
since early 1937. 

Atlantic IDutual [stabiishes 
Offices in Los Angeles 

The Atlantic Mutual Insurance 
Company and its wholly-owned 



stock affiliate, Centennial Insurance 
Company, have opened offices at 
510 'W 6th Street, Los Angeles. The 
new office is under the direction of 
James E. Crilly, Jr., who has had 
wide experience in the insurance 
business. He will be assisted by 
Richard V. Eastman, who will su- 
pervise the fire operations. Mr. East- 
man has been active in the fire and 
inland marine insurance business 
in Southern California for the past 
1 3 years. 

The Atlantic Mutual is one of the 
oldest insurance companies in the 
United States. Founded in 1842 in 
the Clipper Ship era as the succes- 
sor of the Atlantic Insurance Com- 
pany, the firm has served merchants 
and shipowners on the Eastern Sea- 
board for more than 100 years. 

The Atlantic and Centennial 
write practically all forms of poli- 
cies which are common to marine 
and fire insurance companies, and 
later the company expects to intro- 
duce its affiliate, the Atlantic Mu- 
tual Indemnity Company, when 
automobile and general lines of cas- 
ualty insurance will be undertaken. 



James E. Criily, Jr., manager of the recently 
opened Los' Angeles office of the Atlantic 
Mutual Insurance Company and its wholly- 
owned stock affiliate, the Centennial Insur- 
ance Company. Mr. Crilly is in charge of 
Atlantic's Southern California operations. 

A graduate of the University of California 
class of 1929, he was associated with the 
Firemen's Fund Group for sixteen and a half 
years, specializing in the writing of Inland 
and Cargo insurance. 





APL Los Angeles Promotions 

Edgar M. Wilson, general agent 
for American President Lines at Los 
Angeles, has been elected a vice 
president, in charge of all company 
operations in Southern California, it 
was announced by President Henry 
F. Grady. At the same time Mr. 
Grady announced the promotion of 
S. J. Hindle, assistant to the General 
Agent at Los Angeles, to the rank of 
Agent in charge of freight activities 
in the Los Angeles area. 

Both men are veterans of many 
years service in the shipping busi- 
ness and with the Oriental and 
Round-the- World services. 



Frank Groves Distributor 
For Foster Engineering 

The Frank Groves Company on 
January 1 was appointed exclusive 
distributors for the Foster Engineer- 
ing Company for the California, 
Oregon, and Washington territories. 
This is an extension of the North- 
west territory heretofore handled 
by Frank Groves. 

The Foster Engineering Company 
is well known to the marine trade 
and has a complete line of reducing 
valves, pump governors, regulators, 
and relief valves. The new arrange- 
ment was made by S. G. Farrington, 
general manager. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page I I I 




Aiken, recently appointed chief 
• Automotive and Marine Depart- 
ment. SKF Industries. Inc. 



U). L Hiken Joins SKF 

William L. Aiken has joined SKF 
Industries, Inc., as senior division 
engineer in charge of the automotive 
and marine department, it is an- 
nounced by the ball and roller bear- 
ing firm. 

A graduate of the U. S. Naval 
Academy and Carnegie Institute of 
Technology, Aiken was executive 
engineer of the Autocar Co., Ard- 
more. Pa., before becoming asso- 
ciated with SKF. He has served 
with Wright Aeronautical Corp. 
and Buick division of General 
Motors Corp, and is a member of 
the Society of Automotive Engi- 
neers, the American Society for 
Metals and the Army Ordnap.ce As- 



US$ to Operate Ulorldwide 
In 20 Ports 

In a move designed to operate 
world-wide services for American 
seamen at the most effective peace- 
time level, the United Seamen's 
Service announced a program under 
which their facilities for seamen 
will be maintained in 19 overseas 
and 10 domestic ports. 

USS has provided American sea- 
men with housing, recreation and 
personal service since its inception 
in 1942. Organized at a time when 

Page 112 



American ships were carrying war 
cargoes across hazardous shipping 
lanes, the decision to continue USS 
as a peacetime agency was made in 
September, 1946. 

Marshall E. Dimock, chairman of 
the USS's executive committee and 
professor of public administration at 
Northwestern University, said that 
the new pattern of USS operations 
has been drafted by a sub-commit- 
tee of the executive committee af- 
ter careful study and consideration 
of the preferences of seamen, ship- 
ping industry executives, union 
leadership, government and the pub- 
lic, all of which are represented in 
the USS organization. 



Bethlehem Vet Shiphuilder 
Retires 

Francis E. McCormick, 69, assist- 
ant to the manager of sales and old- 
est employee in terms of service at 
Bethlehem Steel Company's San 
Francisco Yard, retired January I 
after 51 years at the yard. He lives 
at 1 1 5 Pacheco Street, San Francisco. 

Mr. McCormick came to work for 
the Union Iron Works ( now Beth- 
lehem), as a machinist apprentice 
in 1895 when the Yard was com- 
pleting the famous battleship, Ore- 




Arthur McCutchen. senior research en- 
gineer of the Products Engineering and 
Research Department of Tube Turns, 
Inc., Louisville. Ky. 

gon. He recalls working on that 
vessel's machinery. 

In 1905 he was transferred to the 
estimating department, and in 1912 
was appointed chief estimator. He 
remained in this position until 1944 
when he took over the position of 
assistant to manager of sales. 



WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC 
CORP-'S new booklet gives mainte- 
nance hints for general purpose tur- 
bines. The booklet first describes 
the steam turbine, explains how it 
operates, and tells how it should be 
installed. Directions for piping, 
joint sealing and lubricating are 
given. 




PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Another 

BETHLEHEM CONVERSION FIRST 



M. V. Gadsden loading locomo- 
tives for shipment to France. 



SHIPBUILDING YARDS 



Built as a Cl-M-AVl, the M. V. 
Gadsden served as an assault cargo 
ship (AKA) during the war and was 
turned over by American Eastern 
Corporation to Bethlehem's Baltimore 
Yard for conversion into a locomotive 
carrier. 

With its extensive facilities, alert 
organization, and conversion "know 
how," Bethlehem was able to handle 
this complex job efficiently and eco- 
nomically. 

The conversion necessitated virtual 
rebuilding of the 338-ft vessel in order 



to give her the structural strength and 
to provide the equipment required to 
handle eighteen locomotives and their 
tenders at a single lading. In addition, 
the Gadsden was fitted with huge 
winches, booms and cranes to enable 
her to lift a 125-ton engine without 
shore aid. 

Now aiding in the rehabilitation of 
the French railway system, the Gads- 
den has the distinction of being the 
first vessel of her type ever converted 
to a locomotive carrier — and another 
Bethlehem Conversion First. 



SHIPBUILDING . . . SHIP CONVERSIONS . . . SHIP REPAIRS 
NAVAL ARCHITECTS and MARINE ENGINEERS 

BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY 

GENERAL OFFICES: 25 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 

MARCH • 1947 



Pedro. Calif. 



SHIP REPAIK YARDS 

BOSTON HARBOR 

Atlantic Yard 
Simpson Yard 

NEW YORK HARBOR 

Brooklyn 27th Street Yard 
Brooklyn 56th Street Yard 
Hoboken Yard 
Statcn Island Yard 



FRANCISCO HARBOR 
San Francisco Yard 
Alameda Yard 




Page 113 




n E UJ 8 F L e S H E s 



KAISER SOLE BIDDER FOR RICHMOND YARD 3. 

The sole bidder for Richmond Shipyard No. 3 when the Maritime Commission 
for the second time offered the yard to bidders on February 28 was Henry J. 
Kaiser. The yard at Richmond, Calif., is one of the few yards in the country 
having graving docks capable of drydocking large vessels, and is one of four j 
being held in the National Defense Reserve for the Government. An earlier 
invitation, setting forth a minimum of $75,000 per month, brought no response. 

In his bid Kaiser proposed to lease the plant for 10 years on a sliding 
scale of rental. Throughout the term of the lease, he would assume operation 
and maintenance costs of $350,000 a year. That would be his only payment during 
the first year. To that he would add |100,000 the second year, $200,000 the 
third, and $250,000 the fourth, and $250,000 a year thereafter. 

His Washington representative said he intends to use the yard primarily 
for shipbuilding and repair, though his offer included use of the facilities for 
any purpose which does not impair shipbuilding. 

Under terms he proposed he would have the right to cancel the lease at the 
end of each year, up to the third. 

The Commission is not committed to acceptance of his bid. 

CASTLE WILL SPEND $300,000 ON EASTBAY PLANT ADDITION 

A. M. Castle & Co., steel jobbers, announce plans for construction of a 
new $300,000 warehouse and office building at 5th and Potter streets, Berkeley. 

George Boole, general manager of the Castle San Francisco and Eastbay 
plants, said the new plant would be equipped with the most modern machinery for 
cutting steel. The new Eastbay buildings will have a floor space of 75,000 
square feet. 

:}£:{: :)c :^ :}: 

CONTRACTS LET FOR BIG OIL PIPELINE IN ARABIA 

Trans-Arabian Pipe Line Company confirm that orders have been placed with 
Consolidated Steel Company of Los Angeles for 980 miles of pipe and with Na- 
tional Tube Company of Pittsburgh, Pa., for 70 miles of pipe to be used in 
constructing the Trans-Arabian pipe line. 

Contracts have also been awarded Chicago Bridge and Iron Company for 
erecting 14 tanks, and Graver Tank & Manufacturing Company of East Chicago, 
Ind., for erecting 22 tanks of an aggregate total capacity of 5,700,000 barrels. 

Contract was awarded to Bechtel Brothers of San Francisco and associates, 
including H. C. Price Company of Bartlesville, Okla. , for constructing about 600 
miles main line and four pump stations at eastern end. 

Williams Brothers Corporation of Tulsa awarded contract for constructing 
approximately 450 miles of main line at western and and also Mediterranean 
tanker loading terminal. Graver was also awarded contract for constructing 
two intermediate pump stations at western end. 

(Arabian oil reserves are variously estimated at from five to twenty 

Page 1 14 PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



billion barrels, the higher figure being approximately equal to present known 
reserves of the United States. 

(Trans-Arabian Pipe Line Co. is owned by Standard Oil of California and 
Texas Co. Present production is about 200,000 barrels daily.) 

PRIVATE FIRMS TO TAKE OVER SHIPPING OF NAVY FUEL 

The Navy is getting out of the petroleum business at some Pacific bases, 
and turning the reins over to private companies, Washington advices say. 

Aviation gasoline and other petroleum products will soon be supplied by 
private oil concerns on Wake, Midway, Canton, Guam and Palmyra. 

Tentative plans worked out call for the Navy to turn over all necessary 
facilities to the CAA which would lease them to Standard of California, Stand- 
ard-Vacuum, Union Oil Co. of California and Shell Asiatic. Companies would 
operate facilities jointly but each will do its own marketing. 

BASALT ROCK CO. HIGH BIDDER FOR LIBERTY SHIP 

The Basalt Rock Company, Napa, Calif., was the high bidder for the 
Liberty Ship Benjamin Ide Wheeler. 

The Napa company bid $25,800 under Condition One, that the vessel be 
scrapped, and |25,800 under Condition Two that the hull be scrapped and the 
machinery may be salvaged. 

Other bidders: M. J. Ryan, San Francisco, Condition One, $19,128; Con- 
dition Two, $22,128; Walter W. Johnson Co., San Francisco, Condition One, 
$10,500, Condition Two, $13,500; National Metal and Steel Corp., Terminal 
Island, Calif., Condition One, $12,500, Condition Two, $21,178. 

THE BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY ANNOUNCES A TWO-YEAR, $1,500,000 
MANUFACTURING REPLACEMENT PROGRAM FOR ITS BARBERTON, 0., PLANT 

BARBERTON, 0., Feb. 13. — Announcement of a two-year, $1,500,000 program 
for machinery replacement and improvement of its Barberton plant is made by The 
Babcock & Wilcox Company. The money for this project, which will include all 
shops, has already been allocated. In addition to the new equipment to be 
installed, production will be facilitated by the relocation of machinery and 
rearrangement of certain shops in order to minimize the handling both of raw 
materials and the products manufactured. 

All types of shop equipment and machine tools will be purchased. The 
expenditures are made not only to increase plant capacity, but to maintain and 
improve quality of products. 

ALTERNATE C-3 FEATURES 

The United States Maritime Commission announces that it will permit a 
choice of certain features of its modernized C3 cargo vessel to suit the indi- 
vidual requirements of prospective purchasers and minimize the cost of con- 
struction. 

Separate quotations will be accepted from bidders on six features of the 
new C3-S-DB3 design which may be desirable for some trades but not necessary 
in others, the Commission said. Any or all of these features may be specified, 
to be added to the cost of the vessel. They are 

1. Cargo refrigeration (60,000 feet will be proposed). 

2. Cargo dehumidif ication (the tentative proposal is for holds 2, 3, 4 
and 5). 

MARCH • 1947 Page I 15 



3. Cargo oil deep tanks (proposal is to utilize hold No. 4 with inde- 
pendent pumping arrangements and heating coils). 

4. Power topping lifts to facilitate setting up and handling the booms, 
thereby minimizing stevedoring and other labor time. 

5. Gyro-pilot, which is proved desirable but left to the option of the 
purchaser as to necessity. 

6. Combustion control (same comment as item 5). 

The Commission feels that to allow these options will make the new design 
more attractive to purchasers, considering the advantages and improvements over 
the original C3 type, especially as to facilitating cargo stowage by the use of 
twin hatches, possibilities of increased deadweight, and improved cargo gear 
design. 

Early applications for purchase are expected by the Commission, and since 
construction funds are limited, the first applicants will probably receive the 
allocation of such vessels as may be built within the funds available. 

:4c :{: :|: :f: :f; 

FIBERGLASS TO .BUILD PLANT IN CALIFORNIA 

Plans to construct a plant in Santa Clara county, Calif., that will even- 
tually hire 1000 workers with a total payroll of |1, 500, 000 have been annnounced 
by the Owens Corning Fiberglass Corporation of Toledo, Ohio. 

The plant will be built on a 42-ac re site that has been purchased in the 
Pasetta industrial tract, about 40 miles from San Francisco. 

Present plans call for the plant to produce building insulation and other 
Fiberglass products in sufficient quantities to meet the needs of West Coast 
contractors and builders. 

The corporation is presently operating four manufacturing plants in the 
East and Midwest. 

4: :f: :(; :1e :(: 

"ATOMIC AGE" NAVY 

The first two ships of the "atomic age" Navy were given the green light 
by a subcomittee of the House Armed Forces Committee, which recommended that 
$30,000,000 be made available for construction of two submarines grossing 4000 
displacement tons. 

Facts revealed before the committee by Vice Admiral Earle W. Mills, chief 
of the Bureau of Ships, and Vice Admiral Robert B. Carney, Deputy Chief of Naval 
Operations for Logistics, raised the inference that the United States had been 
forced into a submarine development race with Russia, as a result of a three- 
power division of German war spoils. 

LARGEST LIQUID CARGO BARGE TO BE BUILT BY BETHLEHEM 

Bethlehem Steel Company's Staten Island Yard has been awarded a contract 
for construction of one of the largest non-propelled liquid-cargo barges ever 
built. 

To be constructed for the National Lead Company, the barge will be an 
all-welded steel craft 246 feet long, with a beam of 43 feet and depth of 20 
feet 9 inches. Of 3,925 tons displacement, it will carry approximately 2,900 
tons of liquid cargo — believed to be the largest capacity for any craft of this 
type. 

The firm of Kindlund & Drake, naval architects, prepared the basic design 
for the barge, which is scheduled to be completed about August 1, 1947. The 
craft will be of the conventional raked-end type but will incorporate advanced 
methods of longitudinal and transverse framing and other improvements. 

Page I 16 PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Davy's Contribution to Hnti-Fouling 



IN THE MARCH 1946 ISSUE of Pacific Marine Re- 
view, there was published a paper on anti-fouling 
paints which had been presented at a meeting of the 
Northern California Section, Society of Naval Archi- 
tects and Marine Engineers. A. E. Burns, Jr., who read 
that paper, was awarded the Distinguished Service 
Medal for his research work at Mare Island and in mak- 
ing the award. Secretary of the Navy Forrestal stated, 
"This research has been of outstanding value in improv- 
ing the effectiveness of the naval forces of the United 
States. Through it, our ships have been enabled to cruise 
farther on less fuel, to keep at sea longer between dock- 
ings, and to maintain higher speeds after lengthy periods 
out of dock." 

The Jap navy defeated and the war won. Burns left 
Mare Island and turned to developing practical methods 
of putting his marine chemical knowledge to work for 
commercial and private vessels. With the endorsement 
and backing of L. A. Hart, wealthy young Texas busi- 
nessman, Burns founded the firm of Hart and Burns, 
Inc., and established his own research laboratory at River- 
side, California. The result of this organization is the 
production and distribution of a new family of protective 
coatings, the heavy marine line under the name of "Dura- 
hart" and the yacht line under the name "Navicote." 
This complete line of finishes now provides all ships with 
the identical fouling-immunity which enabled our Navy 
to keep its ships waterborne for years, and also provides 
new efficiency and beauty in all phases of marine surface 
protection. 

The Story of Soluble Matrix, Known as S. M. 

After crippling our fleet at Pearl Harbor the Japs 
must have felt certain we could not challenge their 
naval power in the Pacific for years. However, by keep- 
ing the remainder of our out-numbered warships in al- 
most continuous action the Navy was able to check the 
Japanese thrusts at Midway and Australia, and as our 
new fleet came into being, to make the Pacific an Ameri- 
can lake. 

What the Japs did not know was that the U. S. Navy 
had developed a new type of anti-fouling paint which 
gave protection against marine growth for two years and 
more. As a result, fouling seldom restricted or impaired 
the operations or efficiency of the U. S. Fleet although 
its vessels remained for months at a time in the most 
prolific fouling waters of the world thousands of miles 
from drydcxrk facilities. The Jap warships, on the other 
hand, frequently became heavily fouled and had to be 
withdrawn from action and drydocked at relatively 
short intervals. 

The secret of the Navy anti-fouling paint is "S. M. ", 
an abbreviation for Soluble Matrix. Soluble Matrix means 
that release of the copper toxic is controlled at a steady, 
uniform rate by the slow solution of the specially de- 
signed matrix Navicote Copper. S. M. affords protection 



against barnacles, bydroids. worm-tubes, molluscs, algae, 
teredos and other fouling growths for at least two years 
in either tropical or temperate waters. S. M. is an im- 
portant development in the anti-fouling paint field and 
has contributed to some solution of the marine fouling 
problem which has plagued seagoing vessels from time 
immemorial. 



The flrmfs Ship Conversion Program 

( Continued from page 64 ) 

the war. These vessels were transferred to the War De- 
partment in the fall of 1946 and in December were 
placed in conversion yards within the Seattle area. When 
completed these vessels will be the first fully converted 
Army transports in postwar service. The vessels will 
have troop quarters for 495 men with messrooms, com- 
plete hospital facilities, recreation spaces, post exchange 
and other features to add to the comfort of the postwar 
Army enlisted man. 

Cabin accommodations for 199 passengers have been 
provided, all rooms being fitted with built-in furniture 
and tastefully decorated. Dining saloons, lounges, and 
smoking rooms are being outfitted to insure all passen- 
gers the same high standard of accommodations as are 
found on commercial passenger vessels. 

The entire conversion, repairs, and incidental work are 
being completed to the highest standards of the Coast 
Guard and American Bureau of Shipping and the vessels 
are being fitted with a full complement of life saving 
gear, fire detecting and extinguishing systems, remote 
control watertight door systems and all other features, 
which are required to insure safety of passengers and 
crew. 

The planning for this extensive program is handled 
in the Ofiice of the Chief of Transportation in Wash- 
ington, D. C, and all necessary plans and specifications 
emanate from that office. Negotiations leading to the 
awards of contracts to various ship repairers are carried 
on by the staff of the Chief of Transportation and com- 
petitive bidding is the basis for all such negotiations. 
The actual work of contracting for conversions and in- 
specting vessels undergoing conversion, together with 
preparation of detailed repair specifications for each 
vessel, is handled by the competent staffs at the Ports 
of Embarkation, located at San Francisco, New York and 
Seattle. 

All personnel involved have worked assiduously on 
the development of this War Department master con- 
version plan and it is due to their unremitting efforts 
and to the assistance and cooperation rendered by the 
various ship repairers involved that a rapid fulfillment 
of the program is being achieved. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page I 17 




SAFETY- 

OF SOLID BULKHEADS 

WITHOUT 

THE DISADVANTAGES! 

THE "Stone System" of 
power operated water- 
tight bulkhead doors is colli- 
sion-proved. Doors can 
be operated hydraulically, 
electrically or manually. 
They meet all requirements 
of U.S. Coast Guard load line 
regulations for Class 4 doors. 

The "Stone System" is in- 
stalled on hundreds of ships 
including the S/S America, the 
new Grace liners, U. S. Army 
dredges, and the Queen 
Mary and Queen Elizabeth. 

Continental Engineering 
Corporation is exclusive 
licensee for the manufacture 
and sale in U.S.A. of marine 
specialties developed and 
perfected by J. Stone & Com- 
pany, Ltd., of London, Eng. 

Please Write for Further 
/nformo/ion. 

Continental 

ENGINEERING CORPORATION 

30 CHURCH ST., NEWT YORK 7, N.Y. 

CECO Electro-Hydraulic Steering 
Gears — Representatives for'Ajax 
Compound Uniflow Steam Engines 
— Auxiliary Diesel Units and other 
marine specialties. 



Keep Posted 

New Equipment and 
Literature for Yard, 
Ship and Dock 




New Liquidometer simplified Elec- 
tric Rudder Angle Indicator 

The pleasure-boat type indicator 
( top ) is equipped with luminous 
pointer and graduations. The point- 
er, which is supported by jewel 
bearings responds to slight changes 
of the rudder's position. The trans- 
mitter (bottom) is so constructed 
that it can operate under water. The 
instrument's accuracy is not affect- 
ed by voltage drop so that the indi- 
cator can be mounted at any posi- 
tion aboard ship and a number of 
indicators can be actuated by one 
transmitter. Another model electric 
indicator is available for large work- 
boats or seagoing ships. 

Liquidometer to 
Ets-Hokin & Galvan 

"How much fuel and water do I 
have left? " is a question almost as 
old as shipping itself, and Ets-Hokin 
& Galvan have recently taken two 
steps to answer it for California 
shipowners. 

First, they announce their ap- 
pointment as California distributors 
for the Liquidometer Corp.: second, 
they announce the addition of Jo- 
seph J. Janeseck to their staff of 
marine experts. Janeseck was with 
the Liquometer Corp. for five years 
as general service manager and fif- 
ten years as field engineer. This 
double change is in line with the 
Ets-Hokin & Galvan policy of be- 
ing able to give expert engineering 



advice and service on all products 
sold. 

Shipowners will be interested to 
know that every U. S. submarine 
built since 1924 has carried Liquid- 
ometer gauges; many surface ves- 
sels and aircraft have been similarly * 
equipped. For workboats, tugs, and 
ships, Liquidometer builds four gen- 
eral types of gages; ( 1 ) direct read- 
ing at the tank; ( 2 ) electrically op- 
erated remote reading types; (3) 
air operated remote reading types; 
( 4 ) the balanced hydraulic type 
which requires no outside power to 
operate. All types are easily in- 
stalled by anyone familiar with ba- 
sic tools. 

Ets-Hokin & Galvan will also 
handle other Liquidometer prod- 
ucts, such as rudder angle indicators 
and position indicators. The latter 
instrument gives a remote reading 
of the position of valves or levers 
anywhere on the ship. 

Aluminum kcommodation 



Ladders 

The Aluminum Ladder Company, 
Worthington, Pa., announces a new 
line of accommodation ladders for 
the marine industry. These new 
light-weight aluminum ladders, 
mounted on both port and starboard 
sides, are designed to supplement 
the company's line of aluminum 
gangways for discharging and load- 
ing passengers. 

The accompanying illustration 
shows a 36 ft. aluminum accommo- 
dation ladder mounted on the side 
of a Grace Line ship. It is made 
from 6 1 ST Alimiinum Alloy, hav- 
ing a tensile strength of 45,000 psi. 
The ladder is raised and lowered by 
means of a block and tackle. When 
not in use, it is raised to a horizontal 
position and is securely mounted to 
the side of the ship. 

Aluminum accommodation lad- 
ders are made to buyer's specifica- 
tions. The manufacturer will fur- 
nish complete information on re- 
quest. 



B & UJ Boilers 
For Heavy Cruiser 



The U. S. Navy's heavy cruiser, 
the USS Rochester, built by the ship- 
building division of Bethlehem Steel 
Company, Quincy, Mass., and which 
was commissioned December 20, 
has been equipped with Babcock & 
Wilcox boilers. 



Page 118 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



The Rochester is one of three 
13,700 ton heavy cruisers of the war 
program. Its near sister ships are 
the USS Oregon City and Albany. 
Like other cruisers of the Oregon 
City class to which it belongs, the 
Rochester carries nine 8 inch 55's 
(heavy) and twelve 5 inch 38's. 

The boilers installed in the USS 
Rochester are of the single-uptake 
divided furnace, controlled-super- 
heat type. Accurate control of steam 
temperature at all operating capac- 
ities is obtained in this type of boil- 
er by adjusting the quantity of oil 
burned in the two furnaces. 

Any desired degree of superheat, 
up to the designated temperature, 
can be furnished, and saturated and 
superheated steam can be obtained 
simultaneou,<:l\ ut ;'ny operating con- 
dition. 

This type of boiler permits safe 
operation with high temperature, 
because the steam temperature can 
be decreased, if necessary, when the 
vessel is maneuvering or backing. 
The possibility of temperature shock 
to the turbine, steam pipe and 
flanges is thereby reduced; resulting 
in minimum maintenance costs. 
These boilers are similar in design 
to the many boilers which were 
built during the war by the Babcock 
& Wilcox Company for U. S. com- 
bat vessels. 

Constructed at the company's 
plant at Barberton, Ohio, the boilers 
are equipped with B & W stud type 
economizers, convection type super- 
heaters, and B & W Iowa design oil 
burners. 



IDackafs IDarine Coastal 
Radiotelegraph Stations 

The Marine Division of the 
Mackay Radio and Telegraph Com- 
pany announced plans for the con- 
struction of three new powerful 
coastal radiotelegraph stations as 
part of an expansion program de- 
signed to offer the maximum in 
communication services and safety 
measures to ships at sea. The new 
stations, for which authorizations 
have just been issued by the Fed- 
eral Communications Commission, 
will be located in the Gulf and Pa- 
cific Coast areas. Mackay Radio is 
an operating affiliate of the Ameri- 



can Cable & Radio Corporation. 

Containing the latest in commu- 
nications and electronic equipment, 
the new stations will be located at 
Kent, Washington (near Seattle), 
Galveston, Texas, and at Kailua in 
the Hawaiian Islands. Mackay Ra- 
dio, according to E. H. Price, vice 
president and general manager of 
the Marine Division, also expects 
to establish similar facilities in Ma- 
nila, in the Philippines, in the near 
future. 

Mackay Radio's expansion pro- 
gram, according to the announce- 
ment, is in line with the company's 
policy of oflfering reliable commu- 



nications and safety services to the 
many hundreds of ships that were 
equipped with the "all - in - one" 
Mackay Marine radio unit during 
the war. The "all-in-one" shipboard 
radio room unit was pioneered by 
the company and resulted in the 
savings of many thousands of man 
hours in installation time in ship- 
yards. 

Mackay Radio already has high- 
powered coastal stations in opera- 
tion at Thomaston, Maine; Amagan- 
sett, Long Island; New York Ciry; 
Jupiter (West Palm Beach), Flor- 
ida; Los Angeles; San Francisco, 
and Portland. Oregon. 




|0 assure you of prompt delivery, we 
maintain a large stock of standard fit- 
tings made to A.S.A. and A.P.I, require- 
ments Call your dealer for stock list. 

STEEL CASTINGS 

. . for more than 40 years we have 
been specialists in Carbon and Alloy 
Steel Castings. Our production and 
metallurgical experts will gladly give 
you prompt and accurate information 
without obligation. Inquires are invited 
on any production problem. 



4> 



Nikeladium 
is not just st«el, 
but a standard 
of quality. Accept 
nothing less. 



voSd^GtUS 




^ fITTINGS SOLD THROUGH DEALERS ONLY 



XZIT 



REMOVES SOOT 



FROM BOILERS ,;>'*'^'- 
AND STACKS ': .'^ // ' 



I 



NCREASES 
BOILER 
EFFICIENCY 

VT'OU CAN CHECK the effi- 
ciency of XZIT in your 
boiler room. Stack temperatures 
definitely prove that XZIT sub- 
stantially increases operating 
efficiency and improves heat 
transfer by removing soot and 
fire-scale from all surfaces of the 
firebox and stack. 

XZIT, fed into the flame, does 
its work while the boiler is in 
operation. It keeps the boiler 
free of soot and fire-scale when 
used at regular intervals. Try 
XZIT today— stocks are available 
in all localities. 



XZIT 



FIRE SCALE & 
SOOTERADICATOR 

1031 CLINTON STRIET, HOBOKEN, N. J. 
S800 S. HOOVER, LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 



New self -locking de 

vice for hooks de 

signed by W. H 

Foster of Los 

Angeles. 



Self-Locking Device 
For Hooks 

A simple self-locking device that 
may be adapted to hooks used in 
hundreds of industries has been an- 
nounced by W. H. Foster of Los 
Angeles, who holds the patent rights. 
This self-locking hook has a ful- 
crumed latch finger that closes the 
opening into the hook — and is re- 
tained in this closed position, so that 
it can not be accidentally swung in- 
ward, ( thus opening the hook ) as 
result of the latching finger being 
struck on the outside. For swinging 
the latching finger into open posi- 
tion, a manually operated spring- 
held member is manipulated. A por- 
tion of this manually-operable mem- 
ber engages a part of the latching 
finger at a point a substantial dis- 
tance away from its fulcrum, so as 
to effectively maintain the latching 
finger in position to close and lock 
the hook. 

An effective use for this device is 
in the mooring of boats, making a 
positive yet readily releasable con- 
nection between cables used in hoist- 
ing equipment, and in connection 
with the safety belts utilized by fire- 
men or by workmen engaged in the 
erection of pole or tower supported 
electrical equipment and the like. 
Also for logging, hoists, cranes, tow- 
ing couplings, well drilling, marine 
elevators, aviation equipment and 
cable lines, or it can be adapted to 
baggage hooks, belt hooks, harness 
hooks, or window washer hooks. 




Rluminum Conveyor 1 

Cuts Ulork on Docks I 

Aluminum has been called in to 
help unload ships along New York's 
waterfronts. Two portable conveyor 
units, made entirely of aluminum 
with the exception of the motor and 
conveyor belts, were put into service 
by the Brooklyn Waterfront Termi- 
nal Corp. 

The conveyor work is merely the 
first of new duties which aluminum 
is expected to take up along the 
waterfront. Shippers and ware- 
house men are now experimenting 
with aluminum chutes which would 
be used to transfer commodities 
from warehouses to trucks. 

Weighing less than half that of 
similar steel assemblies, which here- 
tofore have served ships and ware- 
houses, the aluminum conveyors can 
be moved without difiiculty from 
job to job by two men. The pre- 
decessor steel units required the 
services of four men when they were 
switched from one job to another. 

The new units were manufac- 
tured by Carsten & Iversen of 
Brooklyn according to plans of that 
company's engineers and those of 
Aluminum Company of America. 
One is 20 feet long and the other is 
30 feet. They are powered by one 
and one-half and two hp motors and 
carry bags of commodities weighing 
200 to 250 pounds each. Because of 
aluminum's resistance to weather 
conditions, the new units will re- 
quire less repair work. 



Page 120 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Texaco's Hew line of Oils 
For marine Inboard Engines 

Development of a complete nev, 
line of marine lubiicants, designed 
to improve the performance of 
pleasure craft inboard engines, both 
gasoline and diesel. at reduced oper- 
ating and maintenance costs, is an- 
nounced by The Texas Company. 
Known as Texaco marine motor oils 
SAE 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50, these 
five new products are heavy-duty 
detergent type lubricants — mineral 
oils with additive compounds com- 
pletely soluble in the oil which 
keep engines clean by preventing 
undesired deposits and protect 
against corrosion of alloy type bear- 
ings. They prevent rusting of the 
lubricated surfaces, and reduce wear 
on cylinders and rings, which is of 
great benefit during break-in periods 
of new engines or run-in operations 
after repair. 

These new oils are manufactured 
by careful refining from selected 
crude sources. The additive com- 
pound is then incorporated, provid- 
ing several important characteristics 
not obtained in straight mineral oils 
alone. The result is a lubricant 
which keeps new engines clean and 
provides a cleansing or dissolving 
action which reduces or removes 
previously formed deposits from 
used engines. In addition to this 
cleansing action, the chemicals keep 
the finely divided particles resulting 
from fuel combustion and oil de- 
composition suspended in the oil so 
that they do not settle out in the 
engine but are removed at regular 
oil-change periods. 

By promoting engine cleanliness, 
the new oils eliminate sticking of 
piston rings which causes scored 
cylinders or liners and wear on cyl- 
inders and rings. Maximum power 
output is attained with savings in 
fuel and lubricant consumption as 
well as the expense of frequent over- 
hauling. 

The new oils meet the lubrication 
requirements of all gasoline inboard 
engines, from the small sizes with 
two or four cylinders to large en- 
gines of several hundred horsepow- 
er. In addition they meet the de- 
mands of all high-speed diesel en- 
gines in pleasure craft and many 
lower speed diesels having a single 
lubricating system. 

MARCH • I 947 



Trylon Drum Sling 
Facilitates Handling 

A further development of their 
Trylon safety sling kits for all light 
weight lifting has recently been in- 
troduced by the Wire and Cable 
Division of the Wind Turbine Com- 
pany, West Chester, Pa. Specifically 
designed for the hoisting of drum 
type containers, the Trylon safety 
drum sling makes possible the han- 
dling of heavy drums, barrels, kegs, 
chemical and oil containers, large 
cans, and similar items with both 



safety and ease. Heavy clips mount- 
ed on a rod with an adjustable pres- 
sure spring at each end grip the 
container securely until it is delib- 
erately released. The spacing of 
these clips can be quickly altered 
and put in place to fit any size bar- 
rel, drum or keg. The sling is 
equipped with 5/16" plow steel 
wire rope and has a minimum break- 
ing strength of 8,000 pounds. The 
entire assembly is hot dip galvan- 
ized to prevent rust. Literature de- 
scribing this new Trylon safety 
drum sling will gladly be sent on 
request. 




Page 121 




Diesel Book Hvailable 

The Detroit Diesel Engine Divi- 
sion of General Motors has prepared 
a fine explanatory book, pictured 
above, on diesels for every power 
requirement. The book was intro- 
duced at the recent New York 
Motor Boat Show and was in great 
demand. Copies may be requested 
from Detroit Diesel distributors or 
through the Pacific Marine Review. 



Hot Off The Press 

PAINT, PUTTi' AND ELBOW 
GREASE, is the title of a handy, 
useful and informative booklet put 
out by International Paint Com- 



pany, and written by a "Guy Who 
Should Know Better," the Sunday 
sailor. The author gives the yachts- 
man and amateur a thorough brief- 
ing on the procedurfc of spring 
painting and commissioning of 
pleasure craft and of its upkeep dur- 
ing the season. 



ELECTRONIC CONTROL is 

the title of bulletin No. 5 issued by 
the Wheelco Instrument Company, 
Chicago, 111., on automatic tempera- 
ture control systems. By means of 
charts, tables and diagrams, the 
measurement and automatic control 
and the selection of proper control 
systems for process applications are 
explained. Thermocouples, their 
placement, and hints governing 
their use, and the selection of pro- 
tecting tubes are treated separately. 
The condensed presentation on this 
subject makes the Wheelco Educa- 
tional Bulletin No. 5 a valuable 
guide for anyone interested in 
process instrumentation. 



LESLIE CO. issues a new Bulletin 
on Temperature Regulators and 
Controllers, Bulletin No. 464 cover- 
ing the engineering, operating and 
maintenance data. Included also are 
sizing and capacity tables to guide 
the selection of the proper regulator 
or controller for specific applica- 
tions. Instructions for installing, 
operating, dismantling, cleaning and 
assembling are presented in an eas- 
ily-followed sequence. 




uar^ 



terS at the ^J^aroor 1 



^ 



WIRE ROPES 

THE GARLOCK 
PACKING CO. 

"On Dtck and lelow" 
LESLIE CO f ''•»«>"• »«gul«ting ValvM 
ATLAS MARINE PAINTS 
MARINE ELECTROLYSIS ELIMINATOR 
CORP. 



NEW YORK BELTING and PACKING 
CO. — Air, Fire, Wafer and Steam 
Hose 
TODD COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT CO. 
TUBBS CORDAGE COMPANY 
ALLEN ITE Soot Eradicator 
ALLENCOTE Refractory Coating 
KOMUL Anti-Corrosive Coating 
DESCALING CHEMICALS and 

SOLVENTS 
PAXTON MITCHELL Metallic Packing 
ENSIGN Products 



J. H. CosTELLO Supply Co. 

MARINE SPECIALTIES 

221 No. Avalon Blvd., Wilmington, Calif. Phone Terminal 47291 



"CONTINUOUS BLOWOFF 
FOR BOILER PLANTS" (Reprint 
45), a two-part article has been re- 
printed by Cochrane Corporation, 
Philadelphia, Pa., for those inter- 
ested in the saving possible with 
heat recovery from boiler blowoff 
waters. 



POWER TRUCK 1947 MOD- 
ELS: Elwell-Parker Electric Co., 
Cleveland, has issued a new catalog 
illustrating 31 models including 
low-lift, with and without crane 
units; high-lift platform trucks: 
fork-type; cranes; stationary-bed 
load carriers and tractors. They are 
available with either electric or gas- 
electric power. The complete line 
provides engineered equipment for 
practically every materials-handling 
job within the field of industrial 
trucks and cranes. 



NEW RADIOMARINE RA- 
DAR BROCHURE: A new 12 page 
de luxe two-color brochure describ- 
ing in detail their model CR-101 
shipboard radar designed for com- 
mercial ships and large pleasure 
craft has just been published by 
Radiomarine Corporation of Amer- 
ica. The pamphlet is profusely illus- 
trated with views of the equipment, 
samples of actual Radiomarine radar 
scope pictures taken at sea under 
operating conditions, views of the 
ore-carrier A. H. Ferbert installation, 
and detailed specifications and di- 
mensions of the equipment. 
* * # 

Cunningham flir lllhistle 

The Cunningham Manufacturing 
Company has taken over the manu- 
facturing and sales of the Cunning- 
ham line of diaphragm type air 
whistles and control equipment, in- 
cluding electric air units, manual 
and Solenoid type whistle valves, 
Coding timers and switches. 

Fred M. Arntson, former super- 
intendent of the Cunningham Steel 
Foundry, is manager of the Cun- 
ningham Manufacturing Co. Asso- 
ciated with him is Eugene Cunning- 
ham of the Cunningham Steel Foun- 
dry. C. D. Chaffee, formerly with 
Doran Co., is in charge of the office. 

The plant of the Cunningham 
Manufacturing Co., is in Seattle at 
4200 W. Manegnal Way. 



Page 122 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



marine Close-Coupled Geared 
Turbine-Generators 

New close - coupled, geared tur- 
bine-generators designed especially 
for compactness, power, and econ- 
omy in marine auxiliary electric 
power systems have been added to 
the line of General Electric marine 
equipment. These new turbine- 
generators are available in 40-, 50-, 
and 60-kw sets, condensing or non- 
condensing, with inlet steam pres- 
sures up to 250 pounds and exhaust 
pressures up to 50 pounds. Close- 
coupled for compactness, these sets 
can be installed in limited space, or 
replace outmoded units with room 
to spare. These new sets comply 
with American Bureau of Shipping, 
U. S. Coast Guard Merchant Vessel 
Inspection, and A.I.E.E. Merchant 
Marine Section standards. 

Steam control of the turbine is 
provided in a co-ordinated design of 
steam strainer, trip throttle valve, 
and governing valve. Close speed 
control is assured by an oil relay 
speed governor, which controls a 
powerful hydraulic cylinder acting 
directly on the governing valve 
stem. Safety features include an 
automatic overspeed-trip device and 
a generator trip switch to guard 
against accidental overspeeding of 
the unit. The governing and trip 
throttle valves control all the steam 
to the turbine, including the steam 
to the separate nozzle valve which 
is provided to insure full capacity 
at low steam pressure. 

Designed with features to meet 
the requirements of shipboard use, 
the enclosure is drip - proof, with 
ventilating openings screened and 
large cover plates which can be eas- 
ily removed for commutator inspec- 
tion. Insulation on the armature and 
field windings is given special treat- 
ment to withstand salinity and mois- 
ture. Brush-holder hardware is pro- 
vided of corrosion-resistant material. 
Radial-blade fan ventilation coupled 
with steel frame construction and 
cast iron end shields assure strength, 
protection, and durability. 

Lubrication of the reduction gear 
is maintained by a self-contained 
oiling system, which also furnishes 
oil to the governing system. The 
turbine is securely attached to the 
gear case. The gear and generator 



are assembled on a steel base to sim- 
plify installation and maintenance 
of alignment in service. Tapping 
and drilling for cable connections 
is facilitated by the oversized, ma- 
rine-type, cast iron connection box. 



Obituary 



We have just learned that a 
very fine old seaman and one of the 
oldest Pacific coastwise skippers, 
Captain Gust. Johnson, passed away 
in San Pedro, November 26th, last, 
at the ripe age of 82. Captain John- 



son was for many years, and up to 
the time of his death, a subscriber 
to this magazine. 

Born in Sweden, he came to the 
Pacific Coast in his 17th year and 
soon worked up to his Captain's 
license. He was master of many of 
the old steam schooners including 
Rival, Grace Dollar, and Melville 
Dollar in the Robert Dollar Lum- 
ber Company fleet, and later was 
with Vail and Vicker at San Pedro. 

In addition to his widow he leaves 
three sons, two daughters and five 
grandchildren. 



43153 Ton 
French Liner } 
lie de France 




During the war, when speed and know-how 
were paramount, Western Ship Serv- 
ice cleaned and camouflage-painted 
the entire hull and superstructure of the 
transport He de France — in record time! 

SHIP OPERATORS AND SHIPBUILDING COMPANIES 

ARE INVITED TO CONSULT WESTERN ON 

THEIR CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE 

PROBLEMS. 



WESTERIV 
SHIP SERVICE CDMPAIVY 

Established 1922 
178 FREMONT STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

SUTTER 86.l2 

Marine Terminal FooT OF Ferro St.. Oakland 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 123 



WILMINGTON 
TRANSPORTATION COMPANY 

Sfeomer Service fo Catalina Island 

GENERAL TOWAGE AND LIGHTERAGE SERVICE 
LOS ANGELES - LONG BEACH HARBORS 



TUGBOAT OFFICE: Berth 82, San Pedro, California 

TELEPHONE NUMBERS: Terminal 2-4292; Terminal 2-4293; Long Beach 636-563 

WHISTLE CALL FOR TUGS: 1 long — 3 short 

GENERAL OFFICE: Catalina Terminal, P. O. Box 847, Wilmington, Calif. 

Phones: Terminal 4-5241; Nevada 615-45; Long Beach 7-3802 



Dew IDarine Radio 
Equipment 

The Ranger Model 118 Portable, 
an unusual triple-purpose ac 'dc 
marine receiver that recharges its 
own dry batteries, is now ready for 
delivery by Electronic Specialty 



Bw Ranger portable radio receive 
and marine direction-finding unit. 



Company, Los Angeles. The Ranger 
Portable receives on both broadcast 
(540 to 1550 kc) and long-wave 
(195 to 410 kc) bands, including 
marine radio-beacon frequencies. In 
addition, it is an accurate marine 
direction finder, with a built-in bal- 
anced low-impedance loop that en- 
ables bearings to be taken with ap- 
proximately two degrees accuracy. 

Total weight, with batteries, is 
only 7 pounds, 8 ounces. Over-all 
dimensions are: lOVs inches wide 
by 7 inches high by 6 inches deep. 
The entire set is precision built, with 
a high-performance superheterodyne 
circuit of excellent sensitivity and 
selectivity, and an attractive exterior 
of etched aluminum and Dupont 
plasticized fabric. 



Cut me out and send me in 




PACIFIC 
MARIi REVIEW 




r " 




P^^ 




t J W-..*.. OB 





l.T-3 reducing valve, remotely adjusted 
and tvpe ARP control panel. 

Dew Remotely fldjusted 
Regulating Valve 

A new single-seated, internal pilot, 
piston operated reducing valve de- 
signed to be remotely adjusted from 
a conveniently located air loading 
panel, has been announced by Les- 
lie Co., Lyndhurst, N. J., makers of 
regulators, controllers, strainers and 
whistles. 

The air loading panel includes a 
small Vs" combination pressure re- 
ducing and relief valve (no con- 
tinuous leak-off) mounted on a 
panel containing an adjusting knob 
and a large, easily read air pressure 
gage. In operation, the reducing 
valve is adjusted to the desired pres- 
sure setting by air pressure supplied 
by the air loading panel. 

Furnished in high pressure bronze 
or cast steel body with flanged or 
screwed ends, these valves have com- 
pletely interchangeable replacement 
parts, stellited seat rings, and hard- 
ened stainless steel 800 Brinell main 
valves as standard equipment. 

Rlanila Rope Row Available 
In All Sizes 

According to a recent announce- 
ment by Tubbs Cordage Company, 
pioneer rope manufacturers, new 
regulations were released January 
16, 1947, by the Civilian Production 
Administration affecting the manu- 
facture of both Sisal and Manila 
rope. 



Page 124 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



MARINE DEPARTMENT 
AETNA INSURANCE CO. 
QUEEN INSURANCE CO. 
MARITIME INSURANCE CO., LTD. 
FIDELITY PHENIX FIRE INS. CO. 
AUTOMOBILE INS. CO. 



MATHEWS & LIVINGSTON 

MARINE UNDERWRITERS 
317 MONTGOMERY STREET . . SAN FRANCISCO 
Offices at: Colman BIdg., Seattle '111 West 7th St.. Los Angeles 



The Corsair Conversion 

I Coiiliiiued from page 54 1 

Staterooms. On this deck forward, and adjacent to crew 
quarters are located: the ship's laundry; the petty officers' 
mess; and the crews' mess. 

All of the passengers rooms will be decorated and 
furnished elaborately and luxuriously. Beds are aU equip- 
ped with Simmons spring-filled beauty-rest mattresses. 
Sofa beds are the famous Arnot sleepers, which are hand- 
some and comfortable davenports by day and luxurious 
beds by night. Interior decoration is being supervised 
by Wm. F. Schorn of New York, whose work on other 
large conversions has attracted favorable attention. 

Air conditioning of all public rooms and passenger 
staterooms has been adequately provided in the plans 
and sufficient refrigeration capacity is being added to 
properly carry this additional load. The conversion job 
will run above a million dollars in cost. 

One of the main attractions in the type of cruises con- 
templated is good food. Pacific Cruise Lines, Ltd. has al- 
ready engaged as chief steward for this vessel, a man 
who for many years on the Atlantic coast has been cater- 
ing with great success to the same type of cruising clien- 
tele that will be attracted to the Corsair cruises. Under 
special orders, the architects provided for the chief stew- 
ard an office-stateroom of spacious proportions which is 
as beautifully decorated and furnished as those of the 
captain and the chief mate. 

In the Corsair, the passengers will have the luxury and 
somewhat of the privacy of the finest yacht on a vessel 
of sufficient size and power to give adequate sea com- 
fort and safety. 



The Economical Maintenance 
of Turbine Geared Prime Movers 

(Continued from page 59) 

grained with abrasive matter or even worn out of shape 
by misalignment. In such cases rebabbitting will be nec- 
essary. 

Turbine or gear bearings cannot have joints stripped 
to reduce clearance. They are bored concentric and must 
remain so. Complete information for rebabbitting and re- 
machining is usually given in the instruction books. 

If it becomes necessary to balance turbine or gear 
rotors, without benefit of supervision by the builders 
representative, it must be clearly understood that the 
welding on of weight or drilling into wheels to remove 



weights is a dangerous procedure and should be strictly 
forbidden. In fact, rotors so treated are likely to be con- 
demned. Some rotors have balance weight grooves, some 
have balance collars with tapped holes to receive weight, 
but others have no provision for installing weight and 
it is necessary to trim the wheel by grinding the face of 
the rim, on the radius directly under the bucket dovetail. 
The exact location is clearly marked during manufac- 
ture. 

The standing objection to welding rotors, or any other 
machined part for that matter, is the certainty of distor- 
tion by local heating and the certainty of imposing in- 
ternal strains that can be extremely dangerous. 

Drilling into turbine wheels has been practiced in 
the past, but only on slow rotors and especially on wheels 
with an extremely heavy cross section. High speed rotor 
wheels cannot have an appreciable amount of weight 
drilled from the disks without dangerously weakening, 
them. We have a record of a few cases where unauthoriz- 
ed persons have drilled into high speed turbine wheels 
and we have been forced to recommend that the wheel or 
entire rotor, if it be a solid rotor, be condemned. 



Reduction Gearing 

When gear teeth are inspected by the owner's per- 
sonnel any sign of distress or poor tooth contact should 
be immediately reported to the manufacturers representa- 
tives. It is not good practice to expect gears to "wear in." 
In good practice ships start out with one hundred per 
cent contact on their gear teeth and if that contact de- 
creases it is evident that a change in alignment has taken 
place. Bearings should be checked, as one worn bearing 
upsets the true alignment. Again distortion of the foun- 
dation may be the cause and either condition can be 
remedied without resorting to a major operation. 

Gear Noise 

Dead quiet reduction gears are more common tixlay 
than they were in the past, but a moderate gear noise 
is the average condition, and not at all objectionable on 
commercial vessels. As a matter of fact, the best wearing 
sets that have come to our attention have been in the 
latter class. It should be understood that undue gear noise, 
objectionable as it is, may not be an indication of gear 
trouble. However, if a normally quiet gear set should 
become noisy, the matter should be called to the atten- 
tion of the manufacturer's representative as such a con- 
dition may be a loud complaint, from the gears, that all 
is not well. 

Reduction gears require oil in its purest form. Tur- 
bines thrive on dry clean steam and if both of these con- 
ditions are met maintenance is a pleasure. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 125 



BIRD-ARCHER CO. 

OF CALIFORNIA 

BOILER WATER TREATMENT ENGINEERS 

Estdblished 40 Years on Pacific Coast 



MAIN OFFICE 

19 FREMONT STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

Phone SU+ter 6310 



SEAHLE PORTLAND LOS ANSELES 

HONOLULU WILMINGTON 



An Insurance Analysis for the Shipper 

{Continued from page 86) 

lish word "Halvers" — meaning partners and "Halverage" 
— meaning partnersliip. 

Another theory is that the word comes from the 
Greek "Avaros" — meaning "without charge" which the 
Greeks used when a ship having made a jettison arrived 
without its entire cargo. 

A third theory and to me the one that means the 
most logical is that "average" is derived from the old 
Roman word "Aversio." "Aversio" was used in the 
Roman market place — "ex Aversione emere" — to mean 
"buy for a lump sum and assume all risks." This mean- 
ing had come into the market place from the waterfront 
where it had been used to designate the act at sea by 
which one party sacrificed his goods and assumed the 
risk of all the others, meaning he averted his sure loss 
by assuming the risk of others. If the others lost their 
goods, he would be unable to collect from them a con- 
tribution to his loss. 

"Aversio" was lost as a sea term but continued on in 
the market place, and centuries later was used to desig- 
nate what we call "insurance" — that is, the averting from 
the individual adventurer to the underwriters the conse- 
quences of the perils mentioned. This became "Particular 
Average" to distinguish it from the usual, or "General 
Average." 

Today, one frequently hears "Average" explained as 
damage; "General Average" meaning damage to the in- 
terests in the adventure in general and "Particular Aver- 
age" meaning damage to certain interests in the adven- 
ture in particular. This explanation of the term certainly 
does help the lay mind to grasp some of the significance 
of the term. To know that "average" has behind it the 
meaning "avert" is also a help; "General Average" mean- 
ing to avert a loss to the adventure in general and "Par- 
ticular Average" meaning to avert a loss to an individual 
adventurer in particular. 

When we try to explain the meaning of "General 
Average," we find that it is a very indefinite expression. 



First, it may refer to a "General Average act" which is 
any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure which is volun- 
tarily and reasonably made or incurred in time of peril 
for the purpose of preserving the property imperiled in 
the common adventure. 

"General Average," may refer to the loss which is 
caused by or directly consequential on a General Average 
act. It may also refer to the General Average contribu- 
tion. When one party suifers a general average loss, he 
is entitled to a rateable contribution from the other par- 
ties interested subject to the conditions imposed by Mari- 
time Law. 

I have dealt at some length with the meaning of the 
terms "Average" and "General Average" because the 
Carriage-of-Goods-by-Sea Act provides that "Nothing in 
this Act shall be held to prevent the insertion in a bill 
of lading of any lawful provision regarding General 
Average." It is safe to say that all bills of lading have 
provisions calling for contribution in general average. 
Therefore, if the vessel on which your goods are shipped 
should catch on fire and some cargo or the ship be 
damaged in efforts to put out the fire and your goods 
were saved by these efforts, you would be called upon to 
contribute to the loss caused by the putting out of the 
fire. 

The shipowner can hold the cargo until the cargo 
owner posts security for payment of the general average 
contribution. The insurance company not only pays the 
contribution when the exact amount has been determined, 
but almost as important, it immediately issues its "guar- 
antee." The shipowner will accept the guarantee as secu- 
rity for the payment of the contribution and immediately 
release the cargo. 

The Bill of Lading 

We have been comparing the exclusion of liability in 
the bill of lading with the assumption of liability in the 
insurance policy. It should be kept in mind, however, 
that the bill of lading governs only while the cargo is in 
the custody of the ocean carrier. There is a period of 
time prior to delivery of the goods to the ocean carrier 
and subsequent to delivery by the carrier on the dock at 
destination which we have not touched upon. The dis- 
tribution of liability for loss during these two periods 
of time during which the goods may be in transit could 
be the subject of another article. It is also possible for 
the cargo owner to insure against some of the losses we 
have noted he must, so far, bear himself. This can be 
done through broader insuring conditions but that prob- 
lem, too, is beyond the scope of this discussion. 



Transport Buildin9, Foot of Mission Street, Son Francisco 5, Calif. 
Office Phone: DOuglos 0343 — Residence Phone: LAndscope S-1328 

MARINE SURVEYOR • NAVAL ARCHITECT 
MARINE ENGINEER 



Page 126 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



HAVISIDEflCOMPANY 

^hia f\.iaaerS \\ //r[\\ // oDerrick l/->arg.ei 

^ait. VVlakeri ^^•^^^^-*.,^.-*>-**^^^ ^ulvaqe \Jperalion6 



^alvaae Kjnerali 



40 SPERR STREET 



SRO FRRnCISCO, 5 



EXBROOK 0064 



Five million Tons Salvaged 



{Continued from page 71 } 

operations of the war. The Germans, described by the 
late Admiral Ramsay as "the best port demolishers in 
the world," did their utmost to deny the Allies the use 
of ports in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, the south of 
France and Northwest Europe. It is estimated that the 
vessels sunk or destroyed by the enemy will occupy the 
salvage resources of the Allied countries for nearly 
another ten years. 

One of the most difficult jobs of the salvage depart- 
ment was carried out at Tripoli, where eleven ships of 
between 1,000 and 5,000 tons were sunk in a line across 
the entrance to the harbor, with a tangled mass of wreck- 
ed smaller craft and crane barges piled on top of them. 
It was impossible to get even a motor boat through. 

Port Cleared In Five Days 

First one of the block ships was demolished by skill- 
fully placed explosive charges. Five days after the port's 
capture, landing craft were able to make the passage. 
On the eight day there was a passage 14 feet deep. On 
the fifteenth day a vessel of 15,000 tons passed safely 
through a passage which had been created by dragging 
the ships on either side of the central gap around on 
their keels like swing doorsi 

During the landings in North Africa, the British and 
American salvage forces joined hands and worked to- 
gether. In the Bay of Naples they had to lift no less than 
170 wrecks which were scattered all over the harbor. 
There were destroyers, tankers, tugs, corvettes, trawlers, 
floating cranes, tank barges, lighters, fishing vessels, all 
sunk in the fairway, with railway wagons and other de- 
bris piled on top of them. 



Time and lOotion Analysis 
For material Handling 

(Continued from page 83) 
tively small time spent in travel with fewer larger loads 
at a higher speed. At this point it is well to consider that 
most material handling operations involve more than one 
movement of the same material through the plant or 
warehouse. For subsequent movements of our new pile, 
which is already on pallets, we have a parallel to the new 
and much talked of unit load of "ship on" pallet. 

To make this comparison complete we should provide 
for the situation where goods are delivered on pallets. In 
this case, there is zero piling time. Therefore, our line 
theoretically starts at zero. The travel time will parallel 
that of the previous operation but 5 hours per thousand 
is deducted due to the fact that the goods are already 
piled. 

In the preceding charts, we have shown a method 
which graphically represents under a certain set of con- 
ditions, the relative efficiency of several systems of mate- 
rial handling. Additional lines could be inserted in this 
chart to indicate other forms of material handling but it 
is difficult to conceive of any form of material handling 
squeezing berween our line "F " and the base line. 



Interocean Changes 
M Los Angeles 



Interocean Steamship Corporation, through Walter 
Wilkinson, district manager, announces the following 
additions and changes to their staff: Phillips Seagrave 
has been appointed to the Los Angeles staff in charge 
of traffic. Robert Harding has been promoted to man- 
ager of the Intercoastal Department. Alvin Colflesh has 
joined the Los Angeles staff as chief clerk in charge of 
documents. Joseph Wickham is a recent addition to the 
San Pedro office under Robert Gaffney, manager of 
operations. 



MARCH • 1947 



Page 127 



Ships Heeded for Round-the-Ulorld 

{Corithiueil from page 52) 

the sea traveller and an easy sale for the passenger agent. 
Plenty of natural fresh air and plenty of natural illumina- 
tion combined with a room shape that is peculiarly 
adapted to modern decorative treatment. 

Above on the navigation deck are rooms for the deck 
officers, a nice suite for the captain, a room and office 
for the 1st officer, a room for the foUowing: 2nd, 3rd, 
and jr. 3rd officer, one room each; 4 cadets; chief, 2nd 
and 3rd radio operators, one room each; the radio room; 
the officers' lounge; the wheel house; the chart room; 
and the gyro room. 

Public Rooms 

The main dining room is a spacious apartment 44 
feet fore and aft by 70 feet in the beam, with an offset 
14' by 40' on the after bulkhead to house the stair land- 
ings, the elevator shaft and the entrance trunks to the 
galley. Doors to the galley are opened by electric eye. 
Those on the port side open only into the galley, those 
on the starboard side into the dining room. There is a 
clear deck area of 2500 square feet after deducting this 
offset. A room of this size and shape should lend itself 
very nicely to decorative treatment and with modern air 
conditioning and adequate illumination will make a very 
pleasant and appetizing eating place. 

The galley serving this room and the room itself will 
be equipped with the most modern and most efficient 
machinery and apparatus for the preparation and serv- 
ing of delicious meals. The galley has been planned after 
considerable research into the experience at sea with var- 
ious galley plans and should be scientifically the most 
modern arrangement in any ship. 

The lounge measures 24 feet fore and aft and 44 feet 
thwartship with clerestory running up through the boat 
deck. This clerestory is extended 10 feet forward over 
the thwartship passage to form a balcony on the boat 
deck level. Furnished as a passengers' writing room this 
balcony is reached from the boat deck stair and elevator 
landing and will make a very nice quiet spot for cor- 
respondence or other writing. 

The smoking lounge is 44 feet thwartships and 40 feet 
in its longest fore and aft measurement. This room has 
1440 square feet deck area in comparison with 1056 
square feet for the lounge. 

The proportions of these rooms are such that the 
interior decorators should be able to produce very beau- 
tiful effects. This is especially true in the clerestory of 
the lounge where there is an opportunity to make the 
appearance of spaciousness far exceed the dimensions. 

Forward of the smoking lounge, and having access 
only therefrom, are a cocktail lounge and a card room, 
located starboard and port of the central passage joining 
the two lounges. This arrangement gives the steward's 
department a fine opportunity to cater to the divergent 
desires of passengers without disturbing those who want 
only quiet comfort. The conviviality of the smoking 
lounge and cocktail room need not disturb the quiet con- 
versation, reading and music of the lounge. 

The lounge is fully equipped for movies and the ship 
will have complete broadcast and public address systems. 
All passenger areas will be serviced by electric clocks 



controlled by a master clock located in the chartroom. 
All public rooms, and all passenger and crew staterooms 
and crew lounges and laundries and other inside rooms 
will be completely air conditioned. 

The passenger sleeping apartments are all outside 
rooms with the exception of eight on the upper deck. 
Every passenger room is equipped with private toilet, 
wash basin and shower with running hot and cold fresh 
water. Every passenger bedroom is equipped with an 
automatic dial telephone for intra-ship communication 
and for connection through radio to shore or other 
similarly equipped ships. 

The extent to which crew comfort has been planned 
is graphically evidenced by the fact that there are 72 
bedrooms to serve a crew of 158 whereas only 71 bed- 
rooms are provided to take care of a total capacity of 189 
passengers. 

A modern laundry is provided and equipped with all 
the latest machinery to take care of all passenger needs. 

Safety 

This design is stable and seaworthy in every respect 
and is a three compartment job. That is, three compart- 
ments must be flooded to sink the ship. Every precaution 
is considered in the equipment for detection of and 
extinguishing fire. Life preservers or life saving suits are 
provided for everyone aboard. Six life boats, one of them 
a powerful motorboat equipped to tow all the others are 
hung in gravity davits served by electric boat winches. 
The combined capacity of these boats will accommodate 
all persons aboard. Special hawse pipes will be fitted 
bow and stern for mooring to buoys. On the bridge all 
the most modern navigation equipment will be fitted 
including gyro compass, radio direction finder, radar, and 
loran. 

Propulsion Machinery 

This vessel is designed to be driven by a single screw 
and has a "contra-guide " form rudder post to transform 
some of the angular velocity of the water in the propellor 
stream into forward-motion energy for the hull. The 
propeller shaft is turned through double reduction gear- 
ing by a cross compound steam turbine designed to de- 
liver 12,500 shp at 92 rpm of the propeller shaft when 
fed with steam of 600 psi gage and 840 - F. total tem- 
perature at the throttle. The design will be such that the 
turbine will operate continuously when delivering 13,750 
shp at about 95 rpm of the propeller shaft. 

The main turbine will consist of one high pressure 
turbine and one low pressure turbine, each connected 
through a flexible coupling to a suitable pinion meshing 
into the first gear of the double reduction gear. An astern 
element capable of delivering 80 per cent of ahead tor- 
que at 50 per cent of the full speed ahead propeller 
revolutions. 

To provide steam for this turbine and for other uses, 
two steam boilers will be installed in the engine room. 
These will be of the vertically fired, oil burning, two 
drum, water tube type and will be fired by steam atomiz- 
ing wide range burners. An air preheater will be installed 
in the uptake of each boiler. Each of these boilers will 
have approximately 8100 square feet of water heating 
surface and at normal rating will generate 53,500 lbs. 
of steam per hour at 625 psi and 850° F. total tempera- 
ture with feed water at 375° F. Each boiler will be 
(Please turn to page 130) 



Page 128 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




AKLAN0 SAN FRANCISCO LOS AN6ELES HOUSTON 



HOUGH & EGBERT CO. 

126 Eighth Street, San Pedro, California 
TErminal 2-5474 

Consulting Engineers and Marine Surveyors 

Surveys, Valuations and Specifications for All Classes 

of Marine Repairs. 



HILLER 



315 N. Avalon Blvd. • Phone Terminol 4-4538 • Wilmington, Calif. 

KIDDE FIRE EQUIPMENT CO, REFILLS 

PITOMETER LOG ELLINWOOD CONTROLS 

PILOT MARINE CORP. EQUIPMENT 

WASHINGTON & INGLE RANGES 



Herb L. Southworth Co. 

Represeifing 

KINGSBURY MACHINE WORKS THRUST AND JOURNAL 
BEARINGS • Q-P TELEHOTOR PACKING 

225 Steuart St., San Francisco Phone DOuglas 2443 



ULWAY DRY DOCKS FLOATING DRY DOCKS 

BASIN DRY DOCKS 
/estigations Reports Design Supervbion 



RANDALL DRY DOCK ENGINEERS, INC. 

238 Main Street. Cambridge, Massachusetts 

MARCH • 1947 



FIREPROOF 




MATTRESSES • MATTRESS COVERS 
PILLOWS • DRAPES • CURTAINS 



FiBERGLAS 

Vermin Proof, Wafer Repellent, Coloriait 

GLASS FIBER PRODUCTS 

Pier 7 • Emboreodero • Son Francisco • CArfield 1431 



ITORTHWEST MAEINE 
mON WORKS 

JOSEPH GREBE • GEO. GREBE • HARRY MENOENHALl 




Page 129 



S. F. Passenger 
Office of API 



Harry L. Baker, agent in charge of Ameri- 
can President Lines' newly opened ultra- 
modern passenger office at 152 Geary 
Street, San Francisco, points out a feature 
of the unique illuminated wall map to E. 
Russell Lutz, the company's executive vice 
president. The new uptown offices, de- 
signed by Walter Dorwin league, are in 
keeping with the magnificent new luxury 
liners now building and projected for 
American President Lines' Oriental and 
Round-the-World services. 




Ships Needed for Round-the-Ulorld 

(Continued from page 128) 

capable of sustained operation while generating 80,000 
lbs. of steam at these same pressure and temperature 
conditions. At its normal rating the standard efficiency of 
each boiler will be at least 88 per cent. 

Forced draft system of operation will be used with 
pneumatic type automatic combustion control. Stack 
velocities will be accelerated by additional air supply to 
soot remover controls. 

Three 600 kw turbo-electric generators will be in- 
stalled to take care of power requirements for electric 
deck machinery, engine room auxiliaries, refrigeration 
plants, ventilating fan motors, galley service, and ship's 
lighting. The main low pressure turbine will be mounted 
on an exhaust directly into the main condenser and the 
auxiliary turbines will exhaust into one auxiliary con- 
denser. Condensate from both condensers will be pumped 
through the standard closed system of feed water heating, 
picking up heat from the inter- and after-condensers of 
the air ejector, the first stage heater, the gland drains, the 
second stage heater, and the deaerating heater which acts 
as an enclosed hot well providing a positive head on the 
feed pump, and so to the boiler drum. 

Make-up feed for the boilers and potable and sani- 
tary fresh water make-up supply are assured by two 
large distillers each of 30,000 gallons per day capacity. 

It is anticipated that fuel consumption of this plant 
will be not more than 0.575 lbs. per shp hour for all 
purposes, based on oil of 18,500 btu per pound. This 
power plant at normal output is figured to give the ship 
an easy sea service speed of 19 knots. Her reserve power 
will enable her to make 20 knots or more whenever 
necessary. 



Refrigeration 

The cargo and ship stores, and air conditioning load 
on this vessel is quite considerable and careful planning 
has been used to minimize the load wherever possible 
consistent with reliability and good performance. All of 
the various galley and pantry refrigerators will be cooled 
from the central ship stores refrigeration unit. In ships 
stores boxes, ample provision has been made to carry 
large supplies of frozen foods. 

The total refrigeration connected power load is 260 
kw for cargo, ship stores and air conditionin